(See Lower Section for Volcano News)

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Weekly Activity Report - Smithsonian USGS

EUROPEAN VOLCANOLOGICAL SOCIETY

WHO WE ARE AND WHAT WE DO ?

The European Volcanological Society is an independant (NGO) scientific organization established in 1991 and based in Geneva, Switzerland.Main goal is to develop international cooperation in the field of the forecasting of the volcanic eruptions.(hazards assessment, public awareness, education...)
The present president of the S.V.E . is Henry Gaudru , member of the International Commission on Mitigation of the Volcanic Disasters (IAVCEI), Cities and volcanoes commission, and UNISDR scientific adviser for volcanic risk mitigation.

S.V.E. also can provide scientific and technical assistance teams and/or logistical support for the expeditions leds by scientists working in the Universities, or in public or private laboratories.

The S.V.E., also organize its own expeditions on the active volcanoes around the world. Many of these expeditions are carried out in cooperation with foreign institutions or agencies working in the field of the assessment, prediction, prevention and mitigation of the volcanic disasters. SVE was committed to the aims of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) which was approved by the United Nations and now associated with the new UN-ISDR program for volcanology. Since several years ago SVE carried out risk assessment missions in collaboration with UN-ISDR

Previous SVE missions, fieldworks, fieldtrips and joint SVE-UNISDR meetings : Kamtchatka (1992), Hawaii (1993), Kurile islands (1993), Sulawesi and Moluccas (1994), Mexico - Colima (1994), Cape Verde - Fogo (1995), Italy ( 1995), Alaska (1995), Vanuatu (1996), Jan Mayen (1997), Montserrat (1997), Italia (1998), Cameroon (1999), Ecuador (1999), Iceland (1999), Azores - Serreta volcano- (2000) - Etna ( 2001), New Zealand ( 2001), Hawaii (2003) , Erta Ale volcano (2004-2005), Chile (2005), Ecuador ( 2006), Japan ( 2007), Peru (2008)

THE EUROPEAN VOLCANOLOGICAL SOCIETY IS DIVIDED IN TWO DEPARTMENTS

- Scientific Department for geologists and volcanologists (fieldwork)

- Education Department for the general public (lecture, films, travels...)

S.V.E. NEWSLETTER

The bulletin of the S.V.E. is the official newsletter of the Society.
The bulletin contains volcanic news, synthetic articles and contribution relating to an understanding of the volcanic phenomena and volcanic hazard mitigation
It is published every two months by the S.V.E. to provide current information on the active volcanoes in the world.
It is edited in french and is destined to reach a wide spectrum of readers interested in the volcanology (scientists or not scientists).


The S.V.E. bulletin is available to all people with an annual subscription: 60 CHF or 45 Euros and 50 USD ( 6 issues) United State and others ( postal charge included)

Summary Bulletin N°4, 2009 - July - August 2009
contents ( in french language):
News : Mayon volcano, Koriaksky volcano, flash info; Articles : volcanic hazards in Caribbean islands, Tahiti-Nui geology, and Focus about oceanic hydrothermalism
Next issue : end of October 2009

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Meetings and conferences...... click on Announcements

If the following section is EVER not up to date please go to the Source Page which is at:  http://lightgatherings.com/Volcano.html and then go to "Volcano News" ... or any of the other links that might interest you.  I do my best to update this page weekly but sometimes things get hectic and the page becomes outdated. 

VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on 8th of May 2010 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : eruption at the Eyjafjallajokull is still continuing - Iceland (read report below) -

 

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano
 

April 18th , 2010

As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

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Cratère du Guagua Pichincha - Aôut 1999 -Viracucha
ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of May, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) reported that the activity of the volcano stayed in a level considered as low. Any type of surface activity has not been observed. Rains registered in afternoon of yesterday originated small to moderate lahars in the southwestern sector of the volcano. The IG also reported that event in the volcano has not been registered. During the first times of the night of yesterday the volcano he was cloudy and it was observed that the surface activity was null. In the afternoon rains were registered yesterday that generated lahars in the southwest sector of the volcano, especially in the gorge of Mapayacu between the 1500 and 1600 hrs local time. As of the 30th of April, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) reported that the activity of the volcano stays in a level considered as low. The IG also reported that the count of seismic activity is 1 event of long period (LP). The volcano has remained varying between dimmed and cleared, in the afternoon of today, when the crater remained cleared could be appreciated fumarolic activity of little intensity. As of the 22nd of April, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) reported that with respect to the previous days a slight increase of the seismic activity of the volcano is registered. The activity of the volcano stays in a level considered as low. The IG also reported that the count of seismic activity is 12 events of long period (LP), 2 Volcano-Tectonic (VT) and 5 episodes of small tremor of emission. At dawn of today the presence could be observed of a small plume of steam and gases located in western the North side of the crater. As of the 16th of April, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the activity of the volcano stays in a level considered as low. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity: One has entered event of long period (LP) has been registered. Observations due to the cloudiness presence have not been realised in the zone of the volcano. As of the 9th of April, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the activity of Tungurahua volcano maintains a level of activity considered as low. At the moment light drizzles in the sector have been registered. One does not have reports of lahars. The volcano remains cloudy. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity: One has entered 1 event of long period (LP) has been registered, 1 episode of tremor of emission. The volcano has remained dimmed; visual registries of the surface activity are not had.As of the 2nd of April, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the activity of Tungurahua volcano stayed in a level considered as low. The volcano remained cloudy which is the reason why visual reports are not had. In afternoon yesterday, light rains in the sector of the volcano appeared that did not generate lahars. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity: One has entered 1 event of long period (LP) has been registered. The volcano has remained in a storm cloud, thus they do not have reports of its surface activity. Light rains during the afternoon of yesterday have been registered without having generated lahars. As of the 26th of March, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) reported that the volcano presents/displays a low level of activity. The volcano has remained in a storm cloud, especially the high part, reason why it does not have visual reports. Volcanic explosions have not been registered. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity, one has registered 6 events of long period (LP) and 4 small episodes of tremor of emission and 3 small episodes of harmonic tremor have been registered. As of the 24th of March, the IG reported that although inclement weather often prevented observations of Tungurahua during 17-23 March, steam-and-gas plumes were occasionally seen. Explosions were detected by the seismic network and heard in nearby areas on 19 March; the largest explosion generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Choglontús, to the SW. On 20 March small lahars affected the Baños-Penipe highway. On 22 March, ashfall was again reported in areas to the SW.As of the 19th of March, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the Tungurahua volcano continues presenting/displaying a decreasing tendency of activity. The present level of the seismic activity is moderate-low. Unique two events of long period have been detected. Moderate rains took place during the night that did not generate mud flows nor lahars. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity, one has registered 2 events of long period (LP). LP earthquakes are related to the resonance of flowed in the cracks of the interior of the volcano. Generally the volcano has remained storm cloud, which is the reason why the zone of the crater could not be observed. Moderate rains were registered during the night, which did not generate lahars.Tungurahua is a steep-sided stratovolcano or a conical volcano composed of many layers of hardened lava, tephra, and volcanic ash and is located near Ecuador's fourth largest city of Ambato, some 140 km south of the capital Quito. Tungurahua - Live webcam

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ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of May, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) has reported that the seismic activity stays in a level considered as moderate. The zone has remained cloudy. A total of 25 events of long period (LP), 8 explosions, 7 episodes of harmonic tremor and 9 episodes of spasmodic tremor has been entered. As of the 30th of April, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) reported that the seismic activity stayed in a level considered as moderate. During the morning of today a report of an emission column was received steam with content under ash, product of an explosion. A total of 10 events of long period (LP), 9 explosions, 8 episodes of harmonic tremor, 5 volcano-tectonic (VT) episodes of tremor of emission and 2 events has been entered. As of the 22nd of April, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) has reported that the seismic activity of the volcano stays in a level considered as moderate and without variations of importance with respect to registered in the last the months, nevertheless observations of superficial manifestations have allowed to detect the generation of small associated pyroclastic flows to explosive events. These pyroclastic flows are developed and are deposited in the South flank of the volcano. A total of 14 events of long period (LP) has been entered, 4 Volcano-Tectonic (VT), 10 explosions, 8 episodes of harmonic tremor, 9 Volcano-Tectonic episodes of tremor of emission, 3 events. In afternoon from today reports of the emission generation were received yesterday and tomorrow and explosions that generated small columns of steam and gases with low ash content. Of agreement, to the reports of yesterday afternoon could be concluded that one of the explosions generated a small flow pyroclastic that descended by the South flank of the volcano.A s of the 16th of April, IG reported that the level of seismic activity of the volcano stays in a considered level as moderate and with respect to the last months it does not register changes of behaviour in the general activity of the volcano. A total of 18 events of long period (LP), 20 explosions, 1 Volcano-Tectonic (VT), 11 episodes of harmonic tremor, and 8 episodes of tremor of emission has been entered. The sector of the volcano stays with high cloudiness.As of the 9th of April, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) reported that the activity of Reventador volcano stayed in a moderate level of activity. The volcano has remained dimmed. A total of 18 events of long period (LP), 17 explosions, 26 episodes of harmonic tremor, 7 episodes of tremor of emission and 1 volcano-tectonic (VT) event has been entered. The cloudiness of the sector has prevented to realise observations of the surface activity of the volcano. The strong rain in the sector has appeared during the morning and behind schedule of today; nevertheless, report of lahars is not had. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua from Pelileo - H.Gaudru - 1999
MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

May 8th, 2010

Report for the period from 5th of February 2010 to 7th of May 2010- Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has been low this week (30th of April to 7th of May). There have been fifteen rock fall signals, two long period, one hybrid and four volcano tectonic earthquakes recorded this week. A moderate pyroclastic flow was observed in the Tar River valley at 17:01 on 3 May stopping some 1 km short of the sea. The average sulphur dioxide flux measured for six days this week was 728 tons per day, with a daily minimum of 147 and a maximum of 1652 tons per day. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano remained still low from 23th to 30th of April.There have been twenty two rock fall signals, nineteen long period, four hybrid and two volcano tectonic earthquakes recorded this week. A small swarm of five large hybrid and volcano tectonic earthquakes occurred on the morning of 25 April. The average sulphur dioxide flux measured for five days this week was 307 tons per day, with a daily minimum of 112 and a maximum of 509 tons per day. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements on two days this week gave hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratios of 0.46 and 0.42 respectively. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano remained low this week(16th-23th of April).There have been twenty one rock fall signals, three long period, two hybrid and two volcano tectonic earthquakes recorded this week. Rockfalls were observed occurring on the eastern side of the dome moving into the Tar River Valley on 20 April and on western side of the lava dome above Gages on 22 April. The average sulphur dioxide flux measured for four days this week was 234 tons per day, with a daily minimum of 66 and a maximum of 405 tons per day. Small lahars associated with rainfall occurred in the Belham Valley on 17 and 18 April. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has been low this week from 9th to 16th of April.There have been seven rock fall signals, two long period, one hybrid and three volcano tectonic earthquakes recorded this week. Several rockfalls occurred on the western side of the lava dome on 15 April and a small pyroclastic flow occurred on the Gages fan on 16 April. These were probably caused by the heavy rainfall this week causing small amounts of destabilisation on the remaining parts of the lava dome. The average sulphur dioxide flux measured for five days this week was 400 tons per day, with a daily minimum of 242 and a maximum of 530 tons per day. Fourier Transform infrared measurements on the 9 April gave a hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratio of 0.45. Heavy rain this week has generated lahars (mudflows) on several flanks of the volcano. On afternoon of 13 April large lahars occurred in the Belham valley. Many of these lahars were hot with abundant steam and geyersing associated with them. Two large fans were formed at the coast of Old Road Bay as a result of these events. These were the largest lahar events to have occurred since November 2009. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano was also low between 2th to 9 th of April. There were nine rock fall signals, one long period, three hybrid and three volcano tectonic earthquakes recorded. Sporadic rockfalls are still occurring from several areas of the lava dome. The average sulphur dioxide flux measured for three days this week was 376 tons per day, with a daily minimum of 213 and a maximum of 640 tons per day. Several small areas of incandescence (glowing) visible to the naked eye have been seen on the lava dome on a number of nights this week. These are probably due to hotter areas of the dome being exposed by small rockfalls. Heavy rain on the eastern side of the island on the 2 April caused lahars in the Farm River and Trants area. Activity was also low from 12th to 19th of March.There have been forty one rock fall signals, three long-period, seven hybrid earthquakes recorded this week. Small spots of incandescence on the dome were visible to the naked eye on 14 March. Occasional small pyroclastic flows and rockfalls are still occurring mainly from the western and southern parts of the dome, and these may occur at any time without warning. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements this week gave a hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratio of 0.6. The sulphur dioxide flux on 17 March was 2315 tons per day. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano was moderate from 5th of March to 12th of March.There have been forty seven rock fall signals, nine long-period, seven hybrid earthquakes and two volcano tectonic events recorded this week. A small swarm of six hybrid earthquakes occurred on 11 March. Heavy rain on 8 and 9 March caused some degradation of the remaining remnants of the lava dome. As a result a series of small to moderate pyroclastic flows moved down Gages valley to the west on 9 March. The maximum runout of these pyroclastic flows was about 2 km. Ashfall occurred in northeastern Montserrat as a result of these pyroclastic flows. The heavy rainfall this week has caused vigorous steaming of the deposits formed on 11 February that are still hot. Strong geysering was visible at Trants near the old Bramble airport with ash and steam fountaining occurring. In addition lahars travelled down several drainages around the volcano, including the Belham valley. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C. PREVIOUS WEEK Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano was low from 26th of February to 5th of March. There have been seven rock fall signals, one long-period and nine hybrid earthquakes recorded this week. During the early hours of 4 March there was a small swarm of seven relatively large hybrid earthquakes. Later in the morning of Thursday 4 March there were two small pyroclastic flows in the Tar River valley, which resulted in light ashfall in Salem and Olveston. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) gas measurements on the 1, 2 and 4 March gave hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratios of 0.81, 0.71 and 0.98 respectively which is a slight increase on previous weeks values. Observations of the inside of the crater at the summit of the dome on 26 February showed that it is shallow < 100 m deep and approximately 200 m wide. There was no newly extruded lava visible inside the crater. There has been a strong smell of sulphur in some areas of Montserrat at several times this week. This is due to the wind direction causing the gas plume from the volcano to drift across inhabited areas. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has been low between 19th to 26th of February. There have been eleven rock fall signals and six hybrid earthquakes recorded this week. The few rockfalls that have taken place are mainly occurring from the walls of the collapse scar formed on the 11 February event. Night-time views of the dome show that in several places there are small points of incandescence visible to the naked eye. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) gas measurements on the 19 and 22 February gave a hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratio of 0.74 and 0.7, which is consistent with quite slow extrusion of lava. However MVO have not yet been able to make observations into the deep crater that exists in the summit of the dome. The Hazard Level is 3 (as of 23 February 2010). There is no access to Zone C. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has been low during the week from 12th to 19th of February. There have been fifty three rock fall signals, thirty four long period events, four hybrid earthquakes and one volcano tectonic event recorded this week. There have been sporadic rockfalls occurring off the inner walls of the collapse scar formed by the 11 February event. In addition rockfalls have been generated from the dome summit region into Gages valley. On Sunday 14 February at 14:35 there were a series of four moderate-sized pyroclastic flows into Gingoes Ghaut to the southwest. These pyroclastic flows generated ashfall in inhabited areas of northwestern Montserrat. Clear views of the dome this week have revealed that the dome collapse scar on the northern flank of the volcano formed by the dome collapse event on the 11 February is approximately 300 metres wide. Separate from the collapse scar is a deep crater of a similar diameter in the summit of the lava dome. The pyroclastic flows formed on the 11 February have extended the coastline by a maximum of 650 metres to the east. MVO staff measured temperatures of 470oC at Trants on Monday 15 February, these deposits will retain such high temperatures for months. It is at present unclear whether there is any new dome growth within the crater. However FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements on the afternoon of the 17 February gave a hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratio of 0.76, which is consistent with quite slow extrusion of lava on that day. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano was increased significantly during previous week from 5th to 12th of february, with two vulcanian explosions and a partial dome collapse. The two explosions occurred at 1:49 pm on Friday 5 February and 7:57 pm on Monday 8 February, lasted 7 and 6 minutes and ash plumes reached 25,000 and 15,000 ft respectively. There was no ashfall from either explosion in inhabited regions of Montserrat. Pyroclastic flows associated with the explosion on 5 February reached the sea at Aymers Ghaut and smaller pyroclastic flows (maximum run out 2 km) also occurred in several other valleys including Tyers ghaut. The 8 February explosion generated pyroclastic flows only in the Gages valley and these did not reach the sea. During the first part of the week activity was concentrated on the western side of the dome. Beginning on 9 February the focus of activity shifted from the west more to the northern side of the lava dome, although pyroclastic flows on the morning of 11 February travelled to the west, northeast and north simultaneously. The dome collapse event on 11 February lasted 55 minutes starting at 12:35 pm and reaching a peak at 13:04, although there were several pulses. Pyroclastic flows moved mainly to the northeast travelling across the sea at several points on the eastern side of the island. Pyroclastic surges moving over the sea on the eastern side of the island were visible from Lookout village. Significant deposition from pyroclastic flows has extended the coastline several hundred meters at the old Bramble airport. Pyroclastic flows also travelled northwest into Tyers Ghaut and down the Belham valley as far a Cork Hill. The ash plume reached 50,000 ft (from pilot reports) and drifted east and then southeast. Ashfall occurred in northeastern Montserrat, and was reported in southwest Antigua, Guadeloupe and Dominica. A large collapse scar has been excavated into the northeastern flank of the dome, although the summit of the original southwestern portion is still intact. There have been five hundred and twelve rock fall signals, one hundred and forty one long period events, eighty two hybrid earthquakes and four volcano tectonic events recorded this week. according to MVO the largest-scale ejection of material from the volcano for four years. MVO's Paul Coles reported that 10-15% of the lava dome has been removed by this collapse. Montserrat. Information : Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)
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Soufriere Hills dome on December 6, 2000 (Courtesy Caraibean Helicopter)

 

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of May, CENAPRED has reported that in the last 24 hours, the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano recorded 9 low intensity exhalations, accompanied by steam and gas emissions and small amounts emission of ash. Also some episodes of low amplitude tremor have been redorded. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report CENAPRED can see the volcano with a steam and gas emission. From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2. Previous important phase : as of the 23rd of August 2009, CENAPRED reported that the strong eruption of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico on the 20th August had ash emission to 27,000 ft altitude at 1645 hr (UT). Following this event, access has been restricted to a radius of 12 km from the crater. The road between Santiago Xalitzintla (Puebla) and San Pedro Nexapa (Mexico State), including Paso de Cortes, was open only to controlled traffic. Volcano Popocatépetl, 5426 m high is located at 70 km SE of Mexico City. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, have occurred since precolumbian time. Information from CENAPRED - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

MEXICO - Colima volcano

December 11th, 2009

As of the 10th of December, the Government of the State, reported that on the 1st of December a white plume from the Colima volcano rose 100 m above the crater and drifted E. On December 2nd, incandescent tephra was ejected 50 m above the crater towards the SE. Later that day, a white plume rose 50 m and drifted SW.D uring 2009 Colima (also known as Volcán de Fuego) has been emitting white and grey plumes that have reached as high as 6.4 km above sea level, and there have been occasional ejections of incandescent material. Both ground and air exclusion zones have been imposed around Colima by state civil protection authorities. The high level of activity has been causing some concern in the surrounding area, with reports of a high possibility that the volcano is preparing to erupt; the authorities have responded by playing down reports of imminent risks, while stressing the need for local people to remain watchful and prepared to respond to any increase in activity. As of the 4th of december, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reported that fresh lava flows and ejections of incandescent material some 50 metres from the crater were observed on 2 December. On 26 November there was an overflight above the summit crater which reported that the lava dome within the main crater of Colima, which has been growing since February 2007, now blocks 80% of the crater and has attained a height of about 45-60 metres, diameter of 270 metres and volume of 2 million cubic metres). Material has accumulated against the western wall of the crater and against a section of the southern wall, which could produce occasional landslides down the western slopes of the volcano. High temperatures were reported within the crater. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base

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GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of May, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) reported that with weak fumaroles rose to low height and moved to the southwest. The seismic station of FG3, registers 8 explosions in 24 hours, accompanied by weak rumblings. Expelling columns of gray ash to 400 and 900 metres of height, on the crater, in a southwestern direction. The changing winds during the night have transported ash-gray on Antiqua, Guatemala and other populations in the North flank, which is normal, due to the wind of the south. As of the 30th of April, INSIVUMEH has reported that white fumaroles rose to 150 metres of height.The volcano maintains the same landlord eruptive, with weak and moderate explosions, expelling gray ash to 400 and 900 metres of height, on the crater moving the column of ash to the north, the northeast. All the explosions have generated rumblings and sounds of degassing, weak and moderate. This due to the wind direction is possible to listen to the sounds of the activity in Antigua, Guatemala and the populations in these flanks. Rains of at night yesterday generated again lahars by the rivers gray ash and las Lajas. Seismic station FG3 registers 12 explosions in 24 hours. Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua. From (INSIVUMEH)

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of May, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) reported that iIn the morning 2 moderate explosions have been observed, expelling gray ash to 300 and 700 metres on the crater from the Cono Claiente. Few avalanches in the southwest are observed. The seismic network of STG3, registers 29 explosions in 24 hours. As of the 30th of April,INSIVUMEH reported that white fumaroles rose to 150 metres of height. The volcan maintains the same landlord eruptive, with weak and moderate explosions, expelling gray ash to 400 and 900 metres of height, on the crater moving the column of ash to the north, the northeast. All the explosions have generated rumblings and sounds of degassing, weak and moderate. This due to the wind direction is possible to listen to the sounds of the activity in Antigua, Guatemala and the populations in these flanks. Rains of at night yesterday generated again lahars by the rivers gray ash and Las Lajas. Seismic station FG3 registers 12 explosions in 24 hours. As of the 28th of April, INSIVUMEH reported that the Santiaguito lava dome complex at Guatemala's Santa María volcano erupted yesterday, producing four explosions between approximately 18:50 and 20:00 local time and throwing an ash-laden plume up to altitudes of between 7.3 and 8.5 km. INSIVUMEH described two of the explosions as strong and the other two as ‘moderate to strong' in intensity. Ash plume reached between 7.3-9.1 km hight (VAAC). According to an Insivumeh volcanologist quoted by El Periódico , people in local communities were alarmed by small earthquakes during the eruption, and ashfall created visibility problems on nearby roads. Local people had noticed rumblings from the volcano during the night of 25 April, . The districts of Quetzaltenango, Totonicapán, San Marcos, Huehuetenango, Suchitepéquez, Retalhuleu and Sololá have been affected by ashfall, and classes in local schools have been suspended. Largely because of the ashfall hazard, Guatemala's state emergencies agency, the Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), has raised the alert level at Santiaguito to Orange (Naranja). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

May 8th, 2010

A s of the 7th of May, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) reported that the Mackenney crater, expelling blue and white fumaroles to 100 m of height, moving to the South. Also constants are observed weak explosions, without pyroclastic material (volcanic). Continuous without active lava flows. As of the 30th of April, INSIVUMEH reported that the white fumarole crater rose to 200 metres of height, moving to the north. Also constants are observed gas exhalations, with weak and moderate sounds generated by the degassing. Seismic station PCG registers 480 explosions in 24 hours. As of the 21st of April, INSIVUMEH reported that due to constant pluvial precipitations in the volcanic zone of Pacaya, they were generating moderate lahars in the rivers Santa to them Teresa, Taníluya and Ceniza, both first affluents of the Pantaleón river. Today in the morning 6 explosions, 1 weak and 5 moderate ones have been observed expelling columns of gray ash 500 and 700 metres of height. The column moves to the southeast to 10 kilometres approximately. Constant avalanches of blocks by flanks of the volcano have been observed. All the explosions have generated weak degassing sounds and rumblings. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

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COSTA RICA - Arenal volcano

March 30th, 2010

OVSICORI-UNA reported that during March activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches. A lava flow that began in mid-January remained active on the S flank. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material
affected the NE, E, and SE flanks. Avalanches from the crater and from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW, S, and SE flanks, occasionally igniting vegetation. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that during February activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches. A lava flow traveled down the SW
flank. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Avalanches from the crater and from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW, S, and SE flanks, occasionally igniting vegetation. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity.As of the 19th of November, OVSICORI-UNA reported that during October activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches that traveled down the W and SW flanks. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW flanks. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity.
As of the 15th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that OVSICORI-UNA reported that during September activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches that traveled down the W flank. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW flanks. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity. As of the 16th of July, OVSICORI-UNA reported that on July 7th and 8th, 2009 a probable lava front collapse took place to the south side of Arenal volcano, Costa Rica. For several months, prior to this event, minor explosive activity and rolling blocks were low. Most of the fragmented blocks were associated to the emplacement of summit material from activity triggered during the mid months of 2008. A round noon on Tuesday (10th) and 2200 hrs on Wednesday (the 11th), collapses started from the summit transporting fresh and pre-emplaced blocky lava down the flank, leaving a wide channel (80-100m wide, 20-30m deep, 800m long) and some other topographical changes. Witnesses reports and photographic evidence shows dust clouds developing from the pyroclastic flows as they descended the flanks and moving N and NW up to some 5 km. from the source. Although this activity impacted part of the forest in that flank no tourist or park rangers were directly affected. As of the 18th of June, OVSICORI reported that three strong eruptions on 16 June resulted in pyroclastic flows. The National Park was evacuated as a precaution, but reopened the next day. Increased degassing the previous week had prompted an elevation of the hazard status to Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4). OVSICORI-UNA reported that during April activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches that traveled down the SW, S, and N flanks. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during January, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts that traveled down the SW flanks. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity As of the 2nd of October, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that changes in morphology and the health of vegetation at Arenal were documented during approximately 14-20 September. Fine ashfall produced at the summit by an active lava flow impacted and burned vegetation along the upper and lower E and NE flanks. The impact on the vegetation was more severe near the summit. By mid September, additional material moving down the SW flank had filled the 6 June collapse scar and built an 800-m-high levee. Occasional incandescent blocks roll down the top of the levee. Material accumulated on both sides of the levee and at the distal end, creating a 200-m-wide fan. A mass of material also accumulated at the SW edge of the summit, causing blocks to occasionally roll down the N flank. As of the 1st of August, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. It continues to erupted, on and off, from time-to-time. As of Friday 6th of June 2008 at 9:15am (15:15GMT) OVSICORI reported that a hot avalanche rolled down the SW slopes of Arenal volcano, Costa Rica. An unestimated amount of blocky, andesitic lava was accumulating, on the summit, since March 2007 due to the extrusion of a lava flow. Even though fragments of such lava flow fell intermittently over these 14 months, it was until now that a mayor avalanche took place. Two minor ones were reported in recent months. The present collapse provoked a scar of some 800m long from the summit to the bottom. Lose, dry, incandescent material was canalized down the slope conforming a wide chaotic fan, at aprox 900m asl. Material rolling down pulverized and generated a tall plume of gases and dust that provoked panic in tourists and park rangers located some 2 kms. away, on the W side. Immediately the park was closed for the day and the tourists rapidly evacuated. No one was hurt. Dust and fine ashes deposited in a small area W and NW of the active flank. Rain rapidly diluted the fine film that was deposited on vegetation.Previously OVSICORI-UNA confirmed that a pyroclastic flow from Arenal traveled W on 18 september 2007. The event was recorded by a local seismic station. Based on field observations, a scientist from Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) reported that multiple pyroclastic flows traveled S an approximate distance of 1 km on 18 September. Explosions occurred that occasionally produced ash. Small avalanches were noted and one larger avalanche on the S flank was incandescent. Avalanche activity continued on 19 September. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

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COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

February 23rd, 2010

As of the 23rd of February, OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new phreatic explosion occured on 23rd of February at 11: 33 AM (local time). Slight ashfalls occured on Southwest and Southeast flanks of the volcano. No precursor signal was recorded. As of the 28th of December, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI-UNA) reported that on the 25th of December a phreatic eruption from Laguna Caliente, a summit lake of Poás, was seen by visitors standing at a viewpoint to the S of the crater. Lake water mixed with sediment and blocks was ejected 550-600 m above Laguna Caliente and fell in the vicinity of the lake, within the crater. The amount of steam emitted from lava-dome fumaroles, at the S edge of the lake, increased subsequent to the eruption. According to a local paper, a phreatic explosion occured on Friday morning, 18 September. This explosive event projected water and sediment to a height of about 300 meter above the surface of the crater lake. It is the northern of the volcano's two summmit crater lakes named Lago Caliente, which is the site of frequent phreatic eruptions; the most recent, a smaller event, was in January.The paper also mentions that scientists visiting the summit of the voclano have found burning sulphur on the north wall of the crater lake, the first time this phenomenon has been seen since 1994. Recent high temperatures and low rainfall have reduced the water volume in the highly acidic lake, and degassing from the crater has intensified with the gas plume of bright yellow' in certain areas and reaching 400 metres in height when measured on 16 September. Previous information : a s of the 14th of January, OVSICORI reported that on Monday 12th of January Poas Volcano produced a shy phreatic explosion, confined to the center of the lake. More intriguing is the fact that such activity occurred after the fatal Cinchona earthquake felt on Thursday, January 08, 2009 resulting of a local faulting event. Epicenter is located some 6 km E of the volcano probably disturbing the balance of an already fractured and shallow hydrothermal system.. As of the 8th of January at 1:21 PM a violent earthquakes (mag. 6.1- 6km depth) occured at about 10km East of the Poas volcano. Ten people were killed by a landslide at La Paz waterfall. Three people were killed by landslides in the Fraijanes-Dulce Nombre area and one person died of a heart attack in the San Jose area. Many people were injured, many buildings were damaged and landslides blocked roads in the area. Electricity was knocked out in parts of San Jose. Felt (VI) at Asuncion, Grecia and San Pablo; (V) at Alajuela, Colon, Curridabat, Desamparados, Escazu, Guadalupe, Heredia, Mercedes, Quesada, Sabanilla, San Antonio, San Francisco, San Isidro, San Jose, San Juan, San Pedro, San Rafael, Santa Ana and Santo Domingo; (IV) at Atenas, Cartago, San Ramon, and Tres Rios; (III) at Jacao. Felt throughout Costa Rica and in southern and central Nicaragua. Following this event, an increasing of the fumarolian activity in the crater was observed by OVSICORI scientists; probably due to the destabilization of the geothermal system. As of the 25th of January, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI-UNA) has reported that a visit on January 18th, 2008 confirmed a report that a small phreatic eruption occurred within the perimeter of the hot-acidic lake of Poás volcano, around 0900hrs on Sunday, January 13th, 2008. The first notice was given by a park ranger and described as cipresoidal shape with ejection of water and sediments out of the center of the lake. It did reach some 200m high and subsequently collapsed to change rapidly the lake's colour from a dark green to an intense white. This event was also witnessed by a group of tourists who were temporarily evacuated but were always safe at some 1200m, observing the volcano from the main viewpoint. Field inspection revealed also that the explosion produced a wave of 1.5m all around the lake leaving a mark along its rim. Only to the south, next to the north dome's terrace, squirts of sediments were found reaching distances of some 8m from the shore. Such sediments were washed off, probably by the returning wave and reached a thickness no greater than 10cm. Such pockets of sediments contain a large quantity of shining crystals and other pre-existent minor debris from the bottom of the lake. No blocks were expelled out of the lake. The person that made the first report emphasised the calm conditions of the lake and dome before the eruption. Also, a small landslide (8x20m) was documented on the north face of the dome. It did leave a chaotic deposit of heavily altered angular blocks in a gray matrix altered by hydrothermalism. A slurry of yellowish materials reached the edge of the lake. Due to rapid outlet of gases in concentric convection cells from the centre of the lake, the lake changed its colour progressively in a matter of some 3 hours during the visit of OVSICORI´s staff. Even more, rapid degassing from the surface of the lake impedes the sight to the other side, due to thick columns of toxic gases. Lake temperature dropped to 45ºC and water level raised 1.5m compared to the last estimate at the end of November 2007. Nonetheless rapid evaporation promotes rapid reduction of such level. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

March 10th, 2010

OVSICORI-UNA reported that scientists visited Turrialba at night on 7 March. A gas plume, commonly seen drifting with prevailing winds, was seen that night rising 1.5 km above the crater and drifting NW. Noises from the crater were described as sounding like a jet engine and rumblings. A vent, formed in January, emitted gas at temperatures between 300 and 320 degrees Celsius. Small blocks 3-12 cm in diameter and different colors dominated the surface around the vent. Lithics ejected 30-50 m away from the vent measured 170 degrees Celsius. Incandescence seen at night originated from the vent which ejected reddish-colored tephra. As of the 3rd of february, OVSICORI reported that Turrialba, which erupted on a small scale at the beginning of January, has returned to a state of passive degassing similar to that which pertained before the eruption.However, volcanologists have warned that although activity has declined low intensity earthquakes continue, the volcano remains active and people should not be complacent. The comision Nacionale de emergency (CNE) has revised the alert level currently applied to the area surrounding the volcano, with Yellow Alert now applying to a 2 km radius zone around the volcano and Green Alert to areas beyond that limit. Previously, on 20 January 2010 an overflight of Turrialba took place which reported a revitalization of the column of gas and steam with suspended particles. A photography of the activity was taken during this overflight. A sustained emission was reported on that day, with a thick, dark plume from the summit moving WNW, the strong wind preventing the plume from rising much above the altitude of the volcano. Some light ashfall was reported in areas near the volcano. Although the transport and distribution of volcanic particles (old ash) is a new occurrence for this eruptive period of Turrialba volcano, notes the report, the minimal quantity carried this morning could be the first of much more in the near future as material eroded from the internal walls of the active conduit is carried up into the plume. After the first round of phreatic eruptions during 5-6 January from Turrialba volcano OVSICORI published the following field report : "A visit to the field on jan 6th shed light about what happened between the night of Monday 5th and early hours of Wednesday 6th. At least two vents (between 20 and 30m wide) opened along the inner walls of W crater, to eject an unestimated volume of preexistent fine particles. A narrow plume (8x40 km) of sediments moved SW up to 40 kms reaching a small portion of the populated Central Valley where most Costarricans live. Thickness of deposits vary from few mm (near the summit) to a fine sheet after some 15 km away from the volcano. Granulometry of particles vary from 1mm, in the proximal area to micras, in the distal areas. No juvenile material was found in the described deposits, on the contrary its color, shape and general aspect coincide with the openings in the upper summit. Strong degassing accompanied of fractionated material is intermittently expelled from the new vents as we write this report. Although the tremor signal decreased, compared to two preceding days, energy is enough to produce columns of several hundreds of meters above the summit. Fortunately nobody was hurt during the initial explosions and most of settlers, 3 kms around the volcano, got evacuated. Damage to crops, machinery and infrastructure has not been assessed although it is believed that it may increase if emissions persist." A low-amplitude tremor continued until 16:58 on 8 January; since that time the tremor has ended and the volcano has returned to the same LP type earthquakes that were recorded before 4 January, and now activity at the volcano has returned to the levels of before the phreatic eruption. Previously, as of the 5th of January OVSICORI reported that at 14:48 local time an inhabitant of the La Central area located to the south-west of Turrialba volcano reported hearing a strong eruption of Turrialba, much later people living near the volcano reported ashfall. Also, officials of the Parque Nacional Volcán Irazú reported the presence of ash in vehicles parked in the car park inside the national park. Additionally, residents of Turrialba, Tres Ríos and owners of properties on the slopes of Turrialba volcano reported ashfall. From mid-December 2009 until 4 January 2010, LP-type earthquakes (low frequency) had been predominantly registered, with a significant decrease of volcanic tremor. On 4 January 2010 there was a significant increase in volcanic tremor, both in duration of registration and in the amplitude of the signal. Coinciding with the increase in the recording of tremor there was a significant decrease in LP-type earthquakes. In the early hours of Wednesday 6 January an OVSICORI-UNA team will go to the area to make observations and collect data and information to carry out relevant studies. A green (preventative) alert was issued by the authorities for the area around Turrialba, and about 20 people were evacued from the volcano's slopes. Previously, a s of the 2nd of September, according to OVSICORI scientists, the volcano was showing again an increase in degazing activity. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

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NICARAGUA - Concepcion volcano

March 26th, 2010

As of the 26th of March, INETER reported that  on 22 March that degassing and seismic activity had fallen to low levels in comparison with the preceding days. On 24 March INETER confirmed a considerable reduction in activity but reported continuing anomalous levels of seismicity. The current situation is that activity remains low, but the volcano continues to be carefully monitored. As of the 19th of March, INETER, informed that the emanations of gases and ashes in the volcano Conception fell today. In the morning 2 explosions were entered, first of them it reached an approximated height of 500 metres over the crater and a second height that did not surpass the 100 metres on the crater. In the evening the volcano entered a relative calm. Seismic it is observed that it continues the occurrence of small earthquakes, which have not been located due to the very low magnitude. INETER, maintains the monitoring of the volcano the 24 hours of the day and it will generally be continued informing to the population on changes. According to the Washington VAAC, INETER reported an eruption from Concepción on 12 March. A rapidly-dissipating ash cloud was seen on satellite imagery almost 60 km E of the summit. As of the 10th of March, Based on information from INETER and analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 March an ash plume from Concepción rose to an estimated altitude of 2.1 km a.s.l. The plume was last seen in satellite imagery later that day 227 km W. As of the 11th of December 2009, INETER reported that Concepcion volcano erupted on Friday. Summit explosion spewing gas and smoke almost 500 feet (150 metres) into the air and ashfalls occured on three nearby villages, but there were no immediate reports of damage. Volcán Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighboring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

September 7th, 2009

A s of the 10th of December, the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) informs that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 December a gas-and-steam plume from San Cristóbal, possibly containing ash, drifted SW. The VAAC also noted smoke from local fires. As of the 6th of September INETER reported that eight explosions occured on Sunday 6th of September 2009 during afternoon at the San Cristobal volcano spewing gases and ash to about 200 m above the summit crater and some ashfalls on nearby towns. A statement from the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales reports that at 1:50 this afternoon San Cristóbal volcano produced explosions of gas and ashes. The first explosion was detected by the seismic station located on the south-west slope of this volcano, and generated a column that reached an approximate altitude of 200 metres, remaining static because of the absence of wind. There then were four explosions of lesser intensity. According to reports from Defensa Civil personnel in the communities around the volcano, the activity continued until approximately 2:40 in the afternoon. There are no reports of injuries or damage. Sunday's blasts prompted officials to issue an alert for 25 districts near the volcano. The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP - NOTE : a SVE fieldtrip in Nicaragua is planned for November 2010

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COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

May 8th, 2010

As of the 6th of May, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that low levels in the seismicity stay. The occurrence of a cluster of earthquakes that appeared between the 2nd and 3rd of May, with the registry of near 90 events of small power level is emphasised. The earthquakes related to fracturing processes were located in different zones in the volcanic complex, the majority with depths smaller to 3 km with respect to the top and with local magnitudes inferiors to 1 on the Richter scale. During the week Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 emissions were registered with values considered as low for Galeras, 215 min to Tonnes/day. With the support of the Colombian Air Force, the 30th of April was realised in a fly over to Galeras volcano, being observed permanent gas emission of clear colour from different sectors from the active cone. The taken thermal images in this day, showed the presence of several sectors with thermal anomalies, mainly inside the main crater, with maximum values between 87 and 97 °C. The climatic conditions allowed the observation from Pasto, of small columns of emission of white colouration, on the 29th and 30th of April and the 4th of May, with peak altitudes of 200 m on the top. As of the 28th of April, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that the registered seismicity continues within levels considered as low, predominating the events that involve as much fracture of cortical material as movement of the flowed components of the system. The earthquakes related to fracturing were located without showing a source in particular, being located of dispersed way with depths of up to 7 km with respect to the top and with local magnitudes that did not surpass the 1.4 degrees on the Richter scale. During the week Sulphur Dioxide (SO2 emissions were not registered instrumentally As of the 21st of April, the volcano continued the seismicity levels considered as low, with the predominance of events related to the flowed components of the volcanic system. The events associated with fracturing processes were located of dispersed way in the volcanic complex and nearest the active crater they were located to depths smaller to 2 km with respect to the top. The registered earthquakes of fracture in the afternoon of today, were located to 5 km to the West-Northwest of Galeras approximately, to 7 km of depth and with magnitudes smaller than 1.4 on the Richter scale. During the week Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 emissions were not registered instrumentally. On the 16th of April, the climatic conditions favoured the observation of small columns of emission of white colouration, that reached peak altitudes of 250 m on the top, with preferential dispersion towards the north of the volcanic complex by action of winds. As of the 15th of April, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that the levels considered as low stay in the seismicity, with the predominance in this period, of events related to the flowed components of the volcanic system. During the week Sulphur Dioxide SO 2 emissions were registered again in levels considered as low. On the 7th, 10th and 12th of April, the climatic conditions as much favoured the observation of small columns of emission of white colouration, that reached peak altitudes of 400 m on the top, with dispersion towards the north as to the south of the volcanic complex. As of the 8th of April, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that seismicity levels within are considered as low, they are continued presenting/displaying some fluctuations in the occurrence and energy of the earthquakes. The events related to processes of fracturing of cortical material, continue happening of dispersed way distances of up to 14 km of the main crater. Within this seismicity the registered event is emphasised the 4th of April, with magnitude 1.9, that was located to about 2 km to the southwest of the active cone and to a depth of 2 km with respect to the top. During the week Sulphur Dioxide emissions were registered in considered levels low (SO 2 ). On the 2nd and 6th of April, the climatic conditions favoured the observation of small columns of emission, that reached peak altitudes of 200 m on the top, with preferential dispersion towards the north-western flank of the volcanic complex. As of the 1st of April, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that although a slight increase in the seismicity appeared, as much continue the low levels in occurrence as in the released energy, similar to the reported ones in the previous weeks. The earthquakes related to processes of fracturing of cortical material, happened of dispersed way to distances of up to 11 km of the active cone, with local magnitudes smaller to 1.1 on the Richter scale. The events near the crater are located in more superficial levels, with depths smaller to 3 km with respect to the top. During the week Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 )emissions were not registered. As of the 24th of March, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that the volcano continues low levels of seismicity, similar to the reported ones for the previous weeks. The earthquakes related to processes of fracturing of cortical material, happened of a dispersing way in the volcanic complex, with smaller depths of 7.5 km and magnitudes principles of 0.7 on the Richter scale. During the week it was continued measuring low emissions of SO 2 flow (Sulphur Dioxide), with values of 165 and 115 tonnes/day registered on the 16th and 18th respectively of March of 2010. On the 20th of March, personnel of the OVSP in work of field by the zone of the high part of La Quebradathe Maragato (Municipality of Nariño), reported afternoon in the hours of scents to sulphured gases. In a fly over carried out the 22nd of March, with support of the Colombian Air Force, verified gas discharge of white colour, by different sectors from the active cone and generally in low amount. In the morning of today, they were seen from the city of Pasto, gas pulses of white colour, with smaller heights of 200 m on the top. As of the 17th of March, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that low levels of seismicity, similars to reported for the previous weeks and the absence of earthquakes associated with gas discharge stay. The registry of a volcano-tectonic event on March 12th at 2128 hrs., located approximately to 6 km to the ENE of the active cone in environs of the municipality is emphasized of Pasto, with a depth near 8 km and local magnitude of 2 degrees in the Richter scale. This earthquake reported sense in some districts of the north of the city. During the week low values of SO 2 (Sulphur Dioxide) flow were moderate, being the maximum of 208 tonnes/day, which was obtained on March 11th in a passage between Pasto and Nariño. On March 10th, personnel of the OVSP realised a visit from recognition to the Camino Real, on the flank he orients and northwest of the volcanic complex, and from the sector of La quebrada Maragato in future, they reported to feel strong scents to sulphured gases. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Huila volcano

May 8th, 2010

As of the 6th of May, the the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayan (INGEOMINAS) reports that in the present week 1958 seismic events was registered. Of them, 51 was related to fracturing of rock and 1907 with the dynamics of flowed within the volcanic conduits; of these last ones, 1882 correspond to events of long period, five (5) events hybrid type that obey to conjugated phenomena of fracturing of rock and dynamics of fluid and 20 pulses of tremor of low magnitude. Of the registered seismic activity during the week, the event is emphasised of type VT Friday at 0417 hrs, which had a magnitude of 2.6 on the Richter scale, it was located to the southwest of the volcano to a depth of 7.5 km and was reported as sensed by the settlers of the Plan of Caloto, Tálaga and Tóez. In satelite images obtained through sensor OMI and published by the Agency the International NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), on the 28th, 29th and 30th of April were observed SO 2 emissions the atmosphere. During the last week the volcano daily continued presenting/displaying increases in the number of registered events, being observed a clear dominion of the seismicity associated with the dynamics of flowed within the internal conduits. This phenomenon does not imply a evolution to states of greater excitation than they motivate a change of level of activity of the volcano, and could be related to the process of extrusion of magmatic material, that appears in the high part of the volcano since the end of 2009. As of the 28th of April, the the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayan (INGEOMINAS) reported that in the present week 1443 seismic events was registered. Of them, 42 were related to fracturing of rock and 1401 with the dynamics of flowed within the volcanic conduits; of these last ones, 1381 corresponds to events of long period, an earthquake hybrid type which obeys to conjugated phenomena of fracturing of fluid rock and dynamics of and 19 with pulses of tremor of low magnitude, some of these last ones could be associate with pulsating emissions of gases and ashes towards surface, that until the moment have not been confirmed. In today a movable measurement of SO 2 was realised on the Pan-American route that communicates the populations of Villarrica and Mondomo (the Cauca); the calculated flow was of 2348 tonnes/day in a column that dispersed towards the West of the volcano. This, along with the registry of the satelite images published by international agency NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), for the 21st and 27th of April, demonstrates that the emission of SO 2 to the atmosphere stays. Of the data obtained during the week, one concludes that they continue appearing manifestations associated with the dynamics of fluids, without it implies a evolution to states of greater excitation than they motivate a change of level of activity of the volcano. Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The andesitic-dacitic volcano (5635 m) was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Only a single 16th-century explosive eruption is recorded in historical time from this little known volcano. Webcam

COLOMBIA - Cerro Machin volcano

December 7th, 2009

Ingeominas reported as of the 7th of December, that a seismic swarm which occured on Saturday has provoked the Colombian state geological service to raise the alert level to Yellow (III), characterized as ‘ "changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity'. According to a local newspaper, 54 minor earthquakes took place over the weekend. The largest of these was at 1.3 on the Richter scale. The seismic swarm took place from 5:00 p.m. on Saturday, and although small, is the largest to have occurred in 2009, after strong activity in 2008'. No bulletin on developments at Machín has yet been published on the Manizales Volcano observtory website. Any reactivation of Machín voclano could pose a substancial threat to this populous area of Colombia, including the large city of Ibagué (approximate population 500,000). The small Cerro Machín stratovolcano lies at the southern end of the Ruiz-Tolima massif about 20 km WNW of the city of Ibagué. A 3-km-wide caldera is breached to the south and contains three forested dacitic lava domes. Voluminous pyroclastic flows traveled up to 40 km from the volcano during eruptions in the mid-to-late Holocene perhaps associated with formation of the caldera. Late-Holocene eruptions produced dacitic block-and-ash flows that traveled through the breach in the caldera rim to the west and south. The latest known eruption of Volcán Cerro Machín took place about 800 years ago.

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

June 18th, 2009

Based on SIGMET notices and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11 and 13-15 June eruptions from Ubinas produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.9 km
(18,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NE, E, and SE. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery on 13 June Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 5 June plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 6.1-6.7 km (20,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and S. A pilot reported that
an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 6 and 9 June, plumes seen on satellite imagery rose to altitudes of 6.1-7.6 km (20,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and NE, respectively. On 29 and 31 May eruptions from Ubinas produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SW. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery on 31 May. INGEMMET reported on 1 June a bluish gas plume with some ash content. On 2 June, an explosion was detected and gas-and-ash plumes that rose 0.9-1.5 km drifted E. Ubinas in the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions
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CHILE - Chaiten volcano

March 20th, 2010

As of the 20th of March, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on the 17th of March during the previous few weeks, growth of Chaitén's lava-dome complex was concentrated in the W part. Gas-and-ash plumes, seen through the video camera located on the rim of the caldera, rose at most 1 km from the central area of the domes. Seismic activity persisted at a low level. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex, likely mixed with steam and gas, drifted NE on 15 March. As of the 18th of February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 11 February, ODVAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a camera, installed 800 m from the centre of Chaitén's lava-dome complex in late January, showed incandescence and gas emissions on the 28th of January. Seismicity had also increased during 21 January-3 February. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume drifted 25 km NW on the 11th of February at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. During 5-19 January the lava-dome complex continued to grow, although possibly at rates lower than during previous weeks. The magnitude and number of hybrid earthquakes decreased. The Alert Level remained at Red. As of the 3rd of December, SERNAGEOMIN reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 26 November a diffuse plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted ENE. SERNAGEOMIN suggests maintaining Volcanic Red Alert. As of the 25th of November 2009, SERNAGEOMIN reported that Chaitén's seismic activity has remained similar to that of the preceding period, with a prevalence of hybrid type (HB) earthquakes reaching an average of 15 earthquakes per hour and with magnitudes locally calculated to be within the range 1.5 to 4.2. Among these 2-4 earthquakes stand out each hour with magnitudes of above 3.5. Comparing the seismicity of this period with that of previous weeks, the seismic energy liberated RSAM has not exceeded 150,000 units. Both visually and seismically no large changes have been shown, and activity is consistent with that which has developed during the preceding period; this indicates that the eruptive activity continues with the growth of the dome complex. On the other hand, the quantity of pyroclastic material both from rock falls and emitted by the block-and-ash flows and lateral explosions has created large accumulations in the adjacent valleys and particularly the valley of the Chaitén river, so that the occurrence of lahars towards Chaitén during periods of intense rain cannot be ruled out. In consequence, given that the seismicity remains at elevated levels – an effect of the growth of the dome complex – and that the eruptive activity continues with the possibility of the generation of block-and-ash flows in random directions, which may affect surrounding valleys with the generation of new lahars, SERNAGEOMIN suggests maintaining Volcanic Red Alert. As of the 19th of November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 31 October-1 November Chaitén's lava-dome complex produced steam plumes that sometimes contained gas and ash. The plumes were visible on the web camera and rose at most 1 km above the lava domes. SERNAGEOMIN bulletin of the Chaitén eruption, covering the period 16-30 September 2009, reported the results of an overflight carried out on 29 September. Among the interesting facts reported there is the emergence of a new third lava dome, the appearance of an elongated depression in the central area of the dome complex, and a collapse event on 29 September. As of the 1st of October, SERNAGEOMIN reported that based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 28 September a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex, possibly mixed with steam and gas, rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted less than 40 km W and SW. As of the 24th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-16 September, Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to grow. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, SIGMET notices, and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 16 and 20-22 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE A s of the 21st of August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the images observed through the DGAC camera, located in Chaitén to the south of the volcano, show that the eruption has continued in an unchanging form with its column of gas and ash which has occasionally risen to 1.5 km above the dome complex. At times it has been possible to distinguish a secondary and intermittent centre of emission to the west, very close to the principal centre of emission. The block-and-ash flows still persist, indicating that the dome complex continues its growth, particularly towards the western sector of the caldera. .As of the 6th of August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that based on web camera views from the S, and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 29 July-1 August, and on 4 August, ash plumes from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, S, and SE. As of the 26th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity has remained high at Chaiten volcano, Chile, during the period 16-22 July. The eruption continues unchanged with a column of ash and steam rising 1.5 km above the summit. Block and ash flows still persist, indicating the dome complex has continued to grow, particularly towards the western sector of the caldera. Some strong emissions of gas correlated with seismic activity. Dome collapse remains a danger and may affect adjacent valleys. Significant pyroclastic material has accumulated in the adjacent valleys, and pose a lahar risk after heavy rain. Alert level RED remains at Chaiten volcano due to continued dome growth, pyroclastic flow risk, and potential for lahars. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 11 and 14 June ash plumes from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. A thermal anomaly was also seen in satellite imagery on 11 June. Based on web camera views, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 27 May-8 June gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows that were sometimes seen from Chaitén town, 10 km SW. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Chaitén town and nearby areas. As of the 13rd of May SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 29 April-4 May gas-and-ash plumes rose up to 2 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows. An overflight on 1 May revealed a large central spine fractured into three main blocks. The surface of the lava dome complex was very irregular and several spines had grown 100 m above the dome surface. Seismicity remained high. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, SIGMET notices, web camera views, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 5 and 10-12 May, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-4.6 km a.s.l. and drifted N, NE,and ENE. According to SERNAGEOMIN, since 15 April, when the energy released by the seismicity of Chaitén volcano reached 130000 units RSAM, the values have begun to fall slightly, remaining during Thursday 16 April 2009 at 100000 units, therefore values continuing to be very elevated. Llaima, however, has not shown visual signs of significant activity during past days. As of the 2nd of April, the Government of Chile has announced that during 17-23 March Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to grow from an area that includes the central spines and part of Domo Nuevo 1. This was also the main area where collapses from unstable slopes caused block-and-ash flows. Continuously emitted steam plumes with varying amounts of tephra and gas-and-ash plumes generated by block-and-ash flows drifted N and ESE. The block-and-ash flow volume was smaller compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at Red. As of the 19th of March, the Government of Chile has announced that based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11-15 March ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE, NE, E, and SE. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 15 March. On 3 March during an overflight co-ordinated with the Regional Office of ONEMI it was possible to verify that the deposits of the block-and-ash flow that descended through the río Chaitén on 19 February still maintaind high temperatures in some areas, with emanations of water vapour and even burning of trees where they had come into contact with lava blocks from the domes, with high temperatures (over 300ºC). The seismicity of Chaitén volcano has declined slightly during the period in the number of larger HB-type earthquakes, with magnitudes of between 3.2 and 3.6, in comparison to previous days. The earthquakes that have been recorded are principally of HB-type, which indicates the continuing supply of magma to the dome complex. As of the 27th of february, SERNAGEOMIN reported that another large-scale dome collapsep at Chaitén volcano during the afternoon. Reports mention that a large part of the northern side of the dome collapsed and an intense plume rose from the volcano. This collapse occurred at around 14:47 local time this afternoon. An overflight carried out on 24 February, allowed the ovbservatin of the current state of eruptive activity, the morphology of the domes and the dimensions and precise location of the area affected by the collapse that occurred last Thursday (19.02.09). The escarpment or scar of the collapse is oriented in an approximately south-western direction, with a greatest length of approximately 500m and a maximum height of the of the escarpment slopes of 200m. The area of collapse is located in the south-western quadrant of the dome complex and affects, approximately, some 10% of the total volume. The collapse escarpment surrounds the south and west of the spine or pinnacle which has grown in the central sector of the dome complex. The majority of the material removed is from Dome 1, the development of which began in May 2008. The northern sector of the dome showed occasional eruptive activity, which is concentrated to the immediate north of the pinnacle, at the pinnacle, and at a remnant of dome 1 located to the south of the collapse escarpment. In the northern sector, within dome 2, eruptive activity was observed in two sectors and was manifested in the emission of water vapour with occasional ash content. The majority of the eruptive activity was concentrated on the spine or pinnacle, with constant emissions of brown-coloured ash and water vapour. The southern remnant of dome 1 intermittently emitted ash and water vapour of similar colouring to that at the pinnacle, in addition to producing sporadic explosions. Together, they form four eruption columns of gas and ash, which exceed 1.5km in height and which during small collapses of the steep slopes of the pinnacle tend to form one wide and irregular column.As of the 19 th of February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that there was a major reactivation of the eruption at Chaitén volcano on the morning. Everyone still in the town of Chaitén was evacuated, and the authorities have activated their various emergency plans. A major partial dome collapse occured, generating pyroclastic flows that penetrated a long way south along the Chaitén river valley, almost reaching the town itself. A collapse such as this is a process rather than an event, and further collapses of the structure of the dome(s), along with the release of overpressurized gases, is continuing to generate further debris flows along the length of the valley. At 15:20 the same day, an overflight was carried out at Chaitén volcano, revealing a fracture of more than a kilometre on the dome, southern sector, with evident signs of collapse, which constitutes, an important threat to the town of Chaitén. Large emissions of gases and pyroclasts were also observed. Heavy rains over the volcano could generate substantial floods, causing further damage in the town of Chaitén. Previously on 19th of January, between 10:59 and 12:00, a major partial collapse already occured on the steep pinnacles that form the summit of New Dome 2 above the south-eastern flank, with the consequent generation of block and ash flows. On 25th and 28th December, ash emissions reached 2 km above the crater. A lava dome continues to grow in the crater, producing instability on the summit and flanks. Explosions from the lava dome are possible and create the risk of pyroclastic flows. The volcano remains at the highest alert level red. As of the 15th of December SERNAGEOMIN reported that explosive events that have characterized Chaitén's recent activity took place yesterday, 14 December 2008, beginning at around 13:19 local time. The explosion, which appears to have been related to a partial collapse within the caldera, generated a large ash plume which reached hundreds of kilometres south-east into Argentine territory As of the 11th of December, SERNAGEOMIN reported that based on on observations of satellite imagery, pilot reports, SIGMET notices, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3-8 December, ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes 1.8-4.6 km (6,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, NW, and SW. A thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery during 4 and 6-8 December. Gaseous emissions have been observed both from the growing New Dome 2 (north-east sector) and from New Dome 1, on its southern flank, which has almost completely covered the old dome. The emissions have shown a predominance of water vapour, even when occasional increases in the emission of volcanic gases have been seen, with changes in the colour of the columns emitted from New Dome 2, depending on variations in the concentration of ash. The columns of gases observed have reached heights of between 1.5 and 2.5 kilometres above the domes.On Saturday 6 December an overflight of Chaitén volcano was carried out and In the interior of the Chaitén caldera it was possible to see clearly the remnants of the old dome, almost completely buried by the viscous lava of New Dome 1 (coloured red-brown). Very notable were the dimensions reached by New Dome 2 (colour grey) located in the north-east sector of New Dome 1, where the eruptive activity was concentrated, consistent with the evident extrusions of viscous lava forming very unstable pinnacles and ridges, with constant landslides on their sloping sides, which rest on the internal wall of the caldera. Additionally, from two points on its uneven crest, constant emissions of volcanic gases are generated, with a predominance of water vapour. On 29 October, SERNAGEOMIN received reports of an increase in activity at Chaitén characterized by several explosions that darkened the plume and caused it to rise from about 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l to about 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. SERNAGEOMIN reported that variations in seismicity remained similar to patterns detected during the pervious weeks. A gas plume was continually emitted to an altitude of 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. during the previous week. ONEMI reported that during an overflight on 30 October, scientists observed a landslide that had originated from the active lava dome. As of the 20th of October, SERNAGEOMIN published a new report for the period between 13th -17th of October : during this period two eruptive columns have been maintained of no more than 2.0km in height, principally formed of water vapour with a relatively low content of sulphur dioxide and ash, moderately vigorous, white and relatively wide, with dispersion mainly towards the southeast. HB-type earthquakes are continuing without variation in quantity and magnitude. The eruptive activity is related to degassing and the generation of water vapour through rainwater coming into contact with the hot dome and/or remnants of magmatic material in the upper levels of the system. The seismic activity is related to the growth of the dome. In the short term, a possible reactivation of the eruptive process can be ruled out. SERNAGEOMIN maintains Volcanic Red Alert.SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 7-13 October a gas-and-ash plume from Chaitén rose to an altitude of 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR) notices, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 12-14 October, continuous ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.4-4 km(8,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and E. As of the 9 th of October, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during an overflight on 30 September, scientists observed the small lagoon that remained in a depression in the N area of the basal "ring" that lies between the new lava dome and the caldera rim. The base of the S flank of the old lava dome was still evident; fumaroles were noted along the contact of the old and new domes. The new lava dome had grown higher and laterally from the NE flank until it touched the caldera rim. The Alert level remained Red. Based on pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3 and 5-8 October continuous ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.5 km (8,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, ENE, and E. As of the 29th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that eruptive activity returned to levels comparable to those reported in previous days up to the end of last week, that is with columns of a maximum of 1.5km in altitude, weak and of little vigour, with a predominance of water vapour over gases and ashes, dispersing towards the north-east. Since the 26th of this month, the earthquakes of greater magnitude, interpreted as HB-type, have increased their energy to reach, in some cases, magnitude 3.5M. The earthquakes of HB-type recorded by the stations in the vicinity of the volcano (e.g. Pumalín, Pillán and Santa Bárbara) remain at depths calculated as approximately between 2.0 and 5.0km, with epicentres located, also about, at 3.0km south of the volcano. The earthquakes of greater magnitude have been registered as far as the seismic monitoring stations at Llaima volcano, located 457km to the north. SERNAGEOMIN maintains Volcanic Red Alert. SERNAGEOMIN report on the eruptive activity of Chaitén volcano between 23 and 24 September 2008 noted that eruptive activity contines with a column that does not exceed 1.5km in altitude, with a predominance of water vapour over pyroclastic materials, principally ash. A level of 3-4 HB-type earthquakes per hour has been maintained, some with magnitudes around 3.0M, and there have been sporadic small VT-type earthquakes, under 1.0M. The HB earthquakes reflect magmatic activity and the fracturing of rock, probably in superficial levels of the system - it is hoped to clarify the precise depth very soon. SERNAGEOMIN maintains Volcanic Red Alert.From Saturday 6 September until Monday 8 September, poor weather conditions did not permit visual observation. During this period, the seismicity has remained mainly similar to that recorded during the two previous weeks, that is 6 to 8 HB-type earthquakes per hour with a slight oscillation in their amplitude, and 1 to 2 VT-type earthquakes per hour, with maximum magnitude of 2.9M, in addition to rare LP-type earthquakes of low energy and short duration. Both the HB and VT earthquakes have presented very similar times of arrival of 's-p' waves, which establish distances of 23-25km from PUMA station and 15-16km from STBA, placing their epicentres 2-5km south-east of the volcano. As of the 4th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that clouds obscured camera views of Chaitén's eruption plume during most of 26-29 August. Glimpses utilising the web camera revealed that continuous ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. They also reported that seismicity had increased slightly during the previous few days. Based on web camera views and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 27-29 August ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Between 27 and 29 August, seismic activity continued, showing a slight but steady increase. On both 28 and 29 August the increase mentioned was reflected mainly in an increase in amplitude of the HB-type earthquakes (increased seismic energy), which maintained relatively constant numbers (about 4 events per hour). For their part, the VT-type earthquakes showed a slight decline (one per hour). However, during these days, significant LP-type earthquakes were registered (about 5 per day), which are emphasized by their greater amplitude in the seismogram As of the 28th of August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on web camera views, pilot observations, and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 20-23 and 26 August ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. A thermal anomaly over the lava dome was detected on satellite imagery during 22-23 August. As of the 22nd of August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during recent days the eruptive activity of Chaitén volcano has remained without major changes, manifesting itself through a moderately vigorous eruption column, of around 2km altitude, with emission of pyroclastics material, gases and water vapour. The seismic behaviour of the emission centre, for its part, has presented a decreasing trend, without resulting in a significant diminution of the eruptive activity, as in previous periods. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the recorded seismic movements could be interpreted as indicative of the movement of magmatic fluids and rupturing of rocks inside the volcanic system. SERNAGEOMIN bulletin about the Chaitén issued on 12 August 2008 reported that poor weather conditions preventing direct observation of the volcano, except on the morning of 8 August when a continuous emission of gas and pyroclasts was observed ‘which generated an eruptive column of more than 1 kilometre in height that dispersed towards the east. An increase in the number and magnitude of volcanic-tectonic (VT) earthquakes was recorded over the preceding 24 hours, along with a 'sporadic appearance' of hybrid (HB) and long period (LP) earthquakes and an increase in background tremor, ‘phenomena attributed principally to the ascent of magmatic fluids'. The bulletin ends by suggesting that the characteristics of this seismic behaviour can be interpreted as indicators of internal activity within the system that, eventually, could manifest in increases in the eruptive activity of the volcano. Following a meeting, USGS/USAID reported some details about the activity until end of July and in particularly there is fresh information on the lava dome :giving the following estimates for the end of July: average lava dome eruption rate ~60m 3 /s (the average given in June was ~37m 3 /s), area ~1.4 million m 2 (area given in June ~540,000m 2 ) volume ~350 million m 3 (volume given in June ~55 million m 3 ) - Previous news reportd that an explosive eruption appears to have taken place at Chaitén on 1st of August in the morning. This was the webcam image at 08:59 (local time): a sizeable eruption under way at the caldera. More following images indicated that the eruption has subsided, with a lighter, thinner plume (but still larger than anything we saw yesterday) and less evidence of heavy ash content. The latest bulletin (issued this same day at 11:20 local time, noted that an overflight yesterday ‘detected partial collapses in the central part of the new dome' and the removal (through collapse) of some of the material of the dome. As of the 29 th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that, available records indicate weak eruptive activity, which has shown a modest upswing in the last few days without giving rise to a significant eruption column. In general terms, the declining trend appears to continue on course. The weather conditions have not permitted observation of the volcano, except for short periods in which the cloud has left uncovered an eruption column that does not surpass a kilometre in altitude above the summit of Chaitén. Moreover, intense and continuous noise has been perceptible since 24 July, when an emission of ash accumulated to the depth of 3cm around Chaitén. On 27 July weather conditions again favoured the fall of fine ash on the town, albeit in a very restricted manner. The foregoing notwithstanding, the latest seismic data clearly shows an elevated seismicity, which has been sustained for several weeks, both in the number of earthquakes and their magnitude (a large number of them being felt by people over several days) and recorded by stations at a distance, with an increase in the number of earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 3.5M. Likewise, it was possible to verify that the greater part of the earthquakes of greater energy were located to the south-east and south-south-east of the Chaitén volcano. On 24 July, during an overflight conducted over sectors north and north-east of Chaitén volcano, it was observed that there is only one principal eruptive centre in the southern sector of the new dome. This centre produces an intermittent eruption column, with periodical increased activity which forms a more substantial column, although one lacking density and of relatively low altitude (less than 2km) whch disperses rapidly towards the south and south-east. That column caused poor visibility at altitude, and was occasionally crossed by more energetic and denser columns, related to slightly more intense explosions alternating with the intervals of lesser eruptive power which did not produce any proper column. The emission in this case was white in colour, mainly produced by degassification and water vapour, with a low percentage of ashes. It was also apparent that the morphology of the new dome has changed, presenting a major depression in the southern sector, immediately to the north of the principal eruption centre from which abundant water vapour and gases are emitted. At the same time, this structure [i.e. the new dome] appears to have decreased its rate of growth, at least in the northern sector, and significant emissions of water vapour and gases can be observed from the base of the eastern sector of the dome. Regarding seismic activity, during 24 July there was a decrease in the total number of earthquakes and a stabilization, it appears, in the number of earthquakes of greater magnitude. Notwithstanding the foregoing, earthquakes of this type are still being detected by instruments located nearly 300km from the volcano. The significant increase in earthquakes of greater magnitude (greater than 2.6) may imply that the ascent of a new pulse of magma has begun, from depths greater than 10km. Previously, based on observations during an overflight on 17 June, scientists of SERNAGEOMIN reported that ash plumes emitted from the S contact between Chaitén's old and new lava domes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. An explosion temporarily propelled the ash plume to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and steam plumes rose from several other contact points along the S edge of the lava dome. Rockfalls from the active dome continued to descend the S flank of the old dome to the caldera floor. During 18-21 June, visual observations were inhibited due to inclement weather. During 18-20 June, possible ashfall was reported in Queilén (about 70 km W) and Quellón (about 80 km WSW). Ashfall was reported in Chaitén town (10 km SW) and other areas SE, W, and E. Another overflight on 14 June revealed spines rising above the top of the new lava dome, which had grown in height to exceed the old dome. Gas, ash, and steam plumes were primarily emitted from a vent, about 100 m in diameter, at the SE contact between the old and the new lava dome. Previously, emissions came from the NW contact between the old and new domes. Continuous explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Several other points of gas-and-steam emissions were seen along the contact. Small block-and-ash flows from the new dome had descended the S flank of the old dome and occasionally reached the caldera floor. The Alert Level remained at Red Chaitén volcano in southern Chile has now been erupting for six weeks, and seemed over the last few days to be still active. However, latest reports suggest renewed gas and ash emissions, loud rumbles, and the appearance of two new craters. According to a new bulletin issued by SERNAGEOMIN during evening. On 13 June 2008 the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program of the USGS gave further information about the Chaitén eruption that Some of the interesting points to emerged as follows : current lava dome eruption rate estimated to be greater than 50m 3 /s (average ~37m 3 /s); area : 540.000 m2 (900 x 600 m); volume : about 55 million m3. On 12 June people stationed in the town of Chaitén reported new emissions of gas and pyroclasts coming from the south flank of the old volcanic dome and ‘reported that noises were heard coming from the volcano during 11 and 12 June. The source of the emissions was identified as two new craters at the base of the southern flank of the old dome. The Chaitén river produced renewed flooding in the town on the evening of 12 June. The seismic activity increased after the morning of 12 June, both in the number of earthquakes and in the seismic energy that they released. The majority of the earthquakes of less than magnitude 2 were located under the volcano, while two more significant earthquakes were located 5km to the north-east, with epicentres located on one of the lines of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system. As of the 10th of June SERNAGEOMIN that in the last few days, the eruptive activity of Chaitén volcano has remained in patterns similar to those reported during the previous week, that is to say, the volcano continues, but with low intensity. The dome currently maintains its rapid growth and, probably, will continue in this way for weeks or months. The explosivity and discharges of ash have gradually decreased and are now manifested only in a dispersion plume which does not exceed 3km in altitude, without a true eruption column, accompanied by abundant emissions of water vapour. As of the 3rd of June SERNAGEOMIN reported that during Sunday 1 June, because of the distribution of the plume, fine ash and volcanic dust was precipitated across the central-eastern area of Chiloé island (Queilen, Lelbún, Chonchi, Dalcahue and Castro), among other areas. Due to these conditions it proved impossible to advance the consolidation of the seismic monitoring network. On Monday 2 June a dense fog affected the Corcovado Gulf, and especially the coastal area of continental Chiloé, due to the stirring up of the ashfall by the wind. However, a distant inspection flight by helicopter showed that the volcano's eruption column was reaching an altitude of no more than 3km above sea level and that the plume was dispersed in a south-south-easterly direction. Seismic activity shows a slight increase in comparison with previous days, reflected in a larger number of VT [volcano-tectonic] earthquakes and LP [long period] type earthquakes. The latter are interpreted as being caused by the movement of fluids and/or pressurization in the upper conduit. Thus, from 1 to 2 June Auchemó and Santa Bárbara seismic stations registered an average of 5 VT-type earthquakes per hour, with magnitudes of less than 2. In addition both stations observed, although in a very sporadic form, LP-type events of short duration (less than 60 seconds). As of the 26th of May SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruptive activity of the Chaitén volcano has declined to subplinian type, but remains continuous', and that over the weekend, and in particular on Sunday 25 May, the eruption column reached an average altitude of less than 3.5km above sea level, with occasional large explosions lifting it to around 5km above sea level. South-westerly winds pushed the plume in a north-easterly direction.An overflight took place on 24 May, during which it was possible to overfly the volcano's crater and examine the slight growth of the active volcanic dome, which just rises above the summmit of the old dome'. South of the active dome is a 200-metre crater ‘from which there is a continual expulsion of gas and ash'. The new dome ‘generates, especially to the north, flows and blocks of ash, because of the instability of its steep walls'. A second overflight carried out by a Navy helicopter on 25 May revealed that many of the rivers in the Chaitén region are carrying significant quantities of ash. Seismic activity is currently declining over the past four days VT-type [volcano-tectonic] earthquakes have decreased gradually in number and magnitude, indicating a slight but steady decay of seismic activity.As of the 22nd of May, the Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería reported, following an overflight of Chaitén volcano, that the eruptive activity of the Andean massif continues and that a phase of dome construction has begun inside the active crater. The current increase in seismicity corresponds to small internal collapses in this dome. The burden of pyroclastic material being carried by the Río Blanco will continue to be deposited on the city of Chaitén. Since yesterday the remote monitoring instruments installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Chumilden and Auchemó are in operation, jointly monitored from Queilén by the USGS and SERNAGEOMIN. All the people evacuated from the town of Chaitén who were in shelters have been relocated to rented houses or cabins in the cities of Puerto Montt, Osorno, Castro and Quellón. Previous news - 16th of May: t he plinian eruptive activity of the volcano Chaitén is continuing, and over the last two days the column of gases and ashes has been maintained at an altitude not exceeding five kilometres above sea level. Chaitén volcano showed increased activity onThursday 15 May 2008, with heavy ashfall, loud noises and many earthquakes. At 07:30, the upper section of the volcano's eruption column was observed, reaching an altitude of four kilometres above sea level. The plume was directed towards the north-east due to strong south-westerly winds of up to 140 km/h. Since late yesterday a light ashfall has been occurring in some sectors of Chiloé Island, principally affecting the islands of Butacheque, Metaluf, Quenac and Tac and the communes of Quemchi, Achao, Castro, Chonchi and Queilen. Municipal teams are distributing masks in the sectors concerned. The Oficina Nacional de Emergencia (ONEMI) reported that military personnel in Chaitén ‘perceived loud noises coming from the volcano, abundant ashfalls and electrical discharges around the top of the mountain'. Heavy cloud cover and rainfall prevented observation of the eruption cloud. The ONEMI bulletin also confirms earlier reports that 90% of the town of Chaitén is flooded.An Oficina Nacional de Emergencia (ONEMI) bulletin was released late yesterday, 12 May 2008. The volcano was still producing a large eruption column, which at the time of the bulletin was being blown to the north-east. It is expected that the wind will back to the north-west for the next few days, changing the alignment of the eruption plume, towards the south-east. This means that Futaleufú is in danger of further ashfalls. The volcano remains continually active with emissions of ash toward the north-east. An overflight by SERNAGEOMIN during this afternoon indicated that the eruption column reaches a height of 8 kms. For the next few days  the skies are expected to be filled with rain and north-west winds of 40-60 km/hr, meaning that the ashes will be displaced towards the south-east affecting the Futaleufú area and Argentina, according to information provided by the Dirección Meteorológica de Chile. The bulletin also notes that the Chaitén River (or Río Blanco), which crosses the city, broke its banks for a distance of about 200 metres and flooded 40 homes. The entire mouth of the river is blocked by ash and pumice. The flow of the river has now returned to normal levels. Previous information : as of the 9th of May the Chaitén volcano continues to erupt ash and the 50 kilometres security exclusion zone around the volcano remained in force, reported ONEMI in a bulletin of 9 May 2008. On 8 May the volcano was hidden from view between 07:15 and 15:15 hrs. During this period, despite the low cloud cover, grey swirls were clearly seen along the north-south valley immediately east of the volcano Chaitén which drains into the Rayas river, descending towards the river and producing marked evaporation in the north-south valley. This phenomenon is interpreted as being caused by small pyroclastic flows that descend from the volcano into this valley and, heating the river water, produce the resulting evaporation. Between approximately 15:00 and 16:30 hours the prevalent cloud dissipated allowing observation of the volcano and the mushroom-shaped column of gases and ashes, which reached an altitude of 14 km at 16:00 hrs, with a plume dispersing in a north-eastern direction. Moreover, the western part of the column of ash was more dense and of a medium to dark grey colour, which could be due to the opening of a new crater on the western side of the dome. Previous information reported that t he Chilean volcano Chaitén intensified its activity around midnight on Wednesday 7th/8th of May expelling ash and incandescent material, forcing the evacuation of all the military personnel and about 10 civilians who remained in the town closest to the peak. In the southern town of Chaitén, only 10km from the volcano, the total evacuation was ordered after pyroclastic material was seen to emerge from the cone of the volcano for a few minutes followed by dense columns of ash that fell on the surrounding area. ‘Army personnel have seen pyroclastic material, incandescent material, and there has been an increase in the sulphurous smell present in the town of Chaitén. As of 6th of May, latest SERNAGEOMIN bulletin online reported that eruptions continue for at Chaitén volcano. There have also been reports of a sharp increase in earthquakes in the area since the eruption. Evacuations have occurred at a second town, Futaleufu. Some residents have evacuated across the border to Argentina. Around 25,000 head of cattle in the area are in serious danger of dying. According to SERNAGEOMIN, during the morning of 6 May, at 08:20, the eruptive cycle went through a recrudescence with vigorous and rhythmic explosions of great energy producing a much wider laterally expanding eruptive column of about 30 kilometres altitude in its initial phase, declining subsequently. A subsequent helicopter overflight found that two craters on the northern side of the dome had joined into one, 800m-wide vent during this eruptive phase. (Assuming, as appears to be the case from photographs, that the initial site of the eruption was on the southern flank of the dome, it now seems that the volcano is erupting from both northern and southern flanks.) No pyroclastic flows were reported to the north, south or west (the eastern zone could not be inspected, presumably, being obscured by the eruption plume), and it was noted that the rivers around the volcano were carrying a greater load of erupted material. Overall SERNAGEOMIN considers that the eruption may develop in two ways from this point onwards - although, as always with predictions of volcanic activity, it is impossible to be sure. There is the possibility of a collapse of the eruptive column and/or the rhyolite dome, which would generate pyroclastic flows. On the other hand the fall of ashes may continue with accumulations whose thickness will depend on the intensity of the explosions and the prevailing winds. President Michelle Bachelet briefly visited Chaiten and spoke with some of the few remaining residents. At shelters in Puerto Montt, evacuees sought the president's support to rebuild outside the path of the volcano. Most of Chaiten's 4500 residents fled as the eruption polluted air and water supplies. As of 3rd of May bulletin, from the Chilean Government Emergencies Office ONEMI reported that eruptive activity was continued at the Chaitén volcano, with the sky darkened by ash and a constant fall of fine ash in nearby areas. A sulphurous smell has been reported in some districts. A number of earthquakes have also been experienced in the region over the past 24 hours. The volcano was still ‘erupting ashes' and covering the surrounding districts ‘with a dense cloud of ash more than 20km in height … In Chaitén town, the streets are covered with 20-40cm of ash'. The fall of ash from Chaitén is also causing problems in neighbouring areas of Argentina, where airports and schools have been closed, transport disrupted and water supplies affected. In the same bulletin ONEMI also reports that the evacuation of Chaitén is continuing, with the aim being to evacuate the whole population: From yesterday to dawn today a total of 3900 people have been evacuated by sea from Chaitén to Puerto Montt and Castro, which corresponds to 89% of the population … Today approximately 500 people will be evacuated on six vessels bound for Castro and Puerto Montt. This will evacuate the entire population of Chaitén. Previous news : following a short seismic crisis, the Chaiten volcano started an eruption. The Chaiten volcano ejected gas and ash on Thursday night 1st to 2nd of May 2008, causing more than 60 small tremors in the Los Lagos region, 750 miles south of the capital, Santiago.Chile's government declared a state of emergency, evacuating as many as 1,500 people from nearby villages and the town of Chaiten, just over 6 miles from the volcano considered dormant for thousands of years erupted. The blast sent minor earthquakes rippling through the region. The amount of ash falling in Chaiten had dropped considerably by Friday afternoon, and the wind was moving it southeast. Ash from the eruption was polluting water supplies and prompting officials to hand out more than 10,000 protective masks. Winds also carried ash over the Andes mountains to neighboring Argentina, where the Education Ministry suspended classes in several towns, including Esquel and Trevelin - two popular Patagonian tourist. Authorities also declared a state of alert on two major highways as falling ash reduced visibility. On Friday evening a Volcanic Ash Advisory stated that ash rose to altitudes in the range of 13.7-16.7 km. Chaiten lies slightly to the W of Minchinmavida. Chaiten volcano lacks any known modern eruptions but a radiocarbon date on its tephra (CHA1) yields a date of 7,430 BC (plus or minus 75 years). Chaitén is a small, glacier-free late-Pleistocene caldera with a Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. The north side of the rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupying the 3.5-km-wide caldera is unvegetated. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1,122 m. Two small lakes occupy the caldera floor on the west and north sides of the lava dome.Informations : ONEMI, GVN/GVP - SERNAGEOMIN (in spanish) - Live web camera

CHILE - Llaima volcano

March 25th , 2010

As of the 25th of April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that that the alert level for Llaima is being raised from Yellow Level 3 to Yellow Level 4 because of ‘the occurrence of earthquakes with high energy levels and tremor signals with durations of up to 20 minutes'. OVDAS volcanologist Gustavo Fuentealba reported that the crater of Llaima remains obstructed and that this ‘increases the risk of a new eruption. There is no change in the appearance of the volcano; fumarolic activity continues from the summit crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 4 March seismicity from Llaima increased. During an overflight that same day, scientists observed emissions of gas and steam from the main crater. Images taken that day were compared to those taken on 21 February and showed no significant changes in morphology. The rate of sulfur dioxide emissions had increased, however. Scientists also noted deposits from a large rockfall along with fracturing of the glacier, especially on the upper N and NW flanks. Those observations in addition to the increased seismicity prompted SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Yellow, Level 4. The previous SERNAGEOMIN bulletin for Llaima, released on 11 February 2010 and covering 20 January to 9 February, reported that emissions of water vapour and occasional slight emission of gases from the principal crater' were observed during that period, reflecting normal degassing, but that the volcano's seismic activity indicates a possible increase in activity in the near future. As of the 7th of December, ONEMI has issued a bulletin, reporting that‘a seismic swarm associated with internal degasification and marked by increased release of the volcano's internal energy was detected between 16:00 and 18:00 local time on 6 December. Fumarolic activity has been continuing, and the main crater remains obstructed. ONEMI is maintaining Yellow Alert for Llaima and surrounding communities, and the 4-kilometre radius exclusion zone remains in force. Previously, as of the 2nd of September 2009, SERNAGEOMIN reported that while seismicity at Llaima volcano tended to decrease in the early days of August, it has subsequently increased, slightly exceeding its usual values in this latest period (17-21 August). These oscillations in seismic activity (LP-type earthquakes [Long Period earthquakes] of high and low frequency) could be related to the rising and falling of the magma column located in the principal conduit of the volcano, demonstrating the instability of the magma column. The absence of other types of seismic activity in this type of phenomenon suggests the existence of an unobstructed volcanic conduit, in which magmatic fluids can suddenly rise freely, bringing about a new eruptive phase. Due to the markedly erratic behaviour which the volcano has shown during recent times, it is not possible to rule out its reactivation. Because of the foregoing, SERNAGEOMIN continues with Green Alert level 2, maintaining a 4-km radius of exclusion around the principal crater. The camera in Melipueco used by OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN to monitor Llaima again showed glow on the NW inner margin of the main crater during 9-16 June. Occasional steam emissions with minor amounts of ash were also seen from the E flank. Seismic tremor has also increased since 5 June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-8 June incandescence from an area in the SW part of Llaima's main crater corresponded to a small active"outcrop of lava." On 6 June, incandescence emanated from a small point along the E-flank fissure. Gas and steam was emitted from an area W of the main crater. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow. On 26 May 2009, after a period of unusually heavy rain, a 500-metre long fissure on the upper east flank of the volcano began to emit dense clouds of water vapour. On the following day, 27 May, small amounts of ash were observed mixed in with the water vapour, and on 28 May the vigour of the emissions and the ash content increased. On 1 June, after further bad weather, the energy of the intermittent emissions along the fissure increased. A powerful phreatic eruption began at 11:20 (local time) on 1 June. The eruption ceased by 12:00, and during that afternoon only one small subsequent eruption was observed. Since the phreatic fissure eruptions began seismicity has remained at normal levels (as measured by POVI instruments 20 km from the volcano) but the number and energy of LP (long period) earthquakes has increased. Previously, during 5-11 May, tephra was ejected from an area on the E flank and, during the night, incandescence originated from this area. During the daytime, observers reported that an almost continuous orange brown plume rose 200 m. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow. During 7-10 April, intermittent incandescence from a lava flow at the SW base of the pyroclastic cone was observed. Incandescent blocks originating from the lava flow descended W. On 8 April, gasses emitted from multiple points on the pyroclastic cone formed a plume that drifted NE. Preliminary calculations indicated that the height of the pyroclastic cone exceeded the top of the main crater by 70 m, making the summit elevation 3,240 m a.s.l. During 9-10 and 13-14 April, gas and steam plumes rose from the pyroclastic cone; views were obscured by clouds on 11 and 12 April. On 14 April, fumarolic activity from the pyroclastic cone was again noted. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Red. As of the 7th of April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 10:00 this day it was only possible to see weak emissions of ash and volcanic gases from various points on the summit. The Llaima continues to erupt but with a much lower intensity compared with the first phase. A light brown ash plume was rising to 1 km above the summit and dispersing towards the north-east. The volcano's seismicity has also declined. At 23:00, the energetic tremor which has been a characteristic of the seismic behaviour of the volcano during the current eruptive cycle suddenly declined to 300 RSAM units and 40 minutes later had reached just 19 units, where it has remained until 10:00 today'. Werner Keller of POVI, confirmed and reported that from around 22:25 local time the persistent seismic tremor declined to background levels. POVI's cameras detected a slow-moving lava flow on the western flank of the volcano early this morning. As of the 6th of April, the eruption of Chile's Llaima volcano that began on 3 April wass still ongoing, and characterized with vigorous and sustained activity. The bulletin from ONEMI (5th of April) reported that 71 people have been evacuated from 11 communities near the volcano, with red alert for Vilcún and Curacautín, because of the danger of lahars, and yellow alert for Cunco, Melipeuco and Lonquimay. In the previous bulletin ONEMI had reported ash emissions to 7000 metres altitude, a plume extending 100 kilometres to the south-east, incandescent material being projected up to 2 kilometres from the summit, pyroclastic flows on the western flank, and lava flowing towards the Calbuco valley. As of the 4th of April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that eruptive activity occured at Llaima volcano in Chile . The Chilean Government's (ONEMI) reported the day before that from around 20:00 local time an incandescence at the crater was visible from the adjacent areas of Cherquenco and Vilcún, and to a lesser extent from Melipeuco. The various emergency and civil protection committees were duly activated. Another bulletin reported that ‘an eruption of weak character is taking place at Llaima volcano with small explosions and eruptions of pyroclastic material at the level of the crater.According to information provided by Regional ONEMI personnel on the ground the volcanic activity has remained stable for the last four hours, with constant explosions which reach 600 metres above the crater; fall of ash and fine scoria has been seen in the eastern sector, towards Laguna Verde and Conguillío Park. Furthermore, a lava flow has been observed flowing towards Río Calbuco, Comuna de Vilcún, with an approximate length of over 1000 metres, following the same route as that of the 2008 eruption, which does not have large accumulations of ice and snow. ONEMI notes that there is a lahar risk on the Calbuco river. A number of people who were in the Conguillío National Park when the eruption began are safe, and evacuations will take place as soon as possible. As of the 4th of January 2009, POVI reported that the volcano has been very active over the Past previous days. But, none of the surveillance satellites, with thermal sensors on board, have detected incandescent lava during the current eruptive cycle. This is because the explosions of lava do not present a high frequency and do not generate incandescent surfaces greater than 50m2. On January 3rd, between 06:08 and 20:31 local time the two monitoring cameras captured a total of 37 phreatomagmatic explosions whose plumes of gases and particulates exceeded 100m in altitude before becoming disconnected from their source. During this period the emissions occurred at 23-minute intervals on average. The emissions came from three distinct points, located in the interior of the intra-crateral cone at the summit. At 07:59, 11:01, 11:40, 12:34 and 15:42 local time the most vigorous events of the day were observed. At 11:01 and 15:42 local time spatters of lava impacted the slope of the intra-crateral cone and the base of the cone. At 16:12 local time a fall of rocks and fragments descended the south-east flank of Pichillaima cone, the secondary summit of Llaima volcano. As of the 25th of december, SERNAGEOMIN reported that Since mid-December, however, the level of fumarolic activity has increased gradually, and on 11 December two small debris avalanches descended the west flank of the volcano, went down through a channel in the ice created by a past eruptive activity. On 22 December there were two weak ash emissions at 13:48 and 21:10 local time. This activity could be a precursor to further eruptive activity in the near future. There had been heavy snow fall on the day preceding this activity, indicating that large volumes of melt water were probably responsible for this phreatomagmatic activity. As of the 26th of November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that from 19 November to 25th of November, observers in the area of Llaima volcanoconfirmed that the volcano presented weak and sporadic emissions of water vapour concentrated around the two small craters of the paired pyroclastic cones nested inside the principal crater. Regarding seismic activity, during this period there has been a slight increase both in the number of LP-type earthquakes and in the energy they have released. Few episodes of tremor, of short duration with an energy level maintained at an average of 20 RSAM units, along with weak and occasional emissions mainly of water vapour, allow the presumption that the seismic activity is of superficial origin.As of the 24 September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during an overflight of Llaima on 12 September, scientists observed diffuse gas-and-steam plumes emitted from the external edges of the nested craters in the main crater. During 13-22 September, observers in Melipeuco(about 17 km SSE) reported that sporadic gas-and-steam plumes emanated from the main crater. During an overflight on 21 September, steam emissions were noted from areas on the NE and W flanks. The Alert remained at Green, Level 2. Explosions were heard during 25-28 August. On 28 August, seismic signals indicated that gas-and-ash plumes were possibly emitted from the pyroclastic cones in the main crater. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Yellow. As of the 29th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that in the same way as the previous eruptive episodes of this month, the latest occurring on Saturday 26 July had a duration of 11.5 hours, although the stage of the greatest intensity lasted only one hour. This corresponds to a vigorous Strombolian-type event, effusive, with rapid onset and decline. Also, the presence of powerful tremor was associated with the emission of ashes, with intense ejection of pyroclasts and a very high rate of emission of lava. At present, Llaima volcano is in a new period of ‘calm', with weak background tremor and few LP-type earthquakes, which are associated with very weak degassing and movements of internal fluids. However, it could take only a few days for a new eruptive episode similar or greater than that of Saturday 26 July to come to pass. As of the 24th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that after increased seismicity at Llaima on the 14th of July, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. Less than two hours later, very intense orange and red incandescence was seen through breaks in the cloud cover near the summit and at the base of the W flank. At 1915hrs a vigorous Strombolian eruption ejected incandescent pyroclastic material from the N vent in the main crater to heights of 500 m above the summit. Seismicity and the intensity of the explosions decreased later that day. On the 15th of July, diffuse ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. Ash and tephra covered areas of the SSE flank. Seismic activity decreased during 16-18 July.O n 19 July, seismicity again increased and ash-and-gas plumes rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The emissions became more intense and frequent, and one explosion produced an ash plume to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash and tephra fell on the SE flank. Later that day, constant explosions ejected incandescent material 500 m above the summit that fell near the crater. Steam plumes emitted from the W flank possibly indicated the presence of a new lava flow along with mobile incandescent blocks from a previous lava flow. After another brief period of calm, vapour emissions increased and were followed by strong explosions and lava flows. The Alert level remained at Yellow. As of the 17th of July, the SERNAGEOMIN reported that a new eruptive phase at Llaima occurred on the 10th of July following two hours of precursory seismicity. At 1520hrs, a vigorous Strombolian eruption ejected incandescent pyroclastic material from two vents in the main crater to heights of 500 m above the summit, throwing bombs to the E, NE, and S. Lava flows also moved towards the W and S flanks. Explosions were seen from Melipeuco, Cherquenco, El Salto, and El Manzano. Strong activity continued for almost three hours before decreasing. Medium to coarse ash fell in Melipeuco (up to 1.5 mm in diameter). Red glow was seen in the early hours of the 11th of July, and there was no eruptive column or gas emissions. Poor weather prevented observations the next day. As of the 3rd of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on the morning of 3 July, a large column of water vapour was observed over the western flank. An overflight inspection confirmed that the front of the lava advancing across the flank had generated a small lahar that because of its limited size did not reach the headwaters of the Calbuco river. At the same time, the seismicity for last night shows a slight upturn in the seismic energy released. Until now there has been no report of significant effects on the environment. The low rate of emission of magma has not favoured the massive melting of ice or snow with the consequent generation of lahars (volcanic floods) and both the flow and sediment load of the rivers in the western sector have remained stable. As of the 1st of July, ONEMI reported that following the reactivation of the Llaima volcano at approximately 4 AM, the active lava flow has currently reached almost 800 meters away. The ONEMI director, who was informed of the situation just before 4 AM this morning, stated that the direction of the lava flow places the towns of La Selva and Danubio at most risk, due to the fact that they are located only 10 to 12 kilometers from the crater – which is within the primary emergency radius that has been declared. Evacuations have been underway, however, in the town of Los Lleuques, where 12 people were removed from the area. Llaima, near Chile's lake region, erupted violently on New Year's Day, forcing the temporary evacuation of some tourists and residents from the surrounding Conguillio National Park, and then belched ash and lava in February and March.Previously SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 March-4 April, fumarolic plumes from Llaima drifted several tens of kilometers mainly to the SE. Explosions produced ash and gas emissions. An overflight on 2 April of the main crater revealed that gas, pyroclastic material, and ash emissions, occasionally accompanied by small explosions, originated from three cones. On 4 April, several explosions were heard and also some incandescence was reflected in a gas-and-ash plume. As of the 27th March, the El Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN) reported that fumarolic activity from the central pyroclastic cone in Llaima's main crater reactivated on 13 March and intensified during 15-17 March. Sulfur dioxide plumes rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. People from nearby areas reported incandescence in the crater during 19-21 March. Incandescent material propelled from the crater was observed at night during 20-21 March. As of the 6th March, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that weak sulfur dioxide plumes from two cones in Llaima's main crater during 26-28 February. An overflight on 28 February revealed that the internal structure of the crater had not changed since observations on 21 February. Weak fumarolic emissions from the main crater were noted during 2-3 March. The Alert Level remained at Yellow. As of the 28th February, a weak steam plumes were observed from Llaima's main crater on 20 February. The 'a'a lava flow that traveled 2.5 km during 2-13 February varied in width between 30-40 m and was 10 m thick. On 21 February small ash plumes rose from the E and SE flanks. Pyroclastic flows descended the E flank and possibly down the W flank. Sulfur dioxide plumes that rose from two craters within the main crater were visible during an overflight. On 22 February, a seismic signal pattern similar to that observed during a previous pyroclastic flow was noted. Ash-and-gas plumes rose from the E flank. On 23 February, an ash-and-gas plume rose from the SE flank. On 6 February, intense Strombolian activity that propelled material 500 m above the summit crater was observed. Ash-and-gas plumes from the activity rose to altitudes of 5.1-5.6 km (16,700-18,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE more than 30 km. Multiple lava flows traveled 0.7-1.5 km W and N and generated steam plumes due to their interaction with a glacier. Activity declined later that day. During 7-8 February, explosions from two different areas in the main crater produced brown and gray ash-and-gas plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-6.2 km (13,500-20,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20 km NW. Incandescent blocks from lava-flow fronts rolled down the flank. As of the 8th February, eruptive activity at Llaima continued from the main crater and from multiple areas on the E flank during 30 January-4 February. Lava flows extended about 1.5-2 km in length and caused strong steam plumes due to their interaction with a glacier. On 3 February, material from intense Strombolian activity was propelled 500 m above the crater floor and fell inside and outside of the crater. Multiple lava flows from the W edge of the main crater descended about 150 m. Incandescent blocks from lava-flow fronts rolled down the flank. Plumes rose to an approximate altitude of 4.6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW. Lava flows originating from a lava lake were observed during an overflight. These flows extended about 1.5-2 km in length and caused strong steam plumes due to their interaction with a glacier. According to a news article, about 20 people were evacuated from an area of La Selva, in the community of Vilcún (43 km W). Activity was similar on 4 February. A phreatic explosion on the E flank was accompanied by steam plumes and a small pyroclastic flow. Orange ash emissions were noted from the S lateral fissure. Ash plumes from the main crater rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.7 km (15,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, NE, and W during 5-6 February. As of the 24th January, SERNAGEOMIN reported that eruptive activity at Llaima continued from the main crater and from two craters and a fissure on the E flank during 16-21 January. Based on observations during an overflight on 16 January, three nested pyroclastic cones within the main crater were active. The larger cone produced weak ash emissions that rose about 500 m. Ash emissions were also noted from a crater on the E flank. Glaciers on the NE slope and W flank were fractured and dislocated. Ash emissions from a NE-SW-trending fissure about 80 m in length and 10 m wide were observed. Also noted were incandescent rocks that rolled from the NE end of the fissure and ash plumes generated from rolling rocks in multiple areas during 16-17 January. On 17 January, ash emissions rose from the main crater to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted E. Weak Strombolian activity was seen from the main crater during aerial observation. of the 17th January, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Llaima decreased in energy, but the number of events increased during 10-14 January. Based on seismic interpretation, weak explosions produced plumes of gas and ash. On 11 January, lava flows on the W flank that were observed during an overflight were cooled and snow-covered near the crater but snow-free, and therefore still hot, about 500 m further down on the flank. Blocks of incandescent material rolled about 1.5 km and caused steam emissions at several points where they contacted the glacier. Ash plumes drifted NE. Abundant cracks in glaciers to the SW of the crater were noted. Based on observations of satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SW on 11 and 13 January, respectively. s of the 4th January, INGEOMINAS reported that rescue workers evacuated 54 tourists and staff from a Chilean wilderness park on Wednesday after one of the country's largest volcanoes erupted, spewing ash and molten lava. There were no reports of injuries or damage, but dozens of tourists were evacuated from the base of the Llaima volcano after it erupted on Tuesday evening . The 54 people rescued had been stranded overnight after a local river swelled with meltwater and cut off road access. The volcano was calmer by Wednesday afternoon but according to scientists further eruptions were possible. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by strombolian, hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.The Current Colour Code for Llaima is currently at RED . Llaima webcam

CHILE - Melimoyu volcano

March 21st, 2010

As of the 20th of march 2010, Chile's state geological service SERNAGEOMIN reported  that three earthquakes, two of magnitude 3.3 and one of magnitude 5.0, were detected on 17 March beneath Melimoyu. The earthquakes, which have been felt by people in towns near the volcano, continued at a lower level on 18 March. The earthquakes were detected by the University of Chile's seismological network and by the network set up to monitor the eruption of Chaitén volcano, which is 140 km north of Melimoyu. The foci were located beneath Melimoyu, at depths of between 3 and 22 km. As of the publication of the SERNAGEOMIN bulletin on 20 March the seismic activity was continuing with magnitudes between 2.0 and 3.0 and frequencies of up to 2 earthquakes per hour; during the activity of 18 March the frequency had reached 8 earthquakes per hour. However, no visual anomalies have been detected at Melimoyu. SERNAGEOMIN has responded to this activity with commendable speed by installing a network of six seismic stations at Melimoyu to enable permanent monitoring of the volcano. Melimoyu is a stratovolcano 2400 m high with an 8-km-wide, largely buried caldera located about 40 km NW of the town of Puyuhuapi. The ice-filled caldera is drained by a glacier through a notch in the NE caldera rim. The basaltic-andesite volcano is elongated 10 km in an E-W direction and has several cinder cones. A 1-km-wide crater is located at the summit of the volcano. Two late-Holocene tephra layers have been documented from Melimoyu. Last known eruption has been dated 200 AD +-75 years.

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Volcan Popocatepetl - 19 December 2000 CENAPRED
JAPAN - Suwanose-Jima volcano (Ryukyu Islands)

May 6th, 2010

As of the 6th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima on the 29th of April, and during the 1st and 4th-5th of May. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported. As of the 1st of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-Jima on the 29th of March. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported. As of the 25th of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima during 17-19 and 21-22 February. Plumes occasionally rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. As of the 18th of February,that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima during 11-16 February. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 22-26 January. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

JAPAN - Shinmoe-Dake volcano (Kirishima group)

April 9th, 2010

As of the 8th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that an explosive activity occured from Shinmoe-dake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishima volcano group, on the 30th of March prompted JMA to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Ash blanketed the ground to the W of the crater. Kirishima is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene volcano group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1,700-m-high Karakuni-dake being the highest. Onami-ike and Mi-ike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakuni-dake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Mi-ike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoe-dake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century.

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano

May 8th, 2010

As of the 6th of May, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during the 28th of April-5th of May explosions from Sakura-Jima often produced plumes. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted NE, E, and SE. As of the 29th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during the 14th-26th of April explosions from Sakura-Jima sometimes produced plumes identified in satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.7 km (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted in multiple directions. As of the 15th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that during the 7th-13th of April explosions from Sakura-Jima sometimes produced plumes identified in satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted NW, E, and SE. As of the 8th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that the Tokyo VAAC reported that during the 31st of March - 6th of April explosions from Sakura-Jima sometimes produced plumes identified on satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, E, and NE.As of the 1st of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Tokyo VAAC reported that during the 24th-30th of March explosions from Sakura-Jima sometimes produced plumes identified on satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E. As of the 25th of March, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during the 17th-23rd of March plumes from Sakura-Jima identified on satellite imagery, and ash plumes seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 10-16 March multiple explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. Pilots reported that on 11 and 16 March ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NE. As of the 11th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that during 3-9 March, the Tokyo VAAC reported multiple explosions from Sakura-Jima based on information from JMA. During 3, 5-6, and 8-9 March, plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. Pilots reported on the 8th and 9th of March that ash plumes rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 25th of February, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17-23 February plumes from Sakura-Jima identified on satellite imagery, and ash plumes seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-4 km (5,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. As of the 18th of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-16 February multiple explosions from Sakura-Jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, SE, and S. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-9 February multiple explosions from Sakura-Jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and N. On 5, 6, and 7 February, pilots reported that ash plumes sometimes drifted SE and S at altitudes of 1.5-3.4 km (5,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. An eruption on the 8th of February produced an estimated 1-km-high lava fountain, and an ash plume with abundant lightning. Incandescent material fell onto the flanks. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 27 January-2 February multiple explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. During 27-29 January and 1-2 February, pilots reported that ash plumes sometimes drifted SE and S at altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 28th of January, based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 20-26 January multiple explosions often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. On 23 January, a pilot reported that an ash plume drifted SE at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

JAPAN - Fukutoku-Okanoba volcano (Volcano islands)

February 5th, 2010

As of the 5th of february, the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) and Japanese Coastguards have reported that an underwater volcanic eruption was detected on Wednesday 3rd of February near Minami-Iwoto island in the Pacific probably from Fukutoku-Okanoba volcano. The Japanese Coastguard caught the eruption on video showing steam billowing out and some dark-grey ash erupting from the ocean. This active submarine volcano erupted seven times since 1904. Fukutoku-Okanoba is a submarine volcano located 5 km NE of the pyramidal island of Minami-Iwo-jima.This is a submarine volcano which is part of the Volcano Islands group, which is about 1000 km south of the main Japanese archipelago. Its summit lies a mere 14 metres beneath the surface. Water discoloration is frequently observed from the volcano, and several ephemeral islands have formed in the 20th century. The first of these formed Shin-Iwo-jima ("New Sulfur Island") in 1904, and the most recent island was formed in 1986. Fukutoku-Okanoba is part of an elongated edifice with two major topographic highs trending NNW-SSE and is a trachyandesitic volcano geochemically similar to Iwo-jima.

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USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of May, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that Kilauea volcanic activity continued at two locations. The summit eruptive vent within Halema`uma`u Crater continued to host a stable, crusted and circulating lava surface which produced a strong glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum overnight. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through tubes to supply surface flows that were active on the pali and coastal plain and entering the ocean west of Kalapana. Lava was covering a short section of road at the end of Highway 130 as of yesterday afternoon. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. As of the 30th of April, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported that glow from the Halemaumau vent was visible overnight from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone, lava flowed through tubes to supply surface flows that were slowly moving across the coastal plain toward the coast west of Kalapana. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and east rift zone vents remain elevated. As of the 22nd of April, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that Kilauea volcanic activity continued at two locations. DI deflation began early this morning, while the summit eruptive vent within Halema`uma`u Crater continued to host a circulating and spattering lava surface. Glow from the vent was visible overnight from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone, lava flowed through tubes to supply surface flows that are slowly moving across the coastal plain. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and east rift zone vents remain elevated. During 7-13 April, HVO reported incandescence from a 60-m-wide active lava surface about 200 m below a 130-m-wide vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor; a few times the level fluctuated between 235 and 260 m below the surface. Rocks from the vent walls fell into the pond, causing spattering. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally Pele's hair and Pele's tears, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 600 and 500 tonnes per day were measured on 8 and 9 April, respectively. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Lava flows moved SE down Pulama pali.During 24-30 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally spatter, downwind. .As of the 26th of March, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported that DI inflation and Kilauea volcanic activity continued at two locations. At the summit, a circulating and spattering lava surface rose and fell in a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and produced glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone vents, lava probably flowed through tubes and fed scattered surface flows above the pali. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. During 17-23 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash and spatter downwind. Measurements on 19 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 500 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows above the pali. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater. As of the 12th of March, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported that the switch to DI inflation yesterday afternoon has not yet resulted in increased activity at the two eruption locations on Kilauea volcano. At the summit, lava was only visible to an infrared camera at low levels in a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater but it still produced weak glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone vents, less lava flowed through tubes and fed fewer scattered surface flows on the pali and the coastal plain. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents, however, remained elevated. During 3-9 March, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements during 4-5 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 700 - 800 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain. As of the 5th of March, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that Kilauea continued activity at two locations. At the summit, lava was frequently visible via webcam rising and falling in a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and produced weak glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through tubes and fed scattered surface flows on the pali and the coastal plain. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. As of the 26th of February, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that Kilauea was active at two locations. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam cyclically rising and falling in a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and producing a strong glow visible from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through tubes and fed surface flows on the pali and the coastal plain but that have not yet reached the ocean. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. As of the 23rd of February, HVO reported that an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Halema'uma'u crater was reported 17-23 February. The lava surface circulated and occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. Bursting bubbles and low lava fountains were also noted. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements on 18 February indicated that the sulphur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 tonnes/day (2003-2007 average rate = 140 tonnes/day). As of the 19th of February, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that DI deflation continued and Kilauea continued to be active at two locations. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through the upper tube system and fed small surface flows above the pali and on the coastal plain; there were no active ocean entries. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. As of the 12th of February, HVO reported that Kilauea was active at two locations. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam sloshing and spattering in two openings in the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. This lava, combined with incandescence from several other small openings, produced glow that was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through the upper tube system and fed small surface flows that have advanced onto the coastal plain; there are no active ocean entries. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. As of the 7th of February, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that DI inflation started early this morning and Kilauea was active at two locations. At the summit, lava was deep and sometimes visible via webcam within at least three openings in the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater producing glow that was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through the upper tube system and fed sluggish surface flows that advanced to the coastal plain; the ocean entry has not been active for about 4 weeks. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. If Kilauea responds to the current DI event as the volcano has responded to past events, surface activity may stall or continue to slow before resuming over the next few days. As of the 3rd of February, HVO reported that during 27 January-2 February, an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted N, NW, and W, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 400 and 1,000 tonnes per day were measured on 28 January and 1 February, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. As of the 29th of January, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that another DI event started yesterday and Kilauea was active at two vents. At the summit, circulating and spattering lava remained within an opening in the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater producing glow that was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through the upper tube system and fed at least one surface flow that advanced to the top of the pali; the ocean entry has not been active for about 3 weeks and it appears increasingly unlikely that it will be reoccupied as time goes on. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents remained elevated. An active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Halema'uma'u crater was observed during 20-26 January. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted in multiple directions, dropping small amounts of ash and occasional fresh spatter downwind. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through a lava tube system. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on top of the pali from lava-tube breakouts. During an overflight of Pu'u ‘O'o crater on 19 January scientists saw a recent but inactive lava flow across the bottom of the crater. On 22 January a small part of the crater rim collapsed in front of the web camera, revealing an incandescent vent at the base of the E wall. During 23-26 January, incandescence was seen from the vent, as well as from high on the E wall, the crater floor, and low on the S wall. As of the 15th of January, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported that DI inflation continued at the summit and finally started at Pu`u `O`o. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam spattering and slowly rising out of an opening in the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater producing glow that was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. Although inflation has started at Pu`u `O`o, lava has not yet resumed flow from the east rift zone vents. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents probably remain elevated. As of the 8th of January, HVO reported that Kilauea continues to erupt from two vents. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and its glow was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. Lava from the east rift zone vents started back into the tube system early this morning. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents probably remain elevated. As of the 31st of December, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that Kilauea continued to erupt from two vents; a DI event started yesterday morning. At the summit, roiling, receding lava at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater still provided glow from the pit overnight. On the east rift zone, lava continued to erupt from the TEB vent and flow through tubes to the ocean just west of Kalapana; surface flows were active. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents remain elevated. As of the 25th of December, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported that Kilauea continued to erupt from two vents. At the summit, sloshing lava was visible within a single opening at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater providing glow from the pit overnight. On the east rift zone, lava continued to erupt from the TEB vent and flow through tubes to the ocean just west of Kalapana. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents remain elevated. As of the 18th of December,HVO reported that Kilauea continued to erupt from two vents-one in Halema`uma`u and the other on the east rift zone. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from these two vents remain elevated. At the summit, a small ponded lava surface and spattering was visible at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater, resulting in glow above the vent overnight. On the east rift zone, lava erupting from that vent continued to flow through tubes to the coast where it entered the ocean just west of Kalapana. As of the 11th of December, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that a DI event started this morning as Kilauea continued to erupt from two vents. At the summit, glow continued from openings in the floor of a deep pit in the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. From the east rift zone vent, lava flows through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at several locations west of Kalapana. Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Overnight, only glow issued from one small hole along the north edge and another out-of-sight hole on the east side of the floor of a deep pit in Halema`uma`u Crater floor. This morning, an off-white plume is moving low and to the southwest. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 800 tonnes/day on December 1, still elevated above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day; new measurements will not be possible until moderate trade winds resume. Miniscule amounts of mostly ash-sized tephra were deposited beneath the plume near the vent. The summit tiltmeter network recorded the start of DI deflation at 0400 hrs this morning. The GPS network, which is less sensitive than the tiltmeter network, recorded about 1 cm of contraction over the last 3 months. Seismic tremor levels increased slightly during DI deflation but remained at low values. As of the 4th of December,HVO reported that at the summit, spattering continued from openings in the floor of a deep pit in the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater floor. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. From the east rift zone vent, lava flows through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at several locations west of Kalapana. As of the 20th of November, HVO reported that a small collapse overnight enlarged a hole deep in the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent cavity floor revealing an active lava pond. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain. Lava was also flowing through tubes to the coast and entering the ocean at two general locations west of Kalapana. A small collapse last night around 2300 hrs enlarged one of the holes deep within the Halema`uma`u vent cavity exposing a roiling, bubbling, and spattering lava pond surface; the surface rises and falls slowly over the next 20 minutes, remains fairly steady, and then starts an episodic rising and falling sequence observed seven times before dawn's early light washed out the view. Stronger glow was visible after 2300 hrs at the Jaggar Museum Overlook. This morning, the dense white plume rises into morning fog, but appears to moving southwest. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 700 tonnes/day on November 18th - still elevated above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day. As of the 13th of November, HVO reported that the sixth DI event in a week is nearing completion. A few small holes deep in the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent cavity floor continued to glow and produce spatter from a lava pond surface below. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. Lava flows are active on the coastal plain. Lava is also flowing through tubes to the coast and entering the ocean at two locations west of Kalapana. DI events often affect surface flow activity on the flow field. Typically, surface flow activity will decrease 12-24 hours after the start of deflation and resume 12-24 hours after the start of inflation. The last five DI events were of short duration and small amplitude and have not produced many effects; the current one has a larger amplitude and we might expect some, probably small, decreases in activity today. Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The Overlook vent webcam images again showed fluctuating glow and spattering from a few small holes deep within the Halema`uma`u vent cavity. This morning, the plume is rising about 600 m (2,000 ft) and moving to the west. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 400 tonnes/day on November 9th, which is the lowest value since early October but still elevated above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day. As of the 4th of November, HVO reported that lava began entering the ocean at a second location, 700 m farther to the W, on 31 October. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. Breakout lava flows were located inland of the Waikpuanaha entry and also immediately W of the County Public Viewing trail. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Incandescence originated from occasionally spattering holes from a surface inside the vent cavity. On 3 November, a collapse of the surface revealed a circulating and spattering lava pond below. During 21-27 October HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry on most days. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. For a few days an active lava flow advanced on the coastal plain, burning vegetation and pavement along the former Kalapana access road. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u ‘O'o crater floor and an East wall vent. During 16 and 17 September, two hybrid earthquakes were followed by 20-40 minutes of sustained tremor. The plume turned briefly"dusty" after the first event and incandescent tephra was ejected onto the rim after the second event; both produced glassy spatter. As of the 18th of September, HVO reports that two more hybrid seismic signals were recorded which produced increased amount of spatter and glow was visible after dark from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent (summit). As of the 7th of August, a minor earthquake has rattled the south flank of Kilauea volcano. The U.S. Geological Survey says the 3.0-magnitude temblor struck last night about 8 miles southeast of the summit and about 6 miles below the surface. As of the 1st of July, HVO reported that a sequence of rockfalls, some quite large, within the Halema'uma'u vent at the summit of Kîlauea Volcano began at 1:38 p.m. H.s.t on June 30, 2009. The initial rockfall produced a seismic signal equivalent to a magnitude-2.4 earthquake and was felt at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) and the adjacent Jaggar Museum. By 4:00 p.m., more than 30 such rim-collapse events had been recorded by the seismometers with a few more occurring through today, July 1. Seismic tremor amplitudes decreased by more than 50 percent. By 6 p.m., the levels were at their lowest values since August 30, 2007. Episodic tremor has now returned with 3 minute bursts of tremor occurring every 15 minutes. As of the 15th of April, HVO reporte that a magnitude-5.0 earthquake beneath the south flank of Kilauea Volcano was recorded on Tuesday, April 14, at 12:44 p.m. H.s.t. The earthquake was located about 12 km (8 miles) southeast of Kilauea's summit and 44 km (27 miles) south-southwest of Hilo at a depth of 10 km (6.2 miles). The earthquake was felt over the entire Island of Hawai`i. The U.S. Geological Survey received over 350 felt reports in the first 30 minutes after the earthquake. Eleven earthquakes with magnitudes of 4 or greater, including three with magnitudes of 5 or more, have occurred in this area, the central part of Kilauea's south flank, at nearly the same depth (8-10 km or 5-6 miles) in the last 25 years. These quakes are thought to be caused by southward movement of the south flank in response to magmatic pressure within the east rift zone. The earthquake caused no apparent change to the current eruption of Kilauea. Monitoring networks supported by HVO have not detected significant changes in volcano activity. During 8-14 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows on the coastal plain or from the Prince lobe were seen or detected by satellite imagery. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted mainly SW. incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. On 2 April, geologists found that the surface lava flow feeding the Kupapa'u entry was 1 km (0.6 m) wide. As of the 20th of March, HVO reported that the anticipated switch to DI inflation occurred the day before in the evening. Lava from east rift zone vents continues to flow through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at two locations. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remain elevated. On 11 February, geologists found a new littoral cone, on the edge of the bench, with a large crack running through it. Spatter on the cone and the bench behind it resulted from lava bubble bursts and steam jetting reported during the previous two days. A second crack between the cone and the sea cliff was also noted. The cracks suggested that the bench was slowly failing and did not collapse as reported a few days prior. Occasional incandescence originated from the Prince lobe, the flow that feeds the Waha'ula ocean entry. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and on the pali. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; the incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and some spatter, were routinely collected. Infrared images taken during an overflight on 11 February revealed the development of a small spattering cone over the conduit that hosted a lava pond the previous week. Images taken on 14 February indicated that the conduit had mostly crusted over; a small, puffing vent was visible. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 800 tonnes per day on 12 February, and 500 tonnes on 13 February; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. As of the 15th of October, HVO reported that Tuesday 14th of October at 12:26 and 4:07 pm, the Halema`uma`u vent produced explosions; the earlier explosion was initiated by a collapse of a thin piece of the vent rim; the second erupted molten spatter deposited as cowpies with 100 m (yards) of the vent and produced an eruption column that rose about 2 km (6,500 ft) above the crater rim. Between explosions, weak easterly winds moved the gas/steam plume to the west resulting in intermittently poor air quality at the summit. Glow from the Halema`uma`u vent overnight was variable and weak; spatter from the 4:07 pm eruption ignited a sulfur deposit on the crater wall to the west of the vent producing a blue flame visible at night. Wednesday morning, weak winds are allowing the plume to rise vertically into generally foggy/voggy conditions. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained elevated and variable. The most recent average measurement was 1,200 tonnes/day on October 10, compared to the 2003-2007 average rate of 140 tonnes/day. Moderate trade winds are needed for emission rate measurements. Kilauea caldera network of tiltmeters recorded an offset with the 4:07 pm explosion followed by accelerated deflation that is slowing this morning. The GPS receiver networks (less sensitive than tiltmeters) recorded no significant contraction or extension.Previously the 13th of october, HVO reported that early on the morning of Sunday 12 October (7:28 am), there was a significant explosive event at Halema'uma'u crater. This new gas vent opened in Halema`uma`u Crater at the summit of Kilauea Volcano. Since then, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions and the associated volcanic air pollution (vog) have impacted air quality on Hawai`i Island and, at times, throughout the entire state. Volcanic ash in the Halema`uma`u gas plume also resulted in the closure of air space above the crater. The  explosive eruption did produce significant tephra deposits, some of the pieces were fist- to grapefruit-sized frothy lava. Most of the samples were glassy lava bits with minor rock fragments and dust. Despite the fact that the 10/12 07:28 hybrid seismic event was larger than the 9/2 hybrid seismic event, the 10/12 deposit was significantly smaller. As of the 10th of October, it has been reported from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that there is an active lava flow on the pali east of Royal Gardens subdivision; lava has resumed flow through tubes to the ocean; Waikupanaha ocean entry is active. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remain high; tephra production continues from the Halema`uma`u vent. Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Plume direction yesterday was to the southwest and south. Glow from the Halema`uma`u vent overnight was again episodic and bright but somewhat weaker than previous nights; the lava pond is probably relatively high in the vent but still well below the rim. As of the 6th of October, it has been reported from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that for the DI tilt event that started last Thursday, the inflation, expected to follow deflation, began at the summit just after 2000 hrs; anticipated inflation at Pu`u `O`o may have started just before 0800 hrs this morning. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remain high; tephra production continues from the Halema`uma`u vent. A significantly reduced amount of lava, if any at all, flows through tubes to the ocean. If inflation has started at Pu`u `O`o, increased lava into the tubes, possible surface flow activity, and resumption of the ocean entry are expected sometime within the next 24 hours. As of the 8th of September, it has been confirmed from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that for the first time since the new vent opened in Halema'uma'u Crater on March 19, HVO scientists in a helicopter hovering over the crater during the day 5th of september were able to see the surface of a sloshing 50 m (160 ft) diameter lava lake about 100 m (330 ft) below the vent rim. HVO scientists have speculated that a lava pond existed a few hundred meters below the vent, but have not been able to get visual confirmation until this morning. A second viewing early this afternoon revealed a roiling pond with multiple bursting bubbles changing into a central upwelling circulation pattern. The lake level dropped slightly before the cycle restarted. This behavior has been witnessed before, most recently in Pu'u 'O'o vents and the July 21 lava ponds on Kilauea's east rift zone, and is known as "gas pistoning." One model explains pistoning as small gas bubbles coalescing into larger bubbles beneath a crust on a lava pond, rising to the surface, and then bursting. The released pulse of hot gas carries rock dust from the collapsing vent walls, bits of the lava lake crust, and small amounts of spatter. Previously a small explosive eruption at 0737 hours on Aug. 27th was confirmed this morning. At the east rift eruption site, Pu`u `O`o cone continued to produce high amounts of sulfur dioxide gas; lava flows through tubes to the ocean. The signigicative explosion at 0737 hours noted in yesterday's update (8/27) was actually a very small explosive eruption, the fifth in 2008. This morning's collection yielded volcanic glass bits up to several centimetres across within a deposit that was dominantly rock fragments up to 5 cm (2 inches) across. The tephra was ejected hot and burned holes in a tarp used for collection near the overlook. during 20-26 August, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

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U.S.A. - Mauna Loa ( Hawaii)

January 12th, 2010

As of the 11th of January, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported there has been no recent significant change in line length across the summit or the flanks of Mauna Loa as measured by GPS receivers on opposite sides of the volcano. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes other than abrupt offsets that are related to instrumental issues, severe weather, or significant earthquakes. Sensors within a fissure in Moku`aweoweo crater floor reported gas concentrations within normal values; fumarole temperatures continued to slowly decrease. Line lengths have been increasing at a slightly faster rate since September, 2008,due mostly to slippage on basalt faults beneath Mauna Loa's east flank and not to an increase in magma supply to the volcano. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes other than abrupt offsets that are related to instrumental issues. Diurnal tilt, or the tilting due to daily heating and cooling of the ground, was diminished by snowfall starting Christmas Eve, 2008. Sensors within a crack in Moku`aweoweo crater floor continued to record background gas concentrations and temperatures. Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit. Each week, 1-5 earthquakes are also located beneath the Kealakekua area of west Mauna Loa. These levels are typical of the past several years. The Kao`iki seismic zone between Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcano summits remained active with an average of about 10-40 earthquakes per week; these numbers may reflect increased seismic activity nearer Kilauea summit rather than increased Kao`iki activity.

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USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

October 9th, 2009

As of the 9th of October, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that no additional eruptive activity has been observed at Cleveland since the brief eruption at approximately 2330 hrs AKDT October 2nd (0730 hrs UTC October 3rd). Satellite and web camera views of the volcano are currently obscured by clouds. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions with ash plumes that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery. Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). The beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

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U.S.A. - Redoubt volcano (Alaska)

April 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of March, the shallow, small earthquakes at Redoubt Volcano continued at about the same rate as yesterday. Satellite images from yesterday evening show a steam plume extending from the summit. Webcam views of Redoubt continue to be obscured by clouds.As of the 5th of April, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Volcano Alert Level to ADVISORY at Redoubt volcano this morning. A series of small repetitive earthquakes began at 01:44 AKDT (0944 UTC) this today in the vicinity of the volcano's summit. Activity is continuing this afternoon. These earthquakes may be precursory to renewed eruptive activity at the volcano and increased instability of the lava dome. Whether this will result in explosive activity or failure of the lava dome is unknown at this time. However, there is a heightened possibility of volcanic activity that would produce a volcanic ash cloud, pyroclastic avalanches, and lahars and flooding down the Drift River.As of the 6th of January, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that seismic activity at Redoubt Volcano remains low. Web camera and satellite views of the volcano have been obscured by clouds and snow. There have been no reports or indications today of unusual activity at the volcano. The Aviation Colour Code remains YELLOW and the Volcano Alert Level remains ADVISORY. AVO is continuing to evaluate information to interpret this week's uptick in seismicity and gas output. One explanation involves input of new magma or remobilisation of existing magma within volcano's shallow plumbing system. This process appears to have ceased or paused. It remains possible that activity could reappear, intensify and lead to additional eruptive activity. We would expect a sharp increase in seismicity and other marked changes prior to such activity. AVO will continue to issue daily status reports as long as the Aviation Colour Code and Alert Level are elevated. As of the 28th of August 2009, AVO reported that the code status has been lowered for Aviation to Colour Code Green and Volcano Alert at Code Normal at 18:44 GMT on 29 September 2009. Over the past several months, seismic activity, volcanic gas output, ground deformation, lava dome temperatures, and outward signs of lava dome instability at Redoubt Volcano have been declining. The volcano appears to have returned to its normal background condition and for now poses no immediate threat of eruptive activity. Accordingly, AVO is lowering the Aviation Color Code to GREEN and the Volcano Alert Code to NORMAL. The AVO notes that the Redoubt lava dome has reached a volume of approximately 70 million cubic metres, and that lava domes on steep slopes are ‘typically unstable'. However, given that 60 days have passed since the dome ceased to grow, ‘AVO believes the possibility for dome collapse is small and declining toward a background level of danger typical of many active stratovolcanoes with steep unstable rock slopes'. Local hazards remain, associated with the hot lava dome: gas emission, abundant steaming, rockfalls, but these do not pose a significant hazard beyond the summit area of the volcano. On 12 June, the lava dome was an estimated 1 km long, 460 m wide, and 200 m high. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.On 28th of May. a M3.7 earthquake occured on the Alaska Peninsula at approximately 03:11 shows prominently on the Redoubt webicorder records. Again, this seismic event is not related to activity at Redoubt. AVO reported that during 20-26 May seismicity from Redoubt remained above background levels and growth of the lava dome in the summit crater continued. Steam-and-gas emissions from the lava dome were seen on the web camera during 20-21 and 26 May; clouds obscured the view during the rest of the reporting period. Occasional rockfalls originating from unstable slopes of the lava dome possibly produced minor ash clouds in the vicinity of the summit, although no ash was detected by satellite or radar. As of the 20th of May, AVO reported that during 13-19 May seismicity from Redoubt had decreased from levels detected during 2-7 May, but remained above background levels. Rock avalanche events, discrete earthquakes, and minor volcanic tremor were evident in seismic data. Growth of the lava dome in the summit crater continued and vigorous steam emissions from the margins of the lava dome were seen on the web camera. Occasional rockfalls originating from unstable slopes of the lava dome produced minor ash clouds in the vicinity of the summit. Occasional incandescence was observed in nightime images from the web camera. On 15 May, the volume of the dome was an estimated 30-60 million cubic meters. During an overflight on 16 May, scientists observed a turquoise lake along the S margin of the dome, and a hot, vigorous, and persistent fumarole on the W wall of the upper gorge. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. During 29 April-5 May, AVO reported that elevated seismicity from Redoubt and a persistent thermal anomaly over the summit lava dome detected on satellite imagery were consistent with continued lava-dome growth. Changes in the size and shape of the dome confirmed growth; the volume of the dome was an estimated 25-30 million cubic meters. Occasional small rock avalanches originating from the N side of the lava dome produced minor low-level ash emissions. As of the 3rd of May, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that eruption of Redoubt volcano continued. seismic activity has increased in the last 24 hours. Minor emissions of ash have also been visible in webcam views during this time period. A vigorous steam plume, rising to altitudes up to 18,000' above sea level, has been visible in webcam images throughout the afternoon of 3rd of May. Currently, this plume contains small amounts of ash based on web camera views, satelite data, and a pilot report. Seismic activity has also increased in the past 24 hours. previous notable informations : ongoing lava dome growth kept seismicity at Redoubt remained elevated during 15-21 April, and vigorous steam-and-gas plumes (possibly with occasional small amounts of ash) rose to altitudes below 4.6 km a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed thermal anomalies at the summit and drifting SO2 plumes. The lava dome size was estimated on 16 Aril to be 500 x 700 m across and at least 50 m thick. Seismic and satellite data over the past day indicate continued lava dome growth. The volcano was not visible in web camera views during the night. A low-level steam and gas plume that may contain small amounts of ash is likely present. Based on seismic data and satellite imagery, AVO reported that Redoubt's lava dome continued to grow during 8-14 April. As of the 10th of April, A small steam plume with possible traces of ash has been visible in satellite and partially-obscured webcam images today. The plume is currently extending to the northeast of the volcano at low altitudes. Additional significant explosive events with accompanying ash clouds, ash fall, and mudflows are possible and can occur with little or no warning. AVO will maintain 24/7 operations in order to quickly detect renewed significant explosive activity and other hazardous phenomena. Seismic and satellite data over the past day indicate continued lava dome growth. A satellite image from yesterday afternoon showed a continuous sulfur dioxide gas plume extending for more than 600 miles from volcano. As of the 3rd of April, AVO reported that the eruption continued, but the intensity of ash-production has decreased. The current alert level at Redoubt is WATCH and aviation color code is ORANGE. The small, shallow repeating volcanic earthquakes have diminished. A few occasional larger events are still being observed. These earthquakes are most prominent on station REF. As the 2nd of April, AVO reported that the volcano continues to emit a plume of gas, steam and variable amounts of ash to low elevations. Winds are blowing the plume E to ESE. Weak volcanic tremor is ongoing, punctuated by small, discrete earthquakes. As of the 30th of March (11:56AM - AKDT), AVO reported that Over the past twelve hours, ash emissions at Redoubt Volcano have become more frequent, but lower in altitude than during the highly explosive events of the past week. A continuous ash plume has been observed in web camera, satellite and radar images, and by pilots. These plumes vary in their intensity and have generally been at low altitude (less than 20,000 feet above sea level). Occasional, short lived events have produced ash clouds that rise as high as 27,000 feet above sea level. Ash fall from these events is currently not likely to reach population centers in the Cook Inlet. In the evening, Seismicity continued to show small, discrete events. Observers on an AVO gas flight reported ash falling from the plume 20-25 miles from the vent. Winds at that altitude are heading NE from the volcano. A regional earthquake south of Kodiak was visible on the webicorders at 19:28. As of the 27th of March, AVO reported that three more explosions occured on Friday. The first eruption at 17:35 AKDT (01:35 GMT) produced an eruption cloud to 40000 feet (12200 metres) above sea level; the second eruption at 19:25 AKDT (03:25 GMT) sent up a plume to 51000 feet (15500 metres); and the third, beginning at 23:20 AKDT (07:20 GMT), produced a cloud that has reached 40000 feet (12200 metres). Due to important ashfall the Hut webcam has been covered since 18:00 local time and no new images were available.. As of the 23rd of March, AVO reported that the last explosive event occurred during the night (March 23) at 7:41 pm (AKDT) and lasted for roughly seventeen minutes. The top of the ash cloud was estimated to have reached at least 50,000 ft above sea level based on National Weather Service radar. Winds in the vicinity of the volcano carried the ash cloud primarily to the west and north. Pyroclastic flows were visible traveling down the volcano's north flank in web camera images. Last night's explosive event was the sixth thus far since explosive activity began Sunday. The day before, AVO staff visited the area around Redoubt by helicopter to assess conditions and repair equipment damaged by Sunday night's eruptions. They fixed the telemetry link at AVO's observation hut, which is once again transmitting images from the web camera and data from a GPS and two seismic instruments. Clouds obscured the summit, but observers reported very large lahar and flood deposits in the Drift River Valley that likely occurred during and/or following the first five explosions. These flows, which contained ice, water, mud, and other debris, inundated the Drift River Valley and traveled more than 35 km, reaching Cook Inlet. In the middle to upper Drift River Valley, high-water marks reached 6-8 meters above the valley floor. At the AVO hut (roughly 7 miles NNW of the summit), a 6-cm thick fall deposit was observed.As of 2:00AM March 23, 2009, AVO has recorded FOUR large explosions at Redoubt volcano at the following times: March 22 10:38PM; March 22 11:02PM; March 23 12:14AM; March 23 01:39AM. On Sunday morning, 40 to 50 earthquakes were being recorded every hour. The largest eruption sending a plume of smoke some 50,000 feet above sea level The National Weather Service has issued an Ashfall. The first Mt. Redoubt began at approximately 22:38 AKDT, March 22, 2009 (0638 UTC). AVO was raising immediatly the aviation color code to Red and the alert level to Warning. Initial height of the eruption cloud is estimated at less than 20,000 ft above sea level at present. Previously, as of the 19th of March, AVO reported that Mount Redoubt was been going through some interesting seismic evolutions over the past 24 hours. From around 00:00 to around 08:00 GMT on 20 March (around 16:00-00:00 on 19 March, local time) there was a period of marked volcanic tremor. The amplitude of the tremor diminished subsequently, but a pattern of small discrete quakes (around 1-2 per hour) interspersed with occasional larger seismic events continued, with the smaller quakes increasing in frequency and amplitude from around 10:00 local time A special bulletin from AVO reported that seismic activity at Mount Redoubt increased at about 1:05 AKDT Sunday afternoon (March 15, 2009) and approximately 4 hours of continuous volcanic tremor ensued. The onset of the tremor was associated with a small explosion that produced a plume of gas and ash that rose to about 15,000 feet above sea level and deposited a trace amount of ash over the summit-crater floor and down the south flank of the volcano to about 3,000 feet. AVO responded to this increase in activity by raising the color code and alert level to ORANGE/WATCH at 2:50 PM AKDT. At this time it does not appear that the increase in activity heralds a significant eruption in the short term, but conditions may evolve rapidly. An AVO overflight Sunday witnessed activity from 11:30 AM until about 3:00 PM and was able to document ash emission from a new vent, just south of the 1990 lava dome and west of the prominent ice collapse feature near the north edge of the summit crater. Although ash emission was short lived, it represents the first documented ash fall during the current episode of unrest at Mount Redoubt. About twenty minutes after the initial steam and ash burst, a sediment-laden flow occurred from a small area in the ice at about 7000 feet on upper Drift glacier. This flow descended about 1500 feet and produced a distinctive seismic signature seen across the Redoubt network. On 25 February, a small mud flow originating from a melt hole in the Drift Glacier traveled several hundred meters. Satellite images revealed that the next day another mudflow traveled several kilometers and covered a large portion of the Drift Glacier. Web camera views and satellite imagery showed no unusual activity; steam plumes within the summit crater were seen on the web camera on 26 and 1 March. As of the 27th of February, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), reported that at unrest at Redoubt Volcano continues. Beginning yesterday afternoon at 1537 hrs AKST, tremor amplitude increased sharply and remained elevated for approximately one hour. At 1614 hrs AKST, the tremor amplitude briefly matched the highest amplitude seen during the current episode of unrest. This tremor was strong enough to be recorded on all seismic stations on Redoubt Volcano as well as many stations surrounding Cook Inlet. Since that time, tremor amplitude has decreased significantly. Last night around 2240 hrs AKST, the number of discrete earthquakes increased and remained elevated until about 0255 hrs AKST today. Preliminary analysis of these earthquakes indicate they are occurring at shallow depth (1 to 3 km) below the summit crater of Redoubt. Since that time, discrete events are continuing at a lower rate, and tremor levels remain low. These variations in the character of seismic activity indicate that conditions have changed at shallow depths beneath the volcano. AVO is currently analyzing this seismic activity and will issue further information as it becomes available. An observation flight to the volcano is currently underway. Winds are too high at the volcano to perform gas measurements today. A small steam plume is visible in clear Hut Cam images today. AVO continues to monitor Redoubt Volcano closely, and the observatory is staffed 24 hours a day. A burst of volcanic tremor occurred just after 3:00 PM in the afternoon 5th of February lasting for about 30 minutes and is continuing at a sustained but lower level. This did not result in any eruptive activity and no ash emission has occurred. Following bursts of volcanic tremor during the afternoon , background tremor has remained elevated relative to the past several days. AVO continues to monitor the volcano 24/7. As of the 1st of February AVO reported that unrest at Redoubt Volcano continues. Seismicity has remained relatively constant over the last 24 hours and is still well above background. A vapor plume is intermittently visible in the AVO web camera. It appears to rise no higher than the volcano's summit. An observation and gas-measurement flight to the volcano yesterday noted continued vigorous fumarolic activity and runoff of muddy water down the north flank of the volcano. Volcanic gas was detected; data analysis is ongoing to compare these measurements with previously measured gas output. As of the 30th of January, AVO reported that seismicity levels have increased since yesterday evening and have also risen markedly over the last hour. Pilot reports, clear AVO webcam views, and satellite and radar views confirm that Redoubt Volcano has not yet erupted at the time of this report. Redoubt remains at Aviation Color Code ORANGE and Volcano Alert Level WATCH. As of the 25th of January, AVO previously reported that over the past 48 hours, seismic activity at Redoubt Volcano has increased markedly. This has taken the form of periodic tremor bursts that are most visible on the two seismic stations closest to the summit. Beginning at 00:58 AKT (9:58 UTC) this morning, tremor became sustained and its amplitude increased markedly. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Alert Level to WATCH in the morning at 2:09 AKT (11:09 UTC). This activity could be precursory to an eruption, perhaps within hours to days. A further increase in seismicity is expected to accompany an eruption. Information Statement Unrest at Redoubt Volcano continues. AVO conducted an overflight of the volcano in the afternoon of 25th of January, and observations confirmed that an eruption has not occurred yet. Increased steaming through previously observed sources in the snow and ice cover were seen and sulfur gas emissions were noted. There was no significant disruption of the glacial ice, nor any apparent increased water discharge down the Drift River. Seismicity began to decline at about 05:30 AST (14:30 UTC) on the morning, but remained elevated. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Volcano Alert Level to ADVISORY on November 5, 2008, in response to increased emissions of SO2, H2S, and CO2; melting of snow and ice near the volcano's summit; and a subtle increase in seismicity. These observations reflected a change in the volcano's hydrothermal system, possibly associated with an influx of new magma beneath the volcano. It is also possible that the change was related to the development of a new pathway of heated fluids rising from magma intruded during the 1989-90 eruption. From Miller et al (1998): "Redoubt Volcano is a steep-sided cone about 10 km in diameter at its base and with a volume of 30-35 cubic kilometers. The volcano is composed of intercalated pyroclastic deposits and lava flows and rests on Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith (Till and others, 1993; 1994). It has been moderately dissected by the action of numerous alpine glaciers. A 1.8-km-wide, ice-filled summit crater is breached on the north side by a northward-flowing glacier, informally known as the Drift Glacier, which spreads into a piedmont lobe in the upper Drift River Valley. The most recently active vent is located on the north side of the crater at the head of the Drift glacier. Holocene lahar deposits in the Crescent River and Drift River valleys extend downstream as far as Cook Inlet." Live webcam


USA - Mount Cleveland volcano (Aleutian islands)

October 2nd, 2009

As of the 2nd of october, AVO reported that satellite data indicate that Cleveland volcano erupted briefly on 02 October in the morning at ~0730 UTC (2330 AKDT) producing a small, detached ash cloud that drifted northeast of the volcano at maximum altitudes of 15,000' to 20,000' (4.5 – 6.1 km) . AVO increased the aviation color code to Orange, and the volcano alert level to Watch at 02:29 AKDT (10:29 UTC) this morning. Satellite views until about 6:45 AKDT (14:45 UTC) show that the ash cloud drifted northeast about 600 km (373 mi) and dispersed over the Bering Sea. While no more events have been detected this morning, further eruptive activity is possible. Previously, as of the 26th of June, the Washington Volcano Ash Advisory Center (WVAAC) reported that the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported small eruption at 1915Z to 15,000 ft. with mostly steam and little ash. Dark visible ash can be seen in visible and in infrared and multi-spectral imagery and visible ash is now in the Washington VAAC area. In a further update, AVO reported a small eruption at 1915Z to 25,000 ft. with mostly steam and little ash. Eruption can be seen in imagery and visible ash is now in the Washington VAAC area. Forecast updated with currently VAFTAD. Visible ash to 25,000 moving S at 69 mph. Beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands.

U.S.A. Veniaminoff volcano (Alaska)

May 28th, 2009

On 26 May, AVO reported that seismicity from Veniaminof had decreased during the previous week. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. As of the 8th of May, AVO reported that seismic activity began to increase significantly above normal background levels on the morning of May 6 at Veniaminof Volcano. This increase caused AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Volcano Alert Level to ADVISORY on the afternoon of May 7. Seismicity continues at an elevated rate with numerous small magnitude earthquakes being registered across the entire seismic network. Visual observations from residents of Perryville over the past several days indicate no change in the typical steaming from the summit caldera cone that has been the site of activity over recent years. Satellite images show no evidence of increased heat flow or ash emissions. Given the elevated seismicity, it is possible that low-level ash emissions could occur with little or no additional warning. Ash emissions from typical eruptions of Veniaminof are relatively minor, and usually do not rise much higher than 15,000 ft above sea level. These ash plumes can extend for tens of miles and could be hazardous to aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Ash fall is typically confined to the summit caldera and the upper flanks of the volcano. Mount Veniaminof is a broad central mountain, 35 km wide at the base, truncated by a spectacular steep-walled summit caldera 8x11 km in diameter. The caldera is filled by an ice field that ranges in elevation from approximately 1750 to 2000 m; ice obscures the south rim of the caldera and covers 220 square km of the south flank of the volcano. Alpine glaciers descend from the caldera through gaps on the west and north sides of the rim and other alpine glaciers occupy valleys on the north-, east-, and west-facing slopes of the mountain. In the western part of the caldera, an active intracaldera cone with a small summit crater has an elevation of 2156 m, approximately 330 m above the surrounding ice field. The rim of a larger but more subdued intracaldera cone protrudes just above the ice surface in the northern part of the caldera; based on limited exposure and physiographic features, it may have a summit crater as much as 2.5 km in diameter. (GVN)
 

U.S.A. - Mount St.Helens

May 3rd, 2009

No recent significative report has been published from the CVO. The volcano remains quiet since the year 2007 when an explosive event occured. The pause in lava dome growth continues. This pause, which began in late January 2008, was recognized by absence of measurable growth among successive fixed-camera images, nearly quiescent seismicity, and the absence of tilt signals that might characterize extrusion of lava from the conduit. Previous activity : as of the 9th of March 2007, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) was reported that on 8th of March a small explosive event at Mt. St. Helens volcano began at approximately 5:25 p.m. PST one hour after a magnitude 2.0 volcanic earthquake was registered under the volcano. Pilot reports indicate that the resulting steam-and-ash plume reached an altitude of about 36,000 feet above sea level within a few minutes and drifted downwind to the east-northeast. The principal event lasted about 30 minutes with intensity gradually declining throughout. The USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory lost radio signals from three monitoring stations in the crater soon after the event started. The cause of the outage won’t be known until scientists can visit the crater tomorrow to assess the situation, weather permitting. The event followed a few hours of slightly increased earthquake activity that was noted but not interpreted as precursory activity. The main part of the eruption lasted 30 minutes. Three monitoring stations in the crater have stopped operating, and will be checked by scientists when conditions permit. There were no other indications of an imminent change in activity. During 21-26 October, the new lava dome inside the emerging dome of St Helens continued to grow, and seismicity remained at low levels compared to early in the unrest. Geological and thermal-imaging observations on 20 October confirmed that both the area of uplift, and the new lava extrusion increased in size noticeably since last seen on 14 October. In addition, the area of uplift and intense deformation continued to move southward and was nearing the crater wall. About 0.3 m of new snow with a light dusting of ash covered much of the uplift, except for the new lava extrusion, which was steaming heavily. The new lava extrusion, which occupies the western part of the uplift, was about 275 m long by 75 m wide, 70 m high, and had a volume of almost 1.5 million cubic meters. Its maximum temperature was about 600 degrees C. Low levels of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide were recorded on the 20th, an observation which did not rule out the continued rise of magma from depth. On 21 October a new protrusion had a maximum temperature of about 650 degrees C. As of the 11th of October, CVO reported that earthquakes continue to occur at a rate of about 1 per minute, but most have magnitudes of 1.0 or less. With the improving weather, a gas measuring flight is planned within the next two days. Additional analysis of lidar and photographs of the intensely uplifting area on the south side of the lava dome suggests that the total volume change represented by the deformation between late September and October 6 is about 16 million cubic meters (21 million cubic yards). The average rate of change is about 2 million cubic meters per day (2.6 million cubic yards per day). If this figure represents the rate of intrusion of magma into shallow levels of the dome and(or) underlying crater floor, it is an intrusion rate about twice that measured during dome-building eruptions at Mount St. Helens in the 1980s. Cartographers with the USGS office in Denver are working to develop precise volume change estimates for the uplifted area from stereo airphotos acquired between 1 and 5 October. As a result of the intense unrest of the past 17 days, we infer that magma is at a very shallow level. During times of unrest, Mt. St. Helens and similar volcanoes elsewhere typically go through episodic changes in level of unrest over periods of days to weeks, or even months. Such changes are in part driven by variations in the rate of magma movement. CVO expects fluctuations in the level of unrest to continue during coming days. Escalation in the degree of unrest and perhaps an eruption could occur suddenly or with very little warning. There may be little time to raise the alert level before a hazardous event occurs. Therefore, CVO continues to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted. As of the 8th of October, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that part of the lava dome in Mt. St. Helens' crater has risen 50 to 100 feet since Tuesday while earthquake activity remained lower than previous days. This indicates magma is moving upward without much resistance. The south side of the dome has been rising for the past week and has uplifted 250 ft. A new steam vent opened overnight of 6th-7th October, and joined the two that have been present for several days. Steaming from the vents generated a cloud rising above the south side of the lava dome. October 6th update : Following yesterday morning’s steam-and-ash eruption, seismicity dropped to a low level and has remained low. Low-level tremor observed following the eruption is also gradually declining. Lack of earthquake and rockfall signals suggest that deformation of the uplift area on the south side of the 1980-86 lava dome has slowed. Brief visual observations this morning from Coldwater Visitor Center showed weak steam emissions from the crater. We infer that the vigorous unrest of the past few days has lessened and that the probability of an imminent eruption that would endanger life and property is significantly less than at any time since Saturday, October 2, when the alert level was raised to Volcano Alert (Level 3). Therefore, we are lowering the alert level to Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2).New steam release began at 9:40 am PDT yesterday, October 4, 2003, generating a steam and ash/dust plume that rose above the summit (to about 10,000 to 11,000 feet altitude) and was carried slowly to the NE by very gentle winds. Steam releases continued at a lower rate after the initial release, but after 15-20 muntes the activity ceased. More dust/ash was released than on October 1, and an ashfall advisory is in effect until 1 pm PDT for the southern Washington Cascades. Seismicity continued without interruption through the steam release. As of 3rd of October CVO reported at 2 pm , CVO increased the alert level to Volcano Alert due to a change in the character of seismic signals (50 minute long tremor) that occurred immediately after a steam emission at 1216, recognition of ongoing uplift of the crater floor, and reports of sulfur gas odor. In addition, CVO believes that there is a significantly increased probability that gas-rich magma is moving toward the surface. After another period of tremor starting 4th of October at 0257 AM seismicity returned to discrete earthquakes. Seismic activity decreased gradually until about 2:00 P.M. then increased again, reaching levels comparable to those prior to steam and ash eruptions. M3 earthquakes are occurring at a rate of about one every 5 minutes. All earthquake locations remain shallow. Yesterday’s gas sensing flights detected significant concentrations of carbon dioxide north and west of the dome. No significant levels of sulfur gasses were detected. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)odors detected by helicopter crews are attributed to steam emissions. These low levels of hydrogen sulfide are likely the result of boiling of the hydrothermal system. Results from GPS measurements indicate no significant deformation of the outer flanks of the volcano. However, visual observations and photographic analysis show large-scale uplift (10’s of meters) of part of the glacier and a nearby segment of the south flank of the lava dome. This suggests rise of magma to shallow levels. Additional steam and ash eruptions could occur at any time. There is also an increased probability of larger magnitude and more ash-rich eruptions. Today field crews took additional thermal images of the dome and crater and conducted gas sensing, infrared and geologic observation flights. Deformation crews retrieved data from GPS instruments and lowered a new GPS station from a helicopter onto the dome. In addition, two telemetered microphones are now operating to detect explosions. Mount St. Helens erupted on 1st of October at 12:03pm PDT. The activity continued for about 24 minutes, creating a steam and dust plume that reached about 10,000 feet elevation and drifted SSW toward Portland, OR and the Pacific coast. Steam vented from a location at the southern edge of the dome where the dome edge is covered by glacial ice and debris from the southern crater wall. On Thursday afternoon N-S linear cracks were observed in the glacier ice there, implying a slight uplift beneath the ice. Video images of the eruption showed steam, some possibly superheated, venting from a limited area and carrying blocks and fines upward into a mostly-white steam plume. Mt.St. Helens Live Cam

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Pu'u' O'o cone ( Kilauea ) - HVO -
ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

April 9th, 2009

As of the 8th of April INGV reported that a series of earthquakes occured on April 2-3 along a fault near the north flank of the volcano - 175 earthquakes in all producing some impressive results. Boris Behncke has noted increased rumblings at Etna since. This has culminated in explosion and ash on April 7-8. Most of the ash appears to be made from merely crushed rock of previous eruption - accidental material rather than new juvenile magma, but all of this suggests that Etna could be headed for a new eruptive period. There has also been an increase in the gas emissions from the volcano. Last previous information :as of the 20th of December 2009, from John Seach reported that a swarm of earthquakes occurred at Mt. Etna volcano on the 19th of December. More than 30 earthquakes occurred in the swarm, with the largest being magnitude 4.6. The swarm was located under the northwest side of the volcano. Previously INGV reported that on 6 November 2009 deep explosive activity resumed at the SE Crater. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia monitoring web cameras detected pulsating red glowing from the eastern base of the SE Crater, produced from a vent within the depression that cuts its eastern flank. Explosive activity is quite deep and visible as red glows only at night, and no ejecta have been found on the snow that covers the summit of the volcano. This activity is still going on as on today, 10 November 2009. As of the 26th of July, the INGV-CT reported that in a visit on the morning of the 23rd of July, of the summit craters, North Is, Bocca Nuova and Voragine with Pietro Vinciguerra Alessandro Alaimo. The wind today was rather strong breath on the tops compared to yesterday and pushes the gas emissions letting appear in the interior of the craters. They did not perceive any explosive activity in North Is and Bocca Nuova. The Northern crater East emits only puffed out gas. New cracks appeared on the edges of the crater and others present before crumbled at the bottom of the crater. As of the 3rd of June 2009, INGV-CT reported that during 25-31 May the NW-SE-trending fissure E of the Etna summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove. At least three lava flows were active. Elsewhere on the volcano, activity was restricted to degassing from the Northeast Crater, from the NW and SE Bocca Nuova vents, from the E flank of the Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The activity was observed directly and by utilizing surveillance cameras in Milo (about 11 km ESE). As of the 30th of April, the INGV-CT reported that two new earth tremors of a magnitude of 3.0 on the Richter scale occurred today in Sicily the first this night with the Agrigento and the second closer to Mt. Etna at 1142 hrs (local time) with 13 kilometres of Patti to a depth of 1 kilometre. As of the 26th of March, the INGV-CT reported that after a week of Strombolian activity and ash emission from the top of Etna's 2008 eruptive fissure, activity from the summit craters during 16-22 March consisted of degassing from the Northeast Crater, the NW Bocca Nuova vent, from the E flank of the Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The activity was observed directly and by utilizing surveillance cameras situated in Milo (about 11 km ESE). The NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove. As of the 14th of March, the INGV-CT reported that since two days on March 10, a resumption of the explosive activity s' is produced on the " boutonnière" located at 2800 metres of altitude under the Southern crater East. This new explosive activity is accompanied by an increase in the flow by lava flow which flows in Valle del Bove. As of the 13th of February, the INGV-CT reported that to date, the eruption which began in May 2008 continues. This explosive and effusive eruption initially and maintaining only effusive until to date continues; to run out within the interior of Valle del Bove. Several transitory mouths pours small castings the most advanced face of lava is with approximately 2000 metres. The activity of the summit craters is made up exclusively by degasifications. The craters of North East and that of Bocca Nuova western are the most active INGV-CT reported that during 5-11 January activity from Etna's summit craters was observed utilizing surveillance cameras situated in Milo (about 11 km ESE); inclement weather prevented direct inspection of the summit area. Degassing was seen from the NW Bocca Nuova vent, from the walls and floor of Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove. As of the 27th of November INGV-CT reported that an inspection of Mt. Etna's summit craters on the 19th of November revealed degassing from the Northeast Crater and, to a lesser degree, from the Bocca Nuova BN-1 crater. A 100-m-long lava flow was active in mid-November; the lava flow field on the upper Valle del Bove has been active since the 13th of May. As of the 23rd of September INGV-CT reported ( Charles Rivière information) that the eruption which had started on 10 May this year, still continues with weak emission of lava from the fissure vents east of SE crater at 2900 m a.s.l. The lava continues to flow into the Valle del Bove, but for most of the time and its way, the active lava is hidden inside crusted-over channels and tubes. The first snowfalls occurred today on the tops. No change particular to the effusive mouth of 2800m, several small castings run out in the top of Valle del Bove with much of passage in the cave. The most advanced face of lava is with approximately 2300m. As of the 16th of September it has been reported by INGV-CT that the explosive and effusive activity which began on May 10, 2008 has continued now for 4 months with the eruptive mouth of 2800 metres and the lava flows run out inside Valle del Bove. The overflowing of lava is in reduction compared to the previous week and at the last weeks. However, on September 7th, in the evening, an increase occurred with the presence of many transitory mouths and several ramifications along the Western wall of the Valley of Bove. From 1930 hrs with the top of the effusive mouth, the cone which before had a weak activity with a light degasification, left the place with a weak Strombolian activity accompanied by light but appreciable increase in emission of lava to the effusive mouth. The explosive activity, with alternative phases, became exhausted towards 2100 hrs approximately. Small isolated explosions were observed thereafter with the effusive mouth until 2300 hrs. With regard to the activity of the summit craters the last observations do not present variations compared to those observed during August. Degasification continues mainly with the Northern Crater Is and the Western mouth of the crater of Bocca Nuova. Lastly, the bottom of the crater Is of Bocca Nuova entirely arises blocked by crumblings of walls. An explosive activity is quite audible at the bottom of the Northern crater Is, as could note it Pietro Vinciguerra, Carmelo Cavallaro and of the colleagues of Soccorso Montana of Corpo Forestale de Linguaglossa on the edge of the crater. The crater of Voragine presents a modest degasification with localised fields of fumerole along the internal walls. A weak degasification is visible with the Crater of the South East with fumeroles present along the edges of the crater. The values of SO 2 flows recorded on Mt. Etna showed, in the first week of September, an average of 3000 tonnes/day with a maximum of 4000 tonnes/day on September 3rd. This progressive increase was accompanied by an increase in the volcanic tremor. As of the 24th of July it has been reported by INGV-CT that an inspection of Etna's summit craters on 15 July revealed degassing from the Northeast Crater and to a lesser degree from the BN-1 crater of the Bocca Nuova. Explosive activity was restricted to Vent 2 of the active NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters and characterised by weak Strombolian activity and diffuse ash emissions. During 15 and 17 July lava flows were active in the Valle del Bove. On 17 July, no explosive activity was seen along the fissure. As of the 21st of July it was reported by INGV-CT that that the eruption of the May 13th fissure at Mt. Etna volcano continues. The lava flow into Valle del Bove is still alimentated, although the intensity of spattering from the upper vents at 2800 m elevation has decreased since the 17th of July. As of the 4th of July INGV reported that since the early of this afternoon explosive activity from the buttonhole vent is generating an ash plume. Lava are still flowing from this area into two arms. As of the 27th of June, INGV reported that the eruptive plume was still rose above the volcano, but the explosive activity ceased. (www.ct.ingv.it). New Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page

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ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

March 12th, 2010

As of the 12th of March, INGV-CT reported strong explosions from Stromboli on 10 March mainly from craters located in the N part of the crater terrace, a flat area in the upper part of Sciara del Fuoco (a depression cutting the NW flank of the volcano). After one of the more powerful explosions, lava flowed over the NW edge of the crater terrace for tens of meters before fragmenting and producing small landslides of hot material that likely reached the sea. PREVIOUS NOTABLE NEWS . As of the 24th of November, INGV reported that at 11.20 pm GMT on 23 november 2009, a strong explosive episode occured and generate an important plume above the volcano. The falls of fragments (lappilis, small bombs fallen around the summit area maily the Pizzo Sopra la Fossa and east flank of the volcano. As of the 8th of October, INGV Catania, reported that a violent explosion occured at 12:28 GMT from the summit crater of the volcano, fragmenting and blowing out part of the eastern flank of the cinder cone. The explosion produced an eruptive column more than 350 m high that was drifted SE by the wind. The explosion was soon followed by a lava flow erupted from the widened central vent. The lava flow spread within the crater depression for a few minutes, and reached the maximum estimated lenght of ~60 m. Lava flow within the crater depression formed also between 22 and 25 April, on 3 May, and on 30 August 2009. After the 8 November explosion, the explosive activity returned to the background levels. PREVIOUS NEWS : as of the 20th of July, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that during the period of the 6th-12th of July, eruptions continued from 4 vents at Stromboli volcano in Italy. Two vents were active in the north crater, and two in the south crater. The north crater showed short eruptions which ejected bombs, lapilli and fine ash. The intensity of eruptions was average, with emissions to a height of 150 m above the vent. During the reporting period, there were an average of about 15 explosions per hour.As of the 6th of April, the Volcano Discovery team has reported that as observed during an ongoing tour with Dr. Tom Pfeiffer and a small group, the activity at Stromboli volcano is usually strong. Explosions from several vents, often accompanied by loud thundering noises that can be heard on the whole island, occur frequently from seveal vents, and often throw blocks and incandescent bombs to up to 400 m height. Bombs are sometimes hitting the trail and the Pizzo. PREVIOUS SIGNIFICATIVE INFORMATION : As of the 8th of December 2008, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported a strong explosion occured on 6th of December at 8:48 PM. Duration of this phase has been about 2 mn, then some rocks fallen on the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco. Since, the seismic and volcanic activity returned as previous and usuel level. As of the 1st of November, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that eruptions still continue at Stromboli. Mild Scirocco wind makes for perfect visibility of the collapsed crater terrace, on which four vents were erupting about twenty times per hour. After 8 June 2008, the activity at the E-W oriented eruptive fissure in upper Valle del Bove increased. On the evening of the 13th of June 2008 when the most active vent displayed very strong strombolian activity reached altitudes of several hundred metres above the vents. A similar eruption style had been present during much of 2006 and sometimes in 2007. Previous information : after the effusive eruption which ended on 4th of April this year and a powerful vent-clearing explosion on 15 March, there have been deep-seated explosions ejecting black ash clouds since May. In July, these have beomce more regular and it seems that the magma level inside the vents has been rising and there could soon be visible lava ejections again. As of the 5th of April, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that the lava flow issued from Stromboli volcano stopped . Whether this is the end of the effusive eruption that had started 5 weeks ago and heralds the beginning of a new cycle of summit activity is still unclear. As of the 30th of March, INGV eported that the lava continues to flow on Stromboli. Three branches of lava flows originate at the 420 m vent on the Sciara del Fuoco, two of which still reach the sea. As of the 22nd of March INGV reported that on 20 March, lava emission from the 400 m vent on the Sciara del Fuoco increased, accompanied by increasing levels of tremor. Two well-alimented lava flow branches were present on the Sciara. On 21 March, tremor has decreased and thermal camera observations show that at least one of the two branches were no longer alimentated and cooling. On 15 March 2007, while the effusion from the 400 m vent was still going on, a major explosion occurred at 2037 GMT time. This event was similar to the 5 April 2003 paroxysm, and was recorded by all the INGV-CT monitoring web cams. As the previous event, it occurred during a flank effusive eruption, when the summit craters of the volcano were obstructed by debris collapsed from the crater rims. As of the 9th of March, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that the eruption at Stromboli that started on 27 February continued during 9March. Lava from a fissure on the NE flank of Crater 1 (the NE crater) flowed down the Sciara del Fuoco and formed two branches that reached the sea, resulting in steam plumes and a modified coastline. A new eruptive fissure opened on the morning of 9th of march at about 500 m elevation in the Sciara del Fuoco. Explosive activity from the summit craters ceased when the lava flowed from the fissure, but gas puffing accompanied by small landslides inside the craters started again after 3 March. As of 2nd of March, INGV reported that Stromboli was calming down since Thursday 1st of March, after spewing spectacular lava flows for three days. During the night between 28th of February and 1st of March, the flows of lava has decreased in importance and was moving more slowly. Volcanic tremor remained weak. Previous news reported that on 27th of February, the volcano had been placed under heightened surveillance on Tuesday after dicovering lava spewing from two faults located on Sciara del Fuoco about 600 m elevation. One of the lava flow already reached the sea. On Wednesday 28th of February , a third lava flow outpoured from an active fissure. Following this increasing of the activity, civil autorities decided to put its emergency plan into action. According to italian scientists, for the moment there is no sign of a large-scale collapse or important flow that could induce a tidal wave. However, the situation is under constant surveillance and all measures had been taken to ensure the security of the population. Many buildings, including two oil containers, have been evacuated as a precautionary measure and residentss have been told stay away the coastline. Several explosions per hour are still occurs from the summital craters.(INGV). As of the 15th of September 2006, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania and SVE team have reported that Stromboli has continued to be exceptionally active in August and early September, with as many as 10 vents emitting lava and steam rings occasionally being produced. Stromboli is the northernmost of Italy’s Aeolian Islands, Stromboli is simply the summit of a volcanic mountain that rises up out of the sea. The volcano has been in a virtually constant state of eruption since Roman times, and its spectacular nighttime eruptions make it a popular volcano-watching location. As 5th of May Stromboli Volcano continued its normal "Strombolian" eruptions, with frequent summit explosions.Previous significative information : as of the 1st of November 2005, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that a plume emitted from Stromboli that may have contained ash was visible on satellite imagery on 14 October at a height around 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume extended ~10 km NW of the volcano. Stromboli is one of the Aeolian Islands of Italy. It is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. It has been in nearly continuous eruption for about 2,000 years. Explosive activity at the summit craters of Stromboli volcano resumed on early June 2003, before the end of the effusive eruption that finished between 21 and 22 July 2003. Eruptive activity at this volcano is continuously monitored by INGV-CT using two web cameras located at Il Pizzo Sopra la Fossa (920 m a.s.l.) and at 400 m elevation along the east margin of the Sciara del Fuoco, the depression on the north flank of the volcano that contains the summit craters. Additionally, a web thermal camera is also located at the 400 m elevation site, and a web infrared camera at Il Pizzo Sopra la Fossa. The thermal and video cameras at 400 m elevation give important insights when visibility of the summit is poor or craters are surrounded by clouds. The infrared video camera at Il Pizzo allows a continuous view of the activity at the summit craters, and a quantification of the energy released by the explosions at the three summit craters through an automated system called VAMOS (Cristaldi et al., 2004). Explosive activity at the three summit craters increased after 10 February 2004, leading to a significant growth of the cinder cones inside the three summit craters. Several powerful explosions, especially from crater 1 (the NE-crater) and crater 3 (the SW-crater) carried scoria 200 m above the craters. These powerful explosions led to fallout of fresh bombs and lapilli on Il Pizzo Sopra la Fossa in early March. Samples of lapilli and scoria collected on Stromboli by local guides have been analysed with the scanning electron microprobe and microanalysis instruments of INGV-CT (Corsaro et al., 2004). Measurements of glass compositions evidence that products erupted until 25 February 2004 belong to the “black scoriaceous volcanics” normally erupted during Strombolian activity. No “golden basaltic pumices” were present in available samples. Emission of golden pumice at this volcano is generally associated with paroxysmal explosive events (Bertagnini et al., 1999) such as that of 5th April 2003. Analysis of components carried out on several ash samples allowed us to recognize sideromelane and tachylite as the main components, making up ~80% of the erupted ash (Andronico et al., 2004). The activity of this volcano at the time of writing (8 March 2004) can be described as Strombolian activity, with variations in the number and frequency of explosions within normally observed limits, and intensity of explosions at the higher limit of commonly observed activity. As of the 2nd of January, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that a year after a tsunami was caused by the detachment of lava material along the Sciara del fuoco, Stromboli volcano has intensified its activity, launching scoriae and lapilli. Technicians and volcano experts, who are constantly monitoring Stromboli, have said that the situation is not alarming. The Stromboli Web video camera showed a small explosion on 10 December that produced a plume to a height of ~1 km above the volcano. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. From the seismic point of view, not only explosive events are recorded (sufficiently deep that no visible strombolian activity is associated to them in the crateric area), but also events related to the continuous small rockfall episodes that continue to descend along the Sciara del Fuoco- INGV-CT webpage www.ct.ingv.it. *************************************************************************************************************************

ICELAND - Eyjafjallajökull volcano

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th (19h30 GMT) latest IMO-IES bulletin reported that explosive activity seems to have decreased since yesterday. The ash plume does not rise as high into the air and is lighter in colour. Steam rises from the lava tongue under Gígjökull, which is a sign that ice is melting in the tunnel, but to a much lesser degree than when the lava flow was at its peak. The cinder cone continues to build up around the eruption vent in the ice cauldron. The lava flow to the north has been stagnant for the past two days. Tremor levels are low, comparable to yesterday and the period 14-17 April. Earthquakes are still being recorded at 5-13 km depth, but fewer than yesterday. There are no signs that the eruption is ending. Following the increasing of the explosive activity on Thursday, during the last 12 hours, explosivity decreased and stayed relatively stable on Friday 3 PM (IMO-IES). As of the 6th of May (18h GMT), new icelandic bulletin reported that explosive activity has increased and effusive part has decreased for the last two days. This results in a higher eruption column with increased tephra fallout. The ash plume observed from commercial pilots between 0530h and 0800h: 30,000 ft/9km Earthquake activity is still being recorded. At least 10 earthquakes have been located since midnight. Most of the earthquakes are sourced beneath or south of the top crater in the eruptive conduit that has formed since 3 May. Most of the earthquakes are less than magnitude 2, the biggest M2.2. Three events have been recorded beneath the southeastern ice cap, depth uncertain. GPS Measurements from around Eyjafjallajökull show continued horizontal displacement. South of the eruption, stations THEY and SVBH have begun to drift southward, whereas FIM2, located east of the eruption, shows northward motion. No further northward motion has been observed at STE2, located to the north. Today's displacement pattern suggests deformation beneath the southeastern part of Eyjafjallajökull. There are no signs that the eruption is about to end. As of the 5th of May (report 18h GMT), the eruption sight was not visible. From the flight of the Icelandic Coast Guard (ICG) 04.05.2010: The crater continues build up in the northern most ice cauldron. Lava flows to the north and spreads at 500 m a.s.l. The lava tongue is about 200 m wide and lava channels that join at the tongue are about 30-60 m wide. The lava channels gets wider every day. Continued seismicity, between 20 and 30 earthquakes have been located beneath the ice cap since 3 May, first deep (18-23 km) and then also at 2 km. Increased seismicity suggests that new material is intruding from deep below Eyjafjallajökull and latest GPS-observations suggest inflation. Significant changes in horizontal movement at GPS stations around Eyjafjallajökull have been observed in the last 48 hours. Renewed northward displacement is seen at stations BAS2 and STE2, located just north of the ice cap. To the south, westward movement is apparent at THEY, while station FIM2 - located further east - shows eastward movement. So far, GPSsignals are not large. There are no signs that the eruption is about to end. Previous IMO-Institute of Earth Sciences bulletin (May 4th - 15h GMT)reported that explosive activity and ash production was strong and increased since yesterday. Dark ash plume rises above the crater. Lava is still flowing northwards, forming a lava fall down the steep hill under Gígjökull, about 4 km north of the crater. Blue gas is seen rising from the lava and white steam plumes are seen somewhat lower and mark the front of the lava stream. Radar images from ICG-flight today show tunnels in Gígjökull increasing in size and continuing the build up of the cone at the crater. The size of the eruptive crater is 280 x 190 m. Lava splashes are thrown at least a few hundred meters into the air. Plume observed at 5.8-6 km height (19-20,000 ft) estimated from the Icelandic Coast Guard (ICG) flight at 10:40 and 15:30 GMT. The plume has also been observed on IMO's weather radar at 5.2-5.4 km height between 13:05 and 14:00 GMT. As of the 4th of May, the eruption is continuing. On the morning this day, the webcam showed that Eyjafjallajökull erupted a fairly vigorous steam-and-ash plume from its main vent. Steam plumes could be seen rising from the gully where lava is interacting with meltwater as it descends the slope.  The main ash plume has been varying in height (the IMO bulletin and VAAC reports indicate up to around 5.5 km altitude) and density yesterday and today; Tremor has reduced since the IMO issued its bulletin, but there have been more earthquakes under Eyjafjallajökull over the last 24 hours, some shallow (1.1-2.2 km) but some very deep: between around 21:00 yesterday and 01:00 today there were four quakes of magnitudes between 1.4 and 1.8, at depths varying from 13.0 to 21.6 km. There also appears to be a north-south alignment to recent earthquake activity. No measurable geophysical changes within the Katla volcano. As of the 2nd of May (9PM GMT) IMO and Institut of the Earth Sciences reported that the eruption is mixed, with the lava-producing phase being larger than the explosive phase. During the last 2–3 days, the plume has been darker and wider than in the preceding week. Tephra fall-out in the vicinity of Eyjafjallajökull has increased. From the location of the steam plume over Gígjökull, lava has advanced over 3 km north of the eruption. Steam plumes over the glacier edge from 19:40 GMT suggest that lava may have advanced even further. A rough order-of-magnitude estimate of lava volume can be obtained from the dimensions of the ice canyon. This estimate gives a lava production rate of-the-order 20 m 3 /s (i.e. 50 tonnes/s). The explosive phase may be 10–20 tonnes/s. The explosive phase has increased somewhat in intensity during the last few days. Presently, there are no measurable indications that the eruption is about to end. As of the 30th of April, IMO and Institut of the Earth Sciences reported that Plume elevations and magma discharge levels remain similar to the preceding seven days of activity. A spatter cone continues to grow in the northernmost crater. Lava continues to flow north from the eruption site and down the Gígjökull glacier. This day explosive activity and ash production represents a fraction of conditions during the height of the eruption (14–17 April). Presently, there are no measurable indications that the eruption is about to end. As of the 29th of April, Institut of the Earth Sciences reported that yesterday evening conditions at the eruption site are thought to be similar to the preceding five days. Lava continues to flow northward, where it now descends partway down the Gígjöjkull glacier. Seismic tremor: Intensity comparable to the preceding five days of eruptive activity. Gas emissions from meltwater leaving Gígjökull represents a localised hazard, especially within the moraines of the glacier. The main gasses are CO2 and probably SO2. These gases are heavier than air, and could linger in front of Gígjökull if light winds prevail. Plume elevations and magma discharge levels remain similar to the preceding days of activity. Despite a single earthquake occurring, there are no signs of untoward changes within the Katla volcano. As of the 28th of April, following a flight of the Coast Guard, radar pictures confirmed that the crater has expanded to 200 meters in diameter and has grown 150 meters tall.The volcanic cloud was light in color, stretched to the east and three to five kilometers up from the crater. Ash fall was insignificant. Rumbling could clearly be heard from the eruption site but no lighting has been seen in the volcanic cloud since April 19. Lava was flowing underneath the glacier to the north of the crater and was melting the ice above and to the sides. There are no indications that the eruption is drawing to a close. As of the 27th of April, activity is still continuing. Yesterday, the eruptive plume height was between 3.9.- 4.8 km. No ash-fall reported, although light ash-fall possible over Mýrdalsjökull. Report from ~20 km SE of the volcano of booming sounds (02:30 GMT) Continuing discharge of water from Gígjökull due to ice-melt at the eruption site. Discharge at the old Markarfljót bridge, 18 km from Gígjökull, is estimated at 110–130 m 3 / s, of which 30–40 m 3 /s is baseflow. No visual observations due to bad visibility, but. radar images show continuous build-up of a tephra crater/cone in the northern ice cauldron. The diameter of the crater is 200 m and the height of the crater cone is 150 +- 20 m. the seismic tremor intensity remained comparable to the last three days of eruptive activity.Earthquakes: Ml 1.7 earthquake detected ~8 km east of the eruption at 16:18 GMT.GPS deformation: Horizontal displacement towards the centre of the volcano, in addition to vertical subsidence. These observations are consistent with deflation of a magma reservoir beneath Eyjafjallajökull.. There was no visible lava flow but total magma flow considered similar as last two days (20–40 tonnes/ s. No measurable geophysical changes within the Katla volcano. Earthquake activity on the north-western edge of Vatnajökull is unconnected with the ongoing eruption. Magma flow-rate and plume height has remained at similar levels during the last few days. Lava continues to flow northward. No signs of melting or meltwater discharge towards the south. There is no indication that the eruption is about to end; however, it is an order of magnitude smaller than in the first explosive phase. As of the 24th of April, Norvulc reported that North crater still active. Mild explosive activity with spatter thrown to 100 m height above crater. Shockwaves occur every few seconds. North of crater a roughly 300 m long and wide depression has been melted out in the last three days. Steam plumes rise from the depression, especially at the margins. This is explained by lava flowing northwards from the crater with the steam rising where lava meets ice. Magma flow rate has remained at similar level over the last few days. Plume activity is gradually declining. Flow of lava is considered to have began around noon on Wednesday 21 April. Timing is based on: a) onset of semi-continuous discharge of meltwater from Gígjökull, b) Observations of steam rising at northern margin of ice cauldon at 1300 on 21 April, and c) a change occurs in fluctuations in tremor amplitude at this time. No signs of melting or meltwater discharge towards south. No signs of termination of eruption. As of the 22nd of April, University of Iceland reported that Eruption was with similar situation as yesterday (see 21 April report).Seismic tremor recorded by the Icelandic Meteorological Office: Some fluctuations, with a peak shortly after midnight 22 April related to a small flood of meltwater. Since the onset of the explosive eruption the tremor has overall been gradually increasing, with superimposed fluctuations. Visual observations yesterday: Regular explosions at intervals of few minutes were observed in afternoon, with fluctuations in intensity and tephra content. As of the 21st of April, Norvolc, University of Iceland reported that the eruption continues with less explosive activity. Eruption rate is inferred to have declined over last few days and now be an order of magnitude smaller than during the initial 72 hours of the eruption. Present eruption rate is estimated to less than 30 m3/s of magma, or 75 tonnes/s , with a large uncertainty. The northernmost one of two main craters in the summit caldera is active. Phreatomatic explosive activity occurs with some lava spatter at craters. Plume height is about 3 km. Tephra dispersal: local towards the south. Meltwater isminor, but what is melted flows down into Markarfljót, no signs of water accumulation in craters. Seismic tremor recorded by the Icelandic Meteorological Office showed some fluctuations but mostly stable. Tremor is not decreasing and does not reflect the decline as inferred for the eruption rate. GPS-measurements indicate continuing small pressure decrease under the volcano at a similar rate. Samples collected April 19 show same composition as early in the explosive phase, but fluorine content is higher. Samples collected 19 April have 850 mg/kg (initially it was 25-35 mg/kg). This is due to the change in eruptive style – tephra is now not washed to the same extent by water in the eruptive plume. Amount of erupted material: Uncertain but on the order of 100 millon cubic meters. Tephra next to craters is 20-30 m thick. New video taken on 20th of April. As of the 20th of April, according to a local volcanologist, a flight yesterday showed that a cone is being built up and magma was seen thrown up in the air and then falling down on the rim of the cone. Jeeps size bombs were being shown thrown up in the air. However, NO lava FLOW as such. No water was seen in the cone so we are probably seeing much less magma water interaction due to the protection of that cone that has been built up which would explain why the plume does not rise as high and form as much ash. However there is still some plume. First flights of news media around the volcano this morning seemed to indicate less activity than yesterday, which probably just means even smaller plume. The tremor has stayed fairly constant (pers.com). As of the 19th of April, Team member Björn Oddsson at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences said a cloud of smoke still rises from the crater but it is light in color and doesn't contain much ash. The cloud also doesn't extend as high into the air anymore, which is an indication that water doesn't flow into the crater. As of the 18th of April in the morning, latest news reported that the eruptive activity is continuing. During the night the volcanic tremor increasing. According to our icelandic colleague, they have a rough estimate of now much that pocket shrank based on very simple modeling in the first two days of current eruption about 4 million m3. During the first phase of the eruption outflow was estimated at the rate of about 15 m3/s.(pers.com). The quantity of fluor is approximately 25-35 mg/kg according to chemical analysis carried out by the Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland. Regarding any speculation on the climate impacts of this eruption to date, measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on April 15 revealed only ~ 4 kilotons of SO2 in the volcanic cloud. Data from April 16 show reduced amounts. As of the 17 of April, in the morning eruptive activity was still continuing. Yesterday, April 16 some variability occurs in seismic tremor and tephra generation, but overall the eruptive activity remains stable. Pulsating eruptive plume reaches above 8 km, with overall height of 5 km. Large closures of airspace continue. Chemical analyses of ash samples reveal fluorine rich intermediate eruptive products with silica content of 58%, more evolved than in the initial lava producing phase of the eruptive activity. The magma composition may reflect evolution from alkali-olivine basalt by crystal fractionation as erupted in the initial phase. As of the 16th of April, newspaper reported that last night it was decided that flights would be banned in the greater part of northern Europe, at least for the first half of today because of drifting ash ejected from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. The silica glass shards that make up most ash can melt inside jet engines, causing them to stall - which could lead to crashing. Probably the production of ash will continue at a comparable level for some days or weeks. But where it disrupts travel, that depends on the weather: On Thursday, scientists got the first radar pictures of the craters in Eyjafjallajökull. Until then it had been impossible to take such photos. The pictures show three craters and how large they are. At the time of the flight the flood from Gígjökull was beginning and the scientists could confirm that a gigantic flood was making its way towards Markarfljót. The flood has since subsided. As of the 15th of April, Newspaper reported that Markarfljót river to the west of Eyjafjallajökull glacier flooded for the second time last night. The second flood was completely unlike the first one. The floodwater in the first flood was 3.5-t degrees Celsius and contained almost no ice. In the second flood the water was close to 0 degrees and cotaining a thick layer of ice chunks, often 5-15 centimeters thick. The explanation for the difference between the two floods is that in the first one the water came from a lagoon by the glacier but the second flood was melted ice from the glacier. According to mbl.is Sigurdur Reynir Gíslason, geologist at the Geological institute at the University of Iceland, last night, the fissure in the volcano was doubtless melting more ice. Air traffic in north Norway has now been banned due to fear that ash fall from the volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallajökull glacier in south Iceland might reduce visibility. Yesterday, 1PM last report showed that The eruption was many times larger than the eruption in Fimmvörduháls. Information gathered from scientists on board the Coast Guard airplane TF-SIF showed that the total length of the fissure is about two kilometers. The fissure lies north-south. That is a large fault trough (graben) has formed around the crater which is up under the summit of the glacier. There is ash fall to the east close to the Fimmvörduháls. The cloud of volcanic ash and smoke has now risen up to 22,000 feet. The eruption is only in the top crater, not in the southern sides. Armannn Hoskuldsson of the University of Iceland reported that the eruption is purely explosive, with no signs of lava flows, most likely due to the abundant water near the vents. The glacial river is in flood, 1,000 cubic meters per second, and is increasing. A huge flood is on its way down the Markarfljót sands and the old bridge is submerged. To try and save the new Markarfljot bridge, the Ring Road was broken up to the east of the river. As of the 14th of April, news reported that two airplanes flying over Eyjafjallajökull this morning indicated that smoke is coming up in a new place to the south west of the eruption in Fimmvörduháls. During morning all indications are that a new eruption is starting in Eyjafjallajökull glacier. Rivers are growing bigger and smoke was seen over the glacier this morning. Residents of the area were evacuated but some were allowed to go to their farms to attend to animals this morning. Geologist said that indications are that an eruption has started under the glacier just before seven o'clock. Markarfljót, the biggest river close to the glacier is growing at a fast rate. At this moment it is difficult to estimate the size of the eruption. The eruption has now been confirmed but no magma has been seen yet.Earthquake activity started late last night in the area. Roads to the area have been closed both from the east and the west. They have confirmed that there is glacial flooding on both sides of Gígjökull and that the water level in the lagoon in front of the glacial tongue is constantly increasing. The water that flows into the lagoon is dark in color. However, the water flow has yet to reach the peak of spring thaw. Visibility is still very limited in the area but an airplane's crew has spotted a cloud of volcanic ash and smoke which extends 12,000 to 14,000 feet into the air and appears to be coming out of the glacier's summit. Magma is melting its way through the icecap; there is a circular ice free area by the summit measuring approximately 200 meters in diameter. Yesterday scientists indicated that the eruption in Fimmvörduháls could have ended. New video eruption As of the 12th of April, last scientific report showed that seismic tremor reaches a minimum - eruption stops? As of the 11th of April, the Institute of Earth Sciences University of Iceland reported that eruption tremor approaches pre-eruptive levels, but visual observation reveal eruptive activity in late afternoon. As of the 9th of April, the Institute of Earth Sciences University of Iceland reported that after little change in deformation rates during the eruption, timeseries at continuous GPS-stations north of the volcano show sudden change, partly jumping back to pre-eruptive levels. Signals may relate to decreasing pressure in the magma conduit feeding the eruption. some data about the eruption. They measured the size of the new volcano which has formed around the craters on Fimmvörðuháls. The area of the new lava is now 1.3 square kilometers, the average thickness is 10-12 meters and estimated volume of eruptive material 22-24 million cubic meters. Accordingly, the average flow rate has been approximately 15 cubic meters per second since the eruption began. The eruptive cone stands 82 m above previous ground level and the highest peak is 1067 m a.s.l. As of the 8th of April, there is significant activity in the new volcanic crater on mountain pass while the original crater has ceased spurting lava-for now, at least. However, the lava still seethes in the older crater. A broad lava stream now extends to the west of the Hvannárgil canyon and flows one or two kilometers per hour. Blue volcanic fumes extend from the older crater but there are no explosions. That is an indication that the crater was cooling down. Aerial pictures showed that there was still a seething lava pool within the closed crater. There is quite a lively activity in the new crater and a lot of lava that flows from it. There are no indications for the moment that the eruption is about to stop. As of the 7th of April, news reported that there haven't been any changes to the nature of the eruption. Activity has stopped in the original craters of the eruption, and is limited to craters on the new fissure formed on 31 March. Lava flows cover an estimated area of 1.3 square kilometers, with estimated average thickness of 10-20 m. Maximum elevation of scoria craters formed in the eruption is 82 m. The Civil Protection Department emphasized yesterday that all traffic on Eyjafjallajökull is prohibited and the area in a one-kilometer radius around the crater on Fimmvörduháls is closed. As of the 5th of April, the eruption continued with little changes. On April 4th, lava flowing to the west encountered some patches of glacial ice, causing some water discharge into river Hvanná, steam plumes and low frequency tremor bursts. NASA satellite image shows the eruption on April 4, 2010. The original fissure—originally about 1,000 meters (3,000 feet) long and composed of several distinct vents—has coalesced into a single vent. The new fissure is hidden under a volcanic plume, likely composed primarily of steam. Black lava flows reach several kilometers north from the vents, eventually spilling into Hvannárgil and Hrunagil Canyons As of the 2nd of April, a report in Morgunblaðið puts the length of the new fissure at 300 metres, and its location as 200 metres north of the initial location of the eruption, while RÚV reports the length as 300-400 metres. The new fissure trends north-south, roughly at right angles to the east-west alignment of the first fissure. The Icelandic Met Office have published an article looking at what the patterns of seismicity at Eyjafjallajökull reveal about the path of the magma over the period from the 13th-24th of March: "The magma path revealed". It seems that the main feeder conduit for the eruption is situated beneath the eastern part of the Eyjafjallajökull ice-cap and rises nearly vertically to around 2-3 km depth, and then changes direction to run horizontally eastwards for about 4.5 km to the point outside the ice margin where the eruption began on the 21st of March. Police estimate that up to one thousand people went to the eruptions site at Fimmvörduháls after the place was opened up again Thursday afternoon. The eruption remained similar in strength as before. As of the 1st of April pilot reported that at just before seven P.M. on Wednesday 31st of March a new rift opened up. The split went south towards the other crater. The new rift is not in the same direction as the old one, this one goes from north to south. The new row of up to seven craters is closer to Thórsmörk and came up in the middle of the flowing lava forming the “lava fall” into Hvannárgi. After a new crater formed on Fimmvörduhals on Wednesday night, the site was closed to all traffic. This change was not accompanied by any detectable seismic activity, neither tremor nor micro earthquakes. Most of the lava seems to accumulate near the vents, but there are intermittent flows into the gullies of Hruná and Hvanná. As of the 30th, Volcanic activity at the crater increased yesterday afternoon 29th of March after having subsided the night before and yesterday morning. From a helicopter on 28 March, scientists saw lava flowing into both canyons and noted fewer jets of lava. Shortly after 6 pm last night a series of earthquakes measuring 2-2.5 on the Richter scale shook the region. Geophysicist Gunnar B. Gudmundsson at the Icelandic Meteorological Office noted that seismicity was gradually decreasing and was an indication of the force of the eruption is gradually decreasing. He added that GPS monitors that measure tectonics show that the lithosphere has ceased expanding and even contracted a little. However, that is no certain indication that the eruption is about to finish. Roughly estimated, 15-20 million cubic meters of solid volcanic debris might have spurted to the surface from inside the earth since the eruption began on March 21, said geophysicist Magnús Tumi Gudmundsson. The lava now covers approximately one square kilometer.As of the 29th of March, the eruption in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system has been on a small scale so far, and tremors signal are diminishing, at least for the time being. Lava has flowed north into two gullies, either side of Heljarkambur ridge. It has been predicted that lava might reach the river Krossá within a few days. Krossá flows due west, north of Eyjafjallajökull, and into the larger river Markarfljót. As of the 26th of March, the webcams appear to show diminished activity (although the reduction of ice and snow in the vicinity of the eruption through melting may also be playing a role in reducing the scale of the eruption plumes). Lava effusion issued from the Northeast of the eruptive fissure. Strombolian activity remained from the Northernmost cone. A warning has been issued about toxic plume in the vicinity of the eruption: sulphur, flourine, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are being released by the activity. Seismically things appear relatively stable underneath Eyjafjallajökull and Katla and there is little sign of the latter stirring, although preparation are under way locally, just in case. As of 24th of March, the latest observations from Iceland on the Eyjafjallajökull fissure eruption have been limited by poor weather and low visibility, but overall the activity, located at Fimmvörduháls between Eyjafjallajökull and Myrdalsjökull, does not appear to be changing significantly in character. As of the 22nd, the volcanic activity was increasing slowly but surely, according to an estimate of scientists who flew over the eruption zone in the afternoon. The lava flow from the crater is spreading out over a larger area and the eruption is becoming more forceful. Visibility was limited to begin with but then the weather cleared up and the scientists could see the eruption clearly; the lava is flowing down a canyon south of the craters on the pass and clouds of steam rise up from where the lava melts ice and snow. As of 22nd of March, an increase in activity at the Fimmvorduhals eruption on the morning has led to the no-fly zone in southern Iceland being widened. Volcanic activity near the Eyjafjallajokull glacier increased significantly at around 07.00 this morning, with a series of explosions sending a gas and ash cloud 4km into the air. Geologist Hjörleifur Sveinbjörnsson at the Icelandic Meteorological Office reported that the activity which increased about an hour ago was decreasing now at about 8:30 AM. Instead of a large cumulus there are now small puffs, yet they release a large amount of volcanic debris into the atmosphere. The jet from the eruption zone reaches a height of approximately eight kilometers and is light in color. It is likely that it is mixed with water, which indicates that a steam explosion with an increased volume of water has entered the system. The eruption is under constant observation by the Icelandic Meteorological Office and the coordination center in Skógarhlíd in Reykjavík remains active. Geophysicist Páll Einarsson has pointed out that there is a connection between the volcano in Eyjafjallajökull and the neighboring volcano Katla underneath the Myrdalsjokull icecap. The current eruption could trigger a larger eruption in Katla. As of the 21st of March, according press agencies and VAAC, the volcano near the Eyjafjallajoekull glacier began to erupt shortly on 20th of March before midnight, leading to road closures in the area. Several hundred people have been evacuated from their homes. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was observed at the volcano, lightening up the sky above the eruptive site. The eruption was preceded with intense seismicity and high rates of deformation in the weeks before the eruption, in association with magma recharging of the volcano. Immediately prior to the eruption the depth of seismicity had become shallow, but was not significantly enhanced from what it had been in the previous weeks. Deformation was occurring at rates of up to a centimetre a day since March 4 at continuous GPS sites installed within 12 km from the eruptive site. The eruption broke out with fire fountains and Hawaiian eruptive style on about 500 m long NE-SW oriented eruptive fissure at N63º 38.1', W19º 26.4' on the northeast shoulder of the volcano at an elevation of about 1000 m. It was observed from air from 4-7 A.M. on March 21. Lava flows short distance from the eruptive site, and minor eruption plume at elevation less than 1 km was deflected by wind to the west. Volcanic explosive index (VEI) is 1 or less. Tephra fall is minor or insignificant. The eruption occurs just outside the ice cap of Eyjafjallajökull, and no ice melting is occurring at present. Satellite data is being used to study the eruption and associated intrusion. Several MODIS thermal images on 21 March show a temperature anomaly where the eruption is occurring. ENVISAT ASAR images before and during the eruption have been acquired, and a series of TerraSAR-X images cover the area. Ashfall occured in the town of Fljotshlid, located to 20km Northwest - NVI images shows an eruptive fissure with lava fountains and lava flows - Also map of localization. Geophysicist Freymódur Sigmundsson reported that the volcanic activity seemed stable the three hours he watched the eruption from a circling airplane this morning. It is possible that the rift will grow longer as time passes by. Lava is flowing in two directions, to the east and the main stream to the west. Because of heat turbulence it was impossible to fly over the western stream. The direction of the row of craters is a bit unusual, going from north to south. Most of the rifts go from east to west. At the moment it seems unlikely that the eruption will lead to a major flood as would happen when an eruption starts under a glacier. As of the 5th of March, the the Department of Geophysics, University Of Iceland reported that the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull has been very restless recently. The current seismicity and apparent inflation may be precursory to an eruption, or it may not - this kind of activity has been seen before, associated with dyke intrusion events (although the current seismicity is unusually energetic) and it is not possible at the moment to say whether this time it will end in an eruption. An interesting detail about the current activity comes from a source in Iceland who tells me that magma degassing under Eyjafjallajökull produced an 'acid pulse' that led to local water supplies become temporarily acidic about a month ago. Eyjafjöll (also known as Eyjafjallajökull) is located immediately west of Katla volcano. Eyjafjöll consists of an E-W-trending, elongated ice-covered basaltic-andesite stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the eastern and western flanks of the volcano, but are more prominent on the western side. Although the 1666-m-high volcano has erupted during historical time, it has been less active than other volcanoes of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, and relatively few Holocene lava flows are known. The sole historical eruption of Eyjafjöll, during December 1821 to January 1823, produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera. More recently an intrusion at Eyjafjallajökull in 1999 appears to have been followed by a small subglacial eruption in the Katla caldera. Video 24th of March - webcam - SVE Press contact about this eruption

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FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

January 12th, 2010

As of the 12th of January, OVPLF reported that the eruption ended. Following a slight increasing of the eruptif tremor yesterday, eruption within the Dolomieu crater dropped during this night at about 2 am. Nowthe moment only a weak degassing occurs. As of the 7th of January, the volcanic eruption begun January 2nd of this year is always was still progress in the crater Dolomieu. Yesterday evening, the eruptive trémor weakly increased but remained stable. As of the 5th of January, OVPLF reported that intensity of the at present current volcanic eruption in the sommital crater Dolomieu is stable. It is however necessary to indicate from time to time some renewals of activity comparable to one pulse of more important intensity. This day two of these phases were observed at 9:30 am and 11:30 am (GMT 4).A mission of measure of the deformations of the sommitale zone led this morning also allowed a visual recognition of the activity. Some lava flows and a main eruptive vent remained active. As of the 4th of Jnanuary OVPLF reported that eruptive activity was continuing but with a reduced outflow.. Only lava fountains with small high and one active lava flow were visible. Tremor was slighly decreasing but remained stable. An aa lava flow covered about 90% of the 2008 flow on the floor of the Dolomieu crater. As of the 2nd of January, OVPLF reported that Piton de la Fournaise volcano erupted this day at 14:30 local time (GMT +4). The eruptive fissure is situated in the cliff around the Bory and Dolomieu summit craters. Some lava fountains tens of metres in height have been observed during a reconnaissance jointly carried out by the Gendarmerie Nationale (PGHM) and the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory. During this reconnaissance, lava flows were observed flowing in the interior of Dolomieu crater. significant landslides and cliff collapses within Bory crater were also recorded. These collapses fuel eruption plumes of ash and gases that are rising above the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise. This eruption was preceded over two hours by a seismic crisis commencing at 12:00 local time. A small plume of volcanic gas from the eruptive zone was already observed around 12:00. After some minutes of calm, an eruptive tremor appeared on the screens of the seismological network of the observatory at 14:25. PREVIOUS ERUPTION : As of the 15th of December, OVPLF reported that the Piton de la Fournaise volcano erupted Monday, December 14, 2009 at 18:45 (local time GMT +4). The eruption was preceded by a seismic crisis and a raise of the summit area deformations, which started at 17:30 (GMT +4). The eruptive tremor began at 18:30 (GMT+4). A system of sub-parallel fractures along the summit of Dolomieu crater fed lava flows on the southern slope of the Piton de la Fournaise, inside the Enclos Fouqué. A second fissures system opened on the eastern flank of the Dolomieu summit crater at 20:25 (GMT +4). Then lava flows were spent towards the eastern slope. This eruption ended during the night at 00h40 (GMT +4) after a gradual decrease in magma supply from midnight (local time). This morning, Tuesday, December 15, 2009, a visible degassing in the south and southeast fractures is associated with a low intensity eruptive tremor. All of the lava flows was confined to high zone of the volcano and more specifically the slopes south and south-east of Piton de la Fournaise. As of the 6th of November OVPLF reported that on November 5, an intense seismic swarm occurred between 7:30pm and 8:30pm (GMT +4) at about sea level, including an earthquake of 80 seconds. This crisis was followed by a 30 minutes aseismic phase and then by sustained tremor. The first vent opened at 8:50pm on the southern cliff inside the Dolomieu crater. At 9:05pm, a fracture propagated towards east on the upper south-eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise feeding a first lava flow. A 9:20pm, a second fracture opened on the eastern volcano flank between 2450 and 2300m asl. The eruption was also recorded by the three webcams of the observatory, which, together with the deformation and tremor patterns, allowed a rapid identification of the eruption sites. The fractures fed strombolian activity, small (about 20 meters high) fountains and aa lava flows, which were visible from the national road lining the coast in the Grand Brûlé area. At 3:00am on November 6, the eruptive tremor declined to a very low intensity level. A first survey on the volcano summit at 7:30am confirmed that the lava fontaining was no longer active and the lava front had stopped at about 1900 m elevation. At 9:00am the eruptive tremor disappeared, thus confirming the end of the eruption. As of the 30th of October, OVPLF reported that the seismicity was still in light increase. A new seismic crisis occured on the morning of 03:00 to 06:00 (local time). The hypocentres are still localised under Dolomieu. Volcanologists of the Observatory noted a partial migration of the earthquakes and deformation towards the North (this could be due to injection of a dyke towards north). The level of alarm remains to 1. As of the 23rd of october OVPDLF reported that during the day before (22nd of October) 18 earthquakes occured, but no eruption started yet. As of the 21st of October,OVPDLF has reported that seismic activity indicates magma is probably within 500 m of the surface. A change in the chemistry of volcanic gases appeared for the first time yesterday since the outbreak of volcanic alert on the 4th of October. The whole of these observations clearly confirms the progression of the magma towards surface. An eruption thus remains possible in the short or medium term. The level of alarm remains to 1 for the moment. On 18 October, OVPDLF reported that another seismic crisis was noted along with deformation on the N and S sides of Dolomieu crater. Aerial observations on 19 October revealed a small new fumarole in the crater. Changes in the chemical composition of the gases were also noted. A greater number and duration of rockfalls than in previous days was detected on 20 October. As the the 17th of October (09:30 am)), OVPF reported that during past night (16th to 17th of October), the frequency and the intensity of the seismicity were in progressive increase. The trend of progressive deformation of the volcano was confirmed, in particular on the side the North of Dolomieu and close to the Dolomieu crater.Collapses of small volume inside Dolomieu were registered.No variation of the chemical composition of gases was noted. Previously, a new seismic crisis started on 14th of October at 8:09am (local time) and ended at 10:04am. This important seismicity was associated with weak ground deformation of the North flank of the Dolomieu. The day before 79 earthquakes have been recorded, mainly in the areas mentioned above. As of the 9th of October, The observatory of the Piton de la Fournaise reported that the seismic crisis that occured yesterday ended on 8th of October in the morning at 10:57 am. This seismicity was located beneath the volcano summit under craters Bory and Dolomieu. This phase has been associated with weak North flank deformation of the Dolomieu crater. No chemical variation in gas was noted. Previously, as of the 7th of October, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris from the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPDLF) reported that seismic activity increased on 7th of october in the morning from 8:30 am and since remained at high level. Not eruption occured yet, but local prefecture of the Reunion issued the alert level 1. Enclos Fouqué entrance has been closed . Yesterday 6th of october, 120 earthquakes were registred from the network accompanied with sligh ground deformation. Previous eruption started on 14th of December 11 PM (TU) ended on 4th of February at 8 PM (TU). On February 2nd, 21 earthquakes were recorded including one with mag. 2.2 accompanied with a decreasing of the volcanic tremor. As of the 3rd of February seismic activity increased again and tremor decreased. In the morning, only one lava flow was active on the Northwest side. Between 8-9th of January, two earthquakes located above the sea level were recorded (max = 1.5 mag). As of the 29th of December, OVPF scientists observed during a fieldwork the small lava pond which remained active with few lava ejection above the cone. Following an active episode during the past week-end with about 10 visible lava flows on the talus and some outpouring on the flow within the Dolomieu, the situation changed on Monday. Except from the active cone, no other glowing lava could be observed. Degassing remained relatively important, time to time, the Dolomieu was filled with bluish gaz emission. As of the 26th of December in the morning (9am), OVPF reported that eruptive tremor increased again (3 time more compared at the beginning of the eruption), but remained fluctuating. Following a fieldwork during the afternoon of 24th of December, volcanologist reported (5pm) that a small active lava pond formed within the small cone in the Dolomieu. Time to time, lava fountaining occurs. Many small lava flows are issued from small lava tubes around the main lava flow. GPS measurements did not showed inflation or deflation at the summit. OnThursday 18th of December, in the evening, the eruptive tremor increased but this day returned at the previous level, the same at the beginning of the eruption. As of the 17th of december SO2 output was estimated at about 1000 Tons/day. As of the 15th of december, OVPF reported that following a seismic crisis during Sunday (more than several hundred earthquakes), and an important seismicity during the night, a volcanic tremor, located beneath the summit, started at 2:45 am. An inspection carried out on 15th in the morning showed that two eruptive fissures were active within the Dolomieu crater, at half slope NNE and NE. The lava flow rate is very weak; the lava covered only 15-20% of the September 2008 lava. Also the SO2 output was very low. As of the 28th of November, OVPF reported that the volcanic tremor declined since the early morning, suggesting that the eruption was declining, with a phenomenon ‘Gaz Piston' (important gas bubbles with very few or not magma emission) making its appearence in the seismic record. From 2pm ( local time) "gas piston" phenomenon ended and this short eruptive phase ended. No seismic signal was recorded since this time. As of the 27th of November, according to a report of the OVPf, following a short seismic crisis between 1125am et 1140am, the volcanic tremor started at 1150am (local time). From the tremor map, this new eruption occured within the Dolomieu crater, probably at the same place of the previous activity during October 2008. A volcanic plume was visible in the West part of the Dolomieu. As of the 31st of October, a new OVPF Buletin reported that during the previous night a new seismic crisis occured between 4am and 440am with about 100 earthquakes accompanied with weak ground deformation recorded by the tiltmeter network. As of the 22nd of October, OVPF reported that 11 summital earthquakes were recorded this day (max. magnitude1,2). No deformation occured. As of the 20th of october, OVPF reported that in the morning, between 8AM et 10AM, a new seismic crisis occured. No other event was noted for the moment. As of the 17th of October OVPF reported that since 3 days ago seismic activity increased. This activity increased more on 16th of October beetween 630PM and 830PM (51 earthquakes) then re-decreased. Repartition of the earthquakes : 14th of October: 62 ; 15th of October: 59 ; 16th of October: 166; No long-term inflation was recorded for the moment. Previous activity : as of the 2nd of October OVPF reported that eruptive activity within the Dolomieu ended in the early morning. The tremor dropped from 410AM and totally disapeared at 445 AM (local time). Only a very weak deflation has been recorded during the eruption and for this reason, it's possible that other eruptive episode could occurs in the short term (days or weeks). Total lave volume of the eruption is about 850.000 m3 for 10 days of activity.As of the 27th of September OVPF reported that eruptive activity was still continuing in the Dolomieu. Volcanic tremor remained stable at a low level since the 26 september in the morning. Three summit low intensity earthquakes were recorded. No direct observation was possible due to the poor meteorological condition. Wednesday estimation of the size and volume with an aerial photography showed that the lava surface on the Dolomieu floor was about 180x100m (24 September in the morning) and a maximal thickness of 30m. The present volume has been estimated at about 300 000m3, an flow rate is 1m3/sec. As of the 21st of September, a special bulletin of the OVPF reported that following a short seismic crisis (about 10 earthquakes) a volcanic tremor appeared and the eruption started at about 330 PM. This new eruption occured in the West part of the Dolomieu (half hight) under the Bory crater. Several lava flows went down toward the floor of the Dolomieu and formed a small lava pond. As of the 17th of September , ovpf reported that important seismic activity is still continuing with 48 earthquakes recorded this day ( 41 with mag. < 1,0 ,   5 with mag. between 1,0 et 1,5 and  2 with mag. between 1,5 et 2,0) . Field observations confirmed an increase in degassing from the SW part of Dolomieu crater and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. Another seismic crisis was detected during 15-16 September. Numerous landslides followed the crisis, but may have also been associated with heavy rains. The Alert Level was not changed. As of the 12th of September, a preliminary bulletin from OVPF reported that since 1015AM (local time) this morning volcanic tremor started at the volcano and stayed until 1130AM. The tremor (weak and variable) is located beneath the summit of Dolomieu. According to an aerial observation during the end of the morning, no eruptive activity occured yet, but important SO2 emissions were noted. Another trémor (more high frequency) occured in the afternoon at 350 PM, but stopped around 8PM. During the day of the 12th of September, 30 earthquakes were recorded with a maximal magnitude = 1,6. According to OVPF scientists an eruption could be occurs within days or weeks. Alert level remains 1. As of the 9th of September, OVPF reported that an important seismic crisis occured during the night between 1123PM and 120 AM characterized by several hundred eartquakes. No deformation was recorded. On 3rd of September, 76 earthquakes were already recorded with a maximum magnitude 2.9 and 3.0. As of the 15th of August, OVPFalready reported that a seismic crisis (2h35 duration) occured this day between 5AM (local time) and 735AM (local time). This short crisis was accompanied with ground deformation in the Dolomieu area. At 10am, some superficial isolated earthquakes (about 500 m a.s.l.) still occured. Previously on 4th of August another short seismic crisis (10mn) already occured. Previous activity : as of 21st of June 2007, OVPF reported that from one week many earthquakes occured every day beneath the volcano (sometimes more than 100 per day). several of them occured under the sea. As of 21st of June, maximal magnitude was 2.6. As of the 2nd of May the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP, reported that after one month of very high activity, the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise, which started on April 2nd in the Grand Brûlé at 650 m altitude, finally stopped on May 1st. The debit at certain moments was estimated between 100 and 200 m3 per second and the lava flows covered an area of about 4 km2, with up to 30 or 40 m thick lava. A platform of about 35000 m2 was build on the sea and first estimations of the erupted volume amount to 120 x 106 m3 , which ranges this eruption between one of the largest known historical eruptions at Piton de la Fournaise. As of the 27th of April the OVPF reported that the seismicity under the summit was reinforced. There were 50 seismic events the day before and the lava flows remained very abundant in the Grande Brulé. As of 21st of April, the latest OVPF report informed the the volcanic tremor remained at the same low level. Lava flows were still went down in the Grand Brulé from the vent located to 650 m elevation with important variations. As of the 20th of April the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP that the collapse of Dolomieu crater was continuing. The tremor was on a very low level, the seismics under the summit of the Piton of Fournaise persisted. As of the 12th of April the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP reported that members of the PC of St. Philippe observed two lava flows, the first going along the rampart, a second in the medium of cast in place, arriving at the sea. The inhabitants of the small village of Tremblet breathe better, the situation finally seems to still be improving. The crater which broke down on a 300 m height stabilizes slowly. As of the 7th of April, OVPF reported that following a fligh over the volcano on the morning, observation showed that a large part ot the Dolomieu crater floor collapsed on a surface estimated to 1000 x 700 m and a depth of about 300 m. The activity seismic remained at high level and many local collapse occurs. As of the 6th of April the OVPF, reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano continues and eruptive activity, lava fountains and lava flow emissions from the fissure vent at 600-500 m elevation, increases. Lava flows had already crossed the National Road in the afternoon of 2 April and the southernmost of the 3 principal lava flow branches reached the sea in the evening the same day. After decreasing for a while, an unusual increase in seismic activity has been observed since 3 April. It is marked by earthquakes below the summit of the volcano at altitudes between 0 and 500 m above sea level, similar to the ones registered before the opening of the fissure on 30 March SE of the summit. They are interpreted as consequence of internal collapse phenomena and might be preceding a collapse event similar or stronger than the one in 1986 when a 100 m deep pit crater was formed. At the same time, tremor (thought to be caused by the erupting magma moving along the conduit and the radial dike) has increased as well, accompanied by increasing visual effusive activity. In addition, a marked increase in sulphur dioxide emission has been noted. Inhabitants in the nearby city of St. Pierre have been suffering from "vog" - volcanic smog caused by clouds of aerosols rich in sulphur dioxide (SO2) emitted mainly at the eruptive vent and from the lava flows. Several people have been brought to hospital for treatment of skin and eye irriations as well as asthma caused by the gas whose concentration temporarily reached alarming levels, triggering the autorities to issue a general health warning for the island. Reports of a new eruptive fissure near the Pointe du Tremblet with its inhabited centres in the lower areas just outside of the Enclos turned out to be wrong. However, but scientists from the observatory don't exclude the possibility that a new fissure could open up at even lower elevation. Preparations for an emergency evacuation of this area have started since late of 4th of April. Access to the summit area of the volcano and the low elevation area near the lava flows from the side of St. Pierre has been restricted by authorities. As of the 2nd of April, OVPDLF reported that a new eruption started at 10 AM. A new eruptive fissure opened in the Southeast part of the enclos; the lower part of the fissure is located at 500 m a.s.l at the foot of the Rempart du Tremblet. The 1 km long eruptive fissure trend NO-SE- During the morning lava fountaining (50 m high) occured from the fissure. Associated lava flows went down fastly and about 2 PM the front was at 300 m of the RN2. On Wednesday 3rd of April eruption was still continuing. Lava flows crossed the road RN2 during the afternoon. As of 30th of March, OVPDLF reported that following a seismic crisis and deformation of the summit zone, a new eruption started on 30th of March ( 23 PM - local time) on the South-East flank of the volcano within the Enclos close to the Chateau Fort area. This short erutive phase ended on 31st of March at about 8 AM in the morning. (from OVPF-IPGP report) from OVPF-IPGP - (Thomas Staudacher, OVVPF) -(OVPF information d'après Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

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COMOROS - Karthala volcano

January 20th, 2007

As of 19th of January, Volcano observatory reported that on Thursday 18th the volcano shook twice again and local volcanologists said there was still a threat of eruption despite the tremor seems weakening. Comoros authorities have made emergency plan to help as many 30.000 people in case of eruption. As of 13th of January, volcano observatory reported that Mount Karthala (2631m) begun emitting fumes and producing a red glow over the tops. According to the chief geologist, the volcano has become eruptive since yesterday evening 12th of January. The lava level had risen in the volcano's crater. Preliminary information reported that residents of Mvurni, a town at 1000 m altitude on the volcano West slope were broken up by strong fumes. The island had been on red alert. The last big eruption of the volcano occured in April 2005, sent thousands fleeing in fear poisonous gas and lava. The worst disaster on record came in 1903, when 17 died from noxious fumes that seeped from cracks. The southernmost and largest of the two shield volcanoes forming Grand Comore Island (also known as Ngazidja Island), Karthala contains a 3 x 4 km summit caldera generated by repeated collapse

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TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

February 22nd, 2010

As of the 22nd of February GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website)
Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

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CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

February 4th, 2010

During 27 January-2 February, the MODIS sensor aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite frequently detected thermal anomalies from Nyamuragira. The Toulouse VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume was seen on satellite imagery on 29 January. As of the 18th of January latest news reported that the eruption of Nyamuragira volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo that began two weeks ago seems continuing according to satellite data. The availability of MODIS hotspot data is affected by cloud cover, which has been considerable in the area of the volcano over recent days. However, MODIS images for 13 and 15 January shows the thermal signatures of fresh lava emissions to the east and south of Nyamuragira's summit crater. The volcano has also been emitting considerable quantities of sulphur dioxide, as shown by OMI SO2 data. Significant SO2 clouds were detectedon 13 and 17 January 2010. As of the 11th of January, the previous information on the eruption from Samantha Newport, director of communications for Virunga National Park, reported that lava fountains were reaching almost 300 metres in height on Saturday 9 January, but that volcanic activity had since diminished. The decline in activity appears to be confirmed by the fact that no thermal hotspots have been detected by Modis at Nyamuragira since 8 January 2010. As of the 7th of January, five days after it began the eruption of Nyamuragira volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo is continuing, with fire fountains and very liquid and free-flowing lava. The flows are directed towards the south-west. Information from the UN reported that the advance of the lava has slowed, with only 100 metres of advance in the last 24 hours, not because the eruption rate has slowed – the activity of the volcano remains intense – but because the lava front has widened from 15 metres to about 200 metres. As of the 5th of January GVO reported that the eruption which began early on 2 of january was continuing and seems to be increasing in intensity, raising concerns about local human and animal populations. Lava flows are causing forest firesaround the volcano and some reports say nearby villages are threatened by the eruption. The United Nations is providing aircraft to help the local authorities monitor the eruption. As of the 2nd of January 2010, according to a government official the Nyamulagira volcano erupted sending lava toward a national park on Saturday at dawn. While the area where the lava was headed is sparsely populated, wildlife officials say it is home to about 40 endangered chimpanzees. Government observers are monitoring the situation with help from U.N. helicopters. The director of Virunga National Park says the eruption is "of great concern" and that rangers have been deployed to monitor the lava flow. Further details as soon as possible. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

February 4th, 2010

During 27 January-2 February, the MODIS sensor aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite continued to frequently detect thermal anomalies from Nyiragongo, likely from lava lake activity. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that during 30-31 January a diffuse plume drifted 240 km W. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO)
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ETHIOPIA - Manda Hararo area

July 24, 2009

As of the 16th of July, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo that were detected in satellite imagery during 28-30 June prompted a science team to visit the area on 4 July. After conducting ground-based and aerial observations for approximately 2 hours, they reported that the eruption occurred near the August 2007 eruption site, and was possibly bigger than that event. No active lava effusion was seen, but steaming was observed from the 4-5 km-long fissure that, because of high temperatures, had to be observed from a distance. They also saw new predominantly 'a'a lava flows that were 2-3 m thick. The fissure was lined with scoria ramparts 30-50 m high. Temperature measurements taken with a FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer) indicated that the lava flow had cooled significantly with temperatures between 30 and 120 degrees Celsius at the surface. A maximum temperature of 238 degrees Celsius was measured during aerial observations. Thermal anomalies and dense sulphur dioxide plumes in Ethiopia appear to indicate that a significant effusive eruption has taken place along the Karbahi graben at or near Manda Hararo fissure vents. There is as yet no visual confirmation of the eruption from the ground. The Modis thermal alert service at the University of Hawaii has shown hotspots of varying intensity over a considerable area of the Manda Hararo region since 27 June, while the OMI dioxyde sulfur group has mapped considerable SO2 emissions on 29 and 30 June. MODIS thermal anomaly indicating surface lava flows. Preliminary analysis (based on SO2 emissions) suggests that it is larger than the Manda Hararo eruption in August 2007, but not as large as the Alu-Dalaffilla eruption last November. On the MODVOLC thermal alerts website the interface allows one to zoom in at specified coordinates. Entering those for Manda-Hararo (40.8E, 12.2N; degrees and decimal degrees) show a series of alerts spread over considerable area for as late as 30 June 2009. Going back in time, there appeared a large intense cluster (29 June), a less intense cluster (28-27 June), and then no hits on earlier days. A map appears in Volcanoes of the World, with comparatively few volcanoes identified surrounding Manda Hararo (Haroro Manda). The 2007 Bulletin report on that volcano contains a map of the area (BGVN 32:07) From Rick Wunderman GVN/GVP.
 

ETHIOPIA - Alu volcano area (or Dalafilla)

November 25th , 2008

During 19-24 November, the MODIS satellite continued to detect thermal anomalies over the area near Dalaffilla and Alu volcanoes from the eruption that began on 3 November.On 16 November the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) equipment aboard NASA's Terra satellite acquired the area of north-east Ethiopia where the volcanic eruption took place on 3 November 2008. The ASTER data provides the clearest imagery made available to date. On the evidence of these new images it is the Alu fissure vent zone, rather than Dalaffilla volcano, which is responsible for the current eruption. A new, large dark lava flow is evident, covering a large area and extending about 12km north-east of the Alu vents. The lava flow produced by this eruption covers a large area and overlies previously-deposited flows. As of the 15th of November, Modis instrument reported that hotspots continue to be measured between Dalaffilla and Alu volcanoes in Ethiopia. This indicates continued lava flows following last weeks eruption of Dalaffilla-Alu volcano. Satellite images show sulphur dioxide emissions over north Indian Ocean and central India. As of the 8th of November, the Global Volcanism Netork (GVN) has reported that now there is some debate over exactly which volcano erupted in Ethiopia this week. Satellite images show that a large lava flow originated from a region between Dalaffilla and Alu volcanoes in the Erta Ale Range. Alu and Dalaffilla are twin volcanoes separated by only 3 km. Alu volcano is ellipsoidal in shape, and built of old basaltic lavas. In contrast Dalaffilla is a steep cone built by eruptions of silicic lava. Some reports have assumed this week's large lava flow must have come from Alu volcano bacause it has produced basaltic lava flows before. However, satellite images have shown lava hotspots on the side of Dalaffilla volcano. Dalaffilla volcano as the source of the lava flows was declared by a researcher at Addis Ababa University. The summary is that an eruption of lava began at at Dalaffilla volcano in the Afar range of Ethiopia on Tuesday 4th November (?). According to recent news articles, observers reported ground shaking, hearing loud noises and explosions from a distance, and seeing smoke. Thermal anomalies continued to be detected during 3-6 November in the area. Primary information : satellite instruments detected an eruption in northern Afar, Ethiopia from November 3. The eruption first manifested itself as a large sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud drifting eastwards over the Arabian peninsula, detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). MODIS data from the University of Hawaii's MODVOLC hot-spot monitoring tool (http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu) confirmed an extensive hot-spot (presumably lava flows) near Alu volcano ( or Dallafilla ?), in the northern part of the Erta ‘Ale range. Details are still sketchy and these observations are as yet unconfirmed from the ground. Addis Ababa University's Institute of Geophysics researchers said on Wednesday, prompting a minor earthquake and record lava flows covering 300 square kilometres. Satellite pictures also showed that the volcano area covered a record area of 300 square kilometres, According to the ethiopian institute no major damage to infrastructure or population displacement were immediately reported. A total of 0.1-0.2 Tg of SO2 was measured in the eruption cloud by OMI at ~1100 UT on November 4, by which time the SO2 cloud had reached southern Iran. Using the OMI SO2 data and radiosonde soundings, observed SO2 cloud drift yields a preliminary estimate of the eruption onset time of 1400-1600 UT on November 3. Near real-time OMI SO2 data can be viewed at: http://satepsanone.nesdis.noaa.gov/pub/OMI/OMISO2/index.html . The summit region of Alu volcano, lying immediately NW of conical Dalaffilla volcano, is an ellipsoidal volcanic horst, elongated in a NNW-SSE direction, and formed primarily of older basaltic lava flows. Very recent fractures along the axis of the chain cut the main volcanic horst. Major fumarolic activity is located on the numerous parallel faults, some of which have uplifts of 100 m. Fissure vents west of the horst have fed silicic lava flows, and other fissures to the south have produced voluminous youthful basaltic lava flows that extend north as far as Lake Baki. Dalaffilla, also referred to as Gabuli, is a small, but steep-sided conical stratovolcano that rises 300 m above surrounding lava fields SE of Alu volcano. This morphology, unusual for the Erta Ale Range volcanoes, results from the extrusion of viscous, silicic lava flows with primary slopes up to about 35 degrees. These silicic flows extend primarily to the east; on the west they are blocked by walls of a horst structure along the crest of the Erta Ale range. Other basaltic lava flows from regional fissures surround the 613-m-high volcano. Fumarolic activity occurs in the 100-m-wide summit crater and has weathered surrounding lava flows.

ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

March 6th, 2010

As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an international team led by SVE carried out a new visit at the Erta Ale from 22nd of January to 23rd of January 2005. During these two full days at the summit the eruptive activity showed no significant change since our previous observation carried out in November 2005. Degassing activity was still occuring from 3 of the 4 coalescents hornitos located in the SW part of the South crater, but decreased slightly in comparison with our December observations. There were about 10 m high and represented the only portion of the lava crust covering the crater floor where gas emissions were in evidence. One of the hornitos contained glowing molten lava visible from a window located in the upper part. During the clear day of Sunday 23rd of January, members of the team abseiled down within the crater to collect recent lava poured out from the hornitos during partial collapse. Degassing activity (mainly SO2) from the North crater has also slightly decreased in comparison with early December 2004. From a small terrace located in the NW part of the crater it was possible to observe the degassing activity from several hornitos ( some of them were several meters high in the central part of the " lava bulge ") - Near the NW wall of the crater two small red glowing areas were visible at the summit of two other hornitos. Seismic activity of the volcano, together with infrasound signals were recorded by a portable system of the University of Hamburg. Preliminary results of this deployment will be reported soon at this place. Informations : Henry Gaudru, SVE Geneva ; Alexander Gerst , University of Hamburg, Germany ; Georges Kourounis, Derek Tessier, Brian Fletcher (Toronto - Canada) , Motomaro Shirao (Tokyo- Japan) . A previous visit of the SVE-SVG group (4th of December 2004) have permits to observe an important change in the activity of the volcano. The lava lake activity stopped within the South pit crater and a solidified lava crust has filled the whole part of the crater floor (about 15 m below the crater rim). Three (4) coalescent hornitos (about ten meters high) have built on the solidified lava crust in the SE part of the South crater. During the night between 4th of 5th of December, some incandescent degassing lava was visible at the summit of two hornitos. Moreover, we have also noted that a new activity has recently occured within the North crater. A solidified lava bulge uplifted and filled more than 4/5 of the crater floor (about 20-25 below the crater rim). Strong and noisy degassing activity was occcuring in the central part of the lava bulge from several small hornitos. From the smell and bluish color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2. During the night , ten small incandescent vents were visible at the periphery of the lava bulge. In the morning, two plumes rose above the volcano. Information : Henry Gaudru (SVE) and Co (SVG) - Erta Ale report in case of problem with this link look directly at "articles page"

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Piton de la Fournaise - Eruptive fissure - 16th November 2002 - Photo Laï-Yu (JIR)
PHILIPPINES - Mayon Volcano

March 5th, 2010

As of the 4th of March, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that there has been a lowering of Mayon volcano's status from Alert Level 2 (evidence of magmatic intrusion that could eventually lead to an eruption) to Alert Level 1 (no hazardous eruption imminent). After the alert status was lowered to Alert Level 2 last 13th of January, Mayon volcano has consistently manifested the following: 1. The number of volcanic earthquakes recorded daily (0 – 4 per day) is well within the normal level for Mayon of 5 volcanic earthquakes per day; 2. Volcanic tremors associated with magma movement within the volcano conduit became scarce and sometimes not recorded at all; 3. Ground deformation measurements showed a deflated volcano edifice indicating the absence of fresh volcanically-induced deformation or fresh supply of magma from below; 4. The sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission rate measured since the 13th of January to March ranged from 110 to 2,021 tonnes per day (t/d) is consistent with its post eruptive gas emission rate, and; 5. The observed crater glow prevailed at intensity II (can be observed with the naked eye) but does not indicate any re-intensification. Steam emission was most of the time weak and passively rising from the summit crater. The above observations suggest that Mayon volcano's condition is improving and likely heading towards normalcy. In view therefor, PHIVOLCS is now lowering its alert status from Alert Level 2 to Alert Level 1, meaning that eruption is not imminent. The public, however, is reminded that the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) remains off-limits due to the continuing threat from sudden small explosions and rock falls from the upper and middle slopes of the volcano. Active river channels and those areas perennially identified as lahar prone in the southeast sector should also be avoided especially during bad weather conditions or when there is heavy and prolonged rainfall. As of the 17th of February, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that Mayon volcano's seismic monitoring network detected two (2) volcanic earthquakes and eleven (11) rockfall events were detected by the seismic network. The seismic network recorded a total of twenty-six (267) volcanic earthquakes and fifty-seven (57) rockfall events (01 - 07 February 2010). With respect to Ground Deformation deflation. No change relative to 08-10 Nov. 2009 survey. Overall, the volcano remained inflated by five (5.0) mm. cumulative to February 2008 baseline data SO 2 Flux Reading: 1667 tonnes/day (12 Feb.) but otherwise at: 719 tonnes/day (11 Feb.), 425 tonnes/day (10 Feb. ), 447 tonnes/day (9 Feb.), 430 tonnes/day (8 Feb.). Steaming activity was obscured and crater glow was at Intensity II As of the 6th of February, PHIVOLCS reported that Mayon volcano's seismic monitoring network detected five (5) volcanic earthquakes and twelve (12) rockfall events were detected by the seismic network. The seismic network recorded a total of seventeen (17) volcanic earthquakes and sixty-nine (69) rockfall events (18 - 24 January 2010). With respect to Ground Deformation deflation. No change relative to 08-10 Nov. 2009 survey. Overall, the volcano remained inflated by five (5.0) mm. cumulative to February 2008 baseline data SO 2 Flux Reading: 1687 tonnes/day (28 Jan.) but otherwise at: 868 tonnes/day (26 Jan.), 288 tonnes/day (25 Jan. ), 1076 tonnes/day (24 Jan.), 1001 tonnes/day (23 Jan.). Steaming activity was moderate and crater glow was at Intensity II. As of the 15th of January, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that Mayon Volcano's seismic network recorded 3 volcanic earthquakes and 13 rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes during the past 24 hours. Steaming activity and crater glow were not observed due to thick clouds that covered the summit crater. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) emission rate was measured yesterday at an average of 635 tonnes/day. As of the 12th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that six (6) volcanic earthquakes and seventeen (17) rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes were detected by seismic monitoring network during the past 24 hours. Weak to moderate emission of white steam at the summit crater was seen during cloud breaks yesterday and early this morning. Pale crater glow was still observed last night. Yesterday's measurement of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission rate yielded an average of 820 tons/day. Results of ground deformation measurements at Buang and Lidong precise leveling lines showed deflationary trend compared to 02 December 2009 survey. Alert Level 3 is still in effect over Mayon Volcano. As of the 5th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that three (3) volcanic earthquakes and twenty one (21) rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes were detected by seismic monitoring network during the past 24 hours. Steaming activity and crater glow were not observed due to thick clouds that covered the summit crater. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) measurement was not conducted yesterday due to rain that occurred over the volcano area. As of the 4th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic monitoring network detected 7 volcanic earthquakes and 33 rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes. Steaming activity was not observed due to thick clouds that covered the summit crater. Pale crater glow was observed last night. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) measurement was not conducted yesterday due to rain that occurred over the volcano area. As of the 2nd of January 2010, PHIVOLCS reported that the seismic monitoring network around the volcano detected 13 volcanic earthquakes and 68 rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes during the past observation period. Emission of weak volume of white steam at the summit crater was observed during cloud breaks yesterday. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) emission rate was measured yesterday morning at an average value of 2,621 tonnes/day. The latest activity of Mayon still indicates that its overall state of unrest remains relatively high. However, this phase of unrest, characterized by moderate seismicity, high volcanic gas outputs and continuing glow of the summit are processes normally associated with very gradual return to the repose period. The volcanic system is expected to continue producing earthquakes and to vent a large amount of gases because fresh magma still resides along the whole length of the volcanic pipe and near the summit. From 28 December to present, a declining trend in Mayon volcano's activity was noted as reflected by the following observations: 1. No ash ejections were observed since 29 December. Steam emission was most of the time weak and white in color indicating considerable decrease in energy and absence of ash. 2. Majority of the type of earthquakes that were recorded during the past days were associated with rockfalls and rolling down of fragments from the lava deposits along Bonga gully and the advancing lava front. 3. Measured SO 2 levels have also showed a decreasing trend from a maximum of 8,993 tons per day to 2,621 tons per day. The still high concentration of SO 2 gas emission suggests that there is residual magma degassing at shallow depth. In view of the above observations, PHIVOLCS-DOST is lowering the alert status of Mayon from Alert Level 4 to Alert Level 3 to reflect the overall gradual decrease of activity. Previously, As of the 30th of December, PHIVOLCS reported that for the past 24 hours, one ash explosion occurred at Mayon Volcano (13.2576 N, 123.6856 E). The explosion produced a dirty white ash column that rose to about 100 meters above the summit and drifted to the northwest. Lava continued to flow down along the Bonga-Buyuan, Miisi and Lidong gullies. The lava front has now reached about 5.9 kilometers from the summit along the Bonga-Buyuan gully. Mayon Volcano's seismic network recorded 16 volcanic earthquakes. A total of 150 rock fall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes was also detected by the seismic network. Yesterday's measurement of Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) emission rate yielded an average value of 4,397 tonnes per day (t/d). The volcano edifice remains inflated as indicated by the electronic tilt meter installed at the northeast sector of the volcano. As of the 25th of December,PHIVOLCS reported that Mayon Volcano continued to show an intense level of activity during the previous 24-hour observation period. Ninety-six (96) ash explosions were observed during times of good visibility. These explosions produced light brown to grayish ash columns that reached heights of up to 2 km. One hundred twenty five (125) rumbling and booming sounds from the volcano were heard at the Lignon Hill Observatory in Legaspi City . Seismic activity remained elevated as the seismic network recorded a total of eight hundred seventy one (871) volcanic earthquakes. Ninety eight (98) rock fall events, related to detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes, were also detected. Three of these events were observed to have generated pyroclastic flows that moved down within 2 km from the crater. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission rate was high and was measured at an average of 2,738 tonnes/day yesterday. As of the 23rd of December, bulletin of PHIVOLCS reported that Mayon Volcano continued to show an intense level of activity during the past 24-hour observation period. Seismic activity remained elevated in number and size as the seismic network detected 1,051 volcanic earthquakes and continuously recorded harmonic tremors. Many of these volcanic earthquakes were recorded at maximum deflection. Sixty six (66) ash explosions were observed during times of good visibility. These explosions produced grayish to light brown ash columns that reached height from 100 to 1000 meters above the summit before drifting towards southwest. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission rate remained very high and was measured at an average of 6,737 tons per day (t/d) yesterday. Two hundred eighty (280) audible booming and rumbling sounds were intermittently heard for the past 24 hours. Red hot lava also continuously flowed down along the Bonga-Buyuan, Miisi and Lidong gullies. As of the 21st of December, PHIVOLCS reports that activity escalated during the past 24-hour observation period. Seismic activity dramatically increased in number and size. A total of 1,942 volcanic earthquakes was detected by the seismic network. Many of these volcanic earthquakes were recorded at maximum deflection and continually occurred beginning at 12.21 yesterday. Harmonic tremors were also continuously recorded. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission rate remained very high at 6,089 tonnes per day (t/d). Audible booming and rumbling sounds were first reported in the eastern flank of the volcano at about 1455H then occasionally occurred beginning 2200H last night. Intensified crater glow and rolling down of incandescent lava fragments from the crater was also persistent. Red hot lava also continuously flowed down along the Bonga-Buyuan, Miisi and Lidong gullies. Lava fountains rising approximately 200 meters above the crater were observed at 2007H, 2008H and 2018H. The lava front has now reached about 5 kilometers downslope from the summit along the Bonga-Buyuan gullies. Alert level is 4. As of the 19th of December, PHIVOLCS reported that the volcano continued to exhibit intensified activity for the past observation period. A total of one hundred ninety seven (197) volcanic quakes and tremors were recorded by the seismic network. Eighteen (18) of these events were explosion type, however, only fifteen (15) were observed during times of good visibility. These explosions produced dirty white to grayish ash columns that reached height from 100 to 2000m above the summit before drifting towards southwest. Harmonic tremors were continuously recorded by the seismic instruments. During cloud break this morning, steaming activity ranged from dirty white to light brown in color. Night observation showed an intensified crater glow and continuous rolling down of incandescent materials from the crater. The advancing lava flow has now reached approximately 4 kilometers downslope from the crater along Bonga Gully. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission increased from 1,065 to 2,034 tonnes per day (t/d). As of the 17th of December, PHIVOLCS reports that two lava domes have formed at the crater of the volcano, raising concerns among government volcanologists over the possible extensive damage should these collapse and a major eruption occur. Renato Solidum, director of Phivolcs, said the domes were growing and that an aerial survey must be conducted to determine the hazards these would pose to residents living within the danger zone. As of the 16th of December, PHIVOLCS reported that the volcano has continued to erupt lava and ash as thousands of people are evacuated from surrounding towns and villages. Phivolcs also reported glowing lava fragments continually being ejected onto the upper and middle slopes of the volcano. The head of disaster relief for eastern Bicol region has reported that ash explosions have reached heights of 1000 metres. Mandatory evacuations of around 10,000 families from within Mayon's 6-8 km danger zone have begun, with more than 20,000 people moved out so far. Ultimately around 50,000 people may need to be evacuated. As of the 15th of December, PHIVOLCS reported that after lava began flowing from the crater earlier today, evacuations are under way around the Mayon volcano. A number of small ash explosions took place during the day, and the lava flows were reported from around 18:00 local time. At 20:00 local time the Phivolcs raised the alert level from 2 to 3. Mandatory evacuations of communities within the 6-8 km danger zone around Mayon will begin on Tuesday morning. Parts of the cities of Legazpi, Tabaco and Ligao, and the towns of Daraga, Camalig, Guinobatan, Santo Domingo, Bacacay, and Malilipot, fall within the danger zone: many thousands of people will be affected by the evacuations. Albay provincial authorities say that at least 9,000 families will be evacuated. As of the 12th of December,PHIVOLCS reported that a small ash eruption occured on the evening of Friday 11 December 2009. The eruption occured at around 19:59 local time, and was preceded by rumbling sounds and about 50 earthquakes, felt by people living in nearby villages. Ash was ejected to an altitude of 0.5 km above the crater. As of the 3rd of December, PHIVOLCS repored that the volcano was calm for a week, but on Thursday shook and spat out sulfur dioxide. Instruments detected 18 volcanic quakes, of which eight were low and five were high- frequency earthquakes, indicating that magma was climbing up the volcano's vent. The volcano discharged 858 tons of sulfur dioxide in the past 24 hours, or above the normal 500 tons ejected by a restive volcano. Alert level 2 remains Mayon, a 2463-metre stratovolcano, is famous for the near-perfect symmetry of its cone, as well as its ability to unleash destructive eruptions, with hazards including pyroclastic flows, lahars and heavy ashfall. Particularly violent eruptions causing many deaths occurred in 1814 and 1897; more recently an eruption in September 1984 caused no fatalities after warnings from Philvolcs brought about the evacuation of more than 70,000 people from at-risk areas near the volcano. Information : PHIVOLCS - Latest satelllite image of the Mayon (every 30 mn)

PHILIPPINES - Taal volcano

August 30th, 2008

As of the 29th of August 2008, State PHIVOLCS scientists advised the public to observe precautions when going near Taal Volcano in Batangas, saying the volcano has shown an “increase in seismicity." the Taal seismic network recorded 10 volcanic earthquakes from 5:30 a.m. to 3 p.m. Thursday. Two of the quakes that occurred at 12:33 p.m. and 12:46 p.m. were both felt at Intensity II at Pira-piraso villages. Accompanying the quakes were rumbling sounds. The events were located northeast of the volcano island near Daang Kastila area with depths of approximately 0.6 km (12:33 p.m.) and 0.8 km (12:46 p.m.). Surface thermal observations however, did not indicate significant change in the thermal and steam manifestations of the Main Crater Lake area. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) reported that increase in seismicity (frequency and distribution of earthquakes) reflects a "low-level episode of unrest," and that Alert Level 1 remains in effect there. At present, no imminent eruption is indicated although the public is advised to observe some precautions. Previously, past year, on June 24th , PHIVOLCS already reported that Taal volcano showed signs of unrest when two volcanic earthquakes were felt at Pira-Piraso village. According to local people, this seismic unrest was accompanied by rumbling around 2:30 in the morning. A total of 8 volcanic earthquakes were measured by PHIVOLCS seismographs. There was no change to the alert status of the volcano. As of 18 th of December 2006, PHIVOLCS reported that between 13-14 December, 10 volcanic earthquakes were detected. Ground deformation surveys conducted on 28 November-6 December 2006, revealed inflation of the volcanic edifice by 14.0 mm, suggesting possible magma intrusion. Taal volcano manifested a sustained moderate level of seismic activity since 18 November 2006, characterized by occasional large amplitude volcanic earthquakes. The main crater lake water is becoming more acidic since 12 September 2006. the newly formed mud geyser, which is now merged with the crater lake due to increase in water level, continues to be very active. The increasing acidity and hydrothermal activity are probably caused by the injection of hot gases and fluids coming from below the crater floor. As of the 22nd of November, the PHIVOLCS was reported that tall volcano's main crater (Northeastern part) was spewing three or five-meter-high geysers of muddy water since the past Friday. Since, mud geysering has continued, but the volcano stays at alert 1. A similar event, which was recorded in November 1999, lasted until February 2000. Previous report - As of the 5th of October, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that the Taal Main Crater Seismic Station recorded twenty nine (29) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24-hour period since 0600 yesterday. Five (5) of these quakes that occurred at 0233, 0234, 0242, 0247 and 0249 were felt at Intensities II to III by residents on Volcano Island. These quakes were accompanied by rumbling sounds. Initial earthquake locations showed epicenters generally dispersed in the vicinity of Daang Kastila (Northeast), Tibag (North), Tablas (Northeast), Mataas na Gulod (Northeast) and Panikihan (Northwest). This seismic activity is notably higher than the usual levels, which is generally only 5 or less events detected in 24 hours during quiet periods. Surface thermal observations, however, did not indicate significant change in the thermal and steam emission manifestations of the Main Crater Lake area. The increase in seismicity at Taal Volcano reflects a low-level episode of unrest. However, there is still no indication of an impending eruption. Possible precursors, such as increased steam emission, increased temperatures of steam vents and other changes on the Main Crater Lake waters and of the ground are continuously being monitored. The ongoing seismic unrest could intensify in the coming days or weeks so that PHIVOLCS recommends appropriate vigilance by the public when visiting the island. As a safety measure, PHIVOLCS reiterates its previous recommendation that the Main Crater area remains off-limits because sudden steam explosions may occur or high concentrations of toxic gases may accumulate. There are also several fissures traversing the Daang Kastila Trail which, when reactivated with steam emission, are also potentially hazardous to people. PHIVOLCS will provide information on the status of Taal Volcano as necessary. The colour code at Taal is currently at YELLOW . PHIVOLCS will provide information on the status of Taal Volcano as necessary.

PHILIPPINES - Kanlaon volcano

September 5th, 2009

As of the 4th of September, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) reported that there has been a large increase in volcanic earthquakes at Kanlaon volcano, Philippines. Between 23rd August and 1st September there were 257 earthquakes measured. This seismic activity is higher than the background levels, which usually varies from 0 to 4 events in 24 hour period. Two earthquakes were felt by residents surrounding the volcano. At 1726 hrs on August 23rd, one earthquake was felt at Intensity II in Barangay Ara-al, La Carlota City. A second earthquake at 2227 hrs on August 30th, was felt at Intensity III in La Castellana and Intensity IV in La Carlotta City and Bago City. Epicentres of the earthquakes clustered at the northwest slope of the volcano. These earthquakes may indicate movements of an active local fault which may be caused by magma movement beneath the volcano. Surface observations did not indicate significant change in the steam emission from the crater. Since Kanlaon Volcano has a history of sudden steam-driven explosions without precursors, the public is reminded to avoid entering the 4 km Permanent Danger Zone. The status of Kanlaon Volcano is maintained at Alert Level 0. Kanlaon volcano (also spelled Canlaon), the most active of the central Philippines, forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The massive 2435-m-high andesitic stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. The largest debris avalanche known in the Philippines traveled 33 km to the SW from Kanlaon. The summit of Kanlaon contains a 2-km-wide, elongated northern caldera with a crater lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active vent, Lugud crater, to the south. Historical eruptions from Kanlaon, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.

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Mayon volcano - Philippines
INDONESIA Volcanoes activity VSI - CVGDM reports : Recent events in 2009 - 2010

Mount Semeru ( Java) - As of the 5th of March 2010 the CVGHM reported that activity has increased at Semeru volcano in Indonesia. Harmonic tremor recorded at the volcano over the past few months November 2009 - 98, December 2009 - 148, January 2010 - 313, February 2010 - 298. In February 2010 ash emissions occurred on 41 occasions and reached a maximum height 200 m above the crater. On 28th February, lava avalanched 750 m from Jonggring Seloko crater. Between April 2009 and 1st March 2010 the activity at Semeru volcano changed to predominately ash emissions. Since the 25th of February, lava avalanches have resumed at the volcano. People are advised to stay more than 4 km from the volcano on the SE side, and not approach the summit from other sides. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The volcano, rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967

Mount Kaba (Sumatra) - As the 20th of October 2009, CVGHM reported that seismic activity from Kaba increased in August and remained elevated in September and October. Inflation was also detected. When weather permitted, diffuse white plumes were seen rising 25-50 m above the crater rim and drifting E.
Based on the deformation and increased seismicity, CVGHN raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Kaba, a twin volcano with Mount Hitam, has an elongated summit crater complex dominated by three large historically active craters trending ENE from the summit to the upper NE flank. The SW-most crater of 1952-m-high Gunung Kaba, Kawah Lama, is the largest. Most historical eruptions have affected only the summit region of the volcano. They mostly originated from the central summit craters, although the upper-NE flank crater Kawah Vogelsang also produced explosions during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Dieng volcanic zone (Java) - As of the 27th of September 2009, VSI reported that a phreatic explosion occured on the 27th of September at about 8PM (local time) probably from South part of the Silaki vent. Mud ejecta have spread 140 m around the vent. The noise of the explosion was heard to 2 km away. Previously, as of the 16th of January 2009, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) reported that a phreatic activity occured on 15th of February at about 6pm (local time) at the Sibenteng crater. Two explosions opened a new crater (50 m diameter) and ejected mud and water at about 50 m distance. The alert level was raised at 2. The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century AD. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect. (GVN)

Batur volcano (Bali) - As of the 12th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that hiking trail has been closed at Batur volcano in Bali, Indonesia due to fears of an eruption. Since the 1st of November 2009 there have been 53 deep and 83 shallow volcanic earthquakes. Evacuation will be necessary if the alert level is raised to the next higher level. Currently residents are allowed to continue activities around the volcano, but should stay away from the summit area. Batur volcano is a popular tourist location on Bali, and offers spectacular views of one of the world's most impressive calderas. The last eruption of Batur volcano was in 2000 when ash emissions reach a height of 300 m above the summit. The Batur volcano is located at the centre of two concentric calderas NW of Agung volcano. The outer 10 x 13.5 km wide caldera was formed during eruption of the Bali (or Ubud) Ignimbrite about 29,300 years ago and now contains a caldera lake on its SE side, opposite the satellitic cone of 2152-m-high Gunung Abang, the topographic high of the Batur complex. The inner 6.4 x 9.4 km wide caldera was formed about 20,150 years ago during eruption of the Gunungkawi Ignimbrite. The SE wall of the inner caldera lies beneath Lake Batur; Batur cone has been constructed within the inner caldera to a height above the outer caldera rim. The 1717-m-high Batur stratovolcano has produced vents over much of the inner caldera, but a NE-SW fissure system has localized the Batur I, II, and III craters along the summit ridge. Historical eruptions have been characterised by mild-to-moderate explosive activity sometimes accompanied by lava emission. Basaltic lava flows from both summit and flank vents have reached the caldera floor and the shores of Lake Batur in historical time. The colour code at Batur is currently at YELLOW .

G. Rinjani ( Lombok) - As of the 4th of May, newspaper reported that on Tuesday eruption followed four smaller eruptions on past Friday. The nearest village is several miles (kilometers) away from the 7,795-foot (2,376-meter) Mount Barujari and is not threatened. The volcano is continuing to erupt, as it has been doing pretty much continuously since the current phase of activity began on 2 May. The eruption is located at Barujari cone Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21 June ash plumes from Rinjani rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km N. As of the 18th of June 2009, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that base on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during the 11th-12th and the 16th June ash plumes from Rinjani rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-55 km W and WSW. As of the 5th of may, CVGHM reported that the activity at Rinjani volcano on Lombok Island was continuing. The eruptive activity eruptions had not caused important impacts but a small crater began to form in the eastern part of the mountainous area at Mount Baru Jari. However, according to scientists, the peak of the activity was on Saturday with four tremors and the eruption of ash. A team from the Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation agency is at Rinjani to monitor the activity, and the national park around the volcano remains closed to visitors.CVGHM reported than during 29 April-2 May seismicity from Rinjani increased and tremor was detected. On 2 May, an eruption produced dense brown "smoke" that rose 1 km from Barujari cone and was accompanied by a booming noise. On 4 May, an eruption of ash produced a white to brown plume that rose 500-700 m above the cone and drifted N. Fog often prevented observations. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Previously, a CVGHM preliminary information reported that Mt Rinjani , which has gone to yellow alert following ‘two small explosions on Saturday 2nd of May 2009 during the afternoon. The area of the national park surrounding the volcano has been immediatly closed to tourists as a safety measure. Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak caldera. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions at Rinjani dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lak

G. Merapi (Java) -Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Merapi rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. on 19 May 2008. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.
Previous significative activity : As of the 24th of May 2007, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Merapi volcano in Indonesia erupted on 23th of May at 0924 local time. Hot clouds and glowing lava moved 1km down the Gendol river. Residents in Muntilan reported ashfall over surrounding areas. As of the 22nd of March 2007, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Merapi reached an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 19 March. As of the 10th of August 2006, the VGHM reported that based on pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Merapi on 2 and 3 August reached altitudes of ~6.1 km (~20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to CVGHM, during 2-4 August rockfalls traveled 1 km SE toward the Gendol river and gas plumes reached a maximum of 400 m above the summit (10,900 ft a.s.l.). On 3 August, the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). As of the 27th of July 2006, the VGHM reported that during 19-25 July, gas plumes at Merapi reached maximum heights of 400 m above the summit (11,000 ft a.s.l.). Lava flows were observed daily, advancing at a maximum distance of 1.5 km SE toward the Gendol River. Pyroclastic flows were not observed during the reporting period. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). On 17 July, CVGHM reported that the Alert Level was lowered one level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) in all remaining areas previously at Alert Level 4 (S slopes). Pyroclastic flows were not observed during the reporting period. As of the 6th of July, the VGHM reported that pyroclastic flows and rockfalls at Merapi decreased in frequency and intensity during 28 June-4 July. Pyroclastic flows were observed during 28-30 June and reached a maximum distance of 3 km SE along the Gendol River. Gas plumes were observed during 28 June-1 July and reached a maximum height of 1 km above the summit (12,800 ft a.s.l.) on 28 June. As of the 29th of June, the VGHM reported that during 21-25 June, seismic signals at Merapi indicated almost daily occurrence of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows. Due to inclement weather, pyroclastic flows were only observed on 24 June and reached a maximum distance of 4 km SE along the Gendol River and 2.5 km SW along the Krasak River. Gas plumes were observed during 22-25 June and reached a maximum height of 1.5 km above the summit (14,600 ft a.s.l.) on 24 June. As of the 23rd of June, the VGHM reported that eruptions continue at Merapi Volcano in Indonesia. Yesterday there were 15 pyroclastic flows and 256 lava avalanches. The volcano remains at maximum level 4 alert. On 21 June, visual observation toward the summit was obscured during the day. Events of pyroclastic flow and lava avalanches only could be marked from their noise and glare, but the direction and distance could not be determined. Within this day seismograph recorded 65 events of multiphase, 256 events of avalanches earthquakes, 15 events of pyroclastic flow, and 4 events of tectonic earthquakes. On 22 June, the weather was clear in the morning. Visual observation from Babadan observatory noted a white-thick solfatara gas emitted moderately about 700 m from the summit. Seismic record marked 8 events of multiphase earthquakes, 84 events of avalanches earthquakes, 5 events of pyroclastic flow, and 3 events of tectonic earthquakes. The events of pyroclastic flow tend to decrease, while lava avalanches is still fluctuated. Surficial magmatic activity around the summit is still potential to generate pyroclastic flow. Areas along 300 m from the side of K.Krasak/Bebeng, K.Bedog, K.Boyong and K.Gendol, and within radius of 8 km from the summit is forbidden for any activities. Update 16th of June 2006 - The VGHM reported that two emergency workers have been trapped in an underground bunker after an eruption from Merapi volcano on Wednesday 14th of June and unfortunatly have been killed. There are the two first victims since the beginning of the eruptive activity. Gas plumes were observed almost daily during 7-13 June and reached a maximum height of 1.2 km above the summit (13,600 ft a.s.l.) on 10 June. On 8 June a pyroclastic flow, lasting 12 minutes, reached a maximum distance of 5 km SE toward the Gendol River, the predominate travel direction since the 27 May earthquake (M 6.2). On 8 June, according to a CVGHM report, the lava-dome growth rate at Merapi was an estimated 100 thousand cubic meters per day and the estimated volume was approximately 4 million cubic meters. An estimated volume loss of 400 thousand cubic meters on 4 June was due to a partial dome collapse of the S part of the Geger Buaya crater wall (constructed from 1910 lava flows). As of the 2nd of June, the VGHM at the Kaliurang observatory reported lava avalanches events : 122 times toward K.Krasak and part of K.Boyong with maximum distance of 2.5 km, 100 times toward K.Gendol with maximum distance of 1.5 km. Pyroclastic flow events also reported from the same site : 15 times toward K.Krasak and K.Boyong with maximum distance of 3.5 km, 5 times toward K.Gendol with maximum distance of 2 km. At 0310 WIB there was lava avalanches toward southwest-west sector along the upperstreams of K.Boyong, K.Krasak, K.Lamat, K.Sat and K. Senowo. It has 2.5 km of maximum sliding distance. This is the first lava avalanches that affected west area during recent eruption. Seismic record noted : 276 events of avalanches, 127 events of pyroclastic, 36 events of multiphase earthquakes, and 24 events of tectonic earthquakes.Previous update of 26th of May 2006 - according the latest information from VSI, the eruptive activity declined since the two past days and most of people come back home in the Umbul Horjo village. However, the scientists of VSI continues to monitor 24/24 the volcano, because a new increasing activity could be occurs in the next days or weeks. On Saturday morning (20th of May), mount Merapi continues to spew lava from the lava dome. This lava dome on the top was still growing at a slower rate. Merapi sent 70 flows of lava and nine outbursts of heatclouds in the first six hours of Saturday. Some of them reached as far as 3.5 km down the slopes. Aster Satellite Images of the Merapi volcano from Nasa.

Dukono (Halmahera) - As of the 16th of October 2008, the Volcano Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 110 km WNW. . On 26 August, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW. As of the 5th of June, VS) has reported that incandescence at Dukono's summit during 31 March-24 April. On 25 April, incandescent material was ejected 25 m above the summit. During 30 April-2 May seismicty increased. On 25 May, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.4-2.1 km (4,600-6,900 ft) a.s.l. and was accompanied by thunderous and booming sounds. On 29 May, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. and again was accompanied by thunderous and booming sounds. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were not permitted within 3 km of the summit CVGHM reported incandescence at Dukono's summit during 31 March-24 April. Geologic Summary. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed .

G. Karangetang (Siau Island)- As of the 12th of November 2009, the CVGHM reported that according to news articles, a pyroclastic flow and a lahar descended the flanks of Karangetang on the 4th of November. Residents saw active lava flows the next day. On the 11th of November, incandescent material was ejected 5 m into the air. Based on a pilot observation and analyses of satellite imagery, Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume to 3 km a.s.l. and drifted 90-185 km W on 3 November 2009. Previous news :CVGHM reported that during 1-6 June 2009 lava flows from Karangetang traveled 50 m E and 600 m SE. Incandescent rocks, from the main craters and ends of the lava flows, traveled as far as 2 km towards multiple river valleys, including the Keting River to the S. On 1 June, white-to-gray-to-brownish plumes rose 700 m above the main crater. Incandescent lava was ejected 500-700 m. On 4 June, tremor amplitude and the number of earthquakes decreased. During 4-6 June, white plumes rose 50-300 m from the main crater. On 7 and 8 June, fog often prevented observations and incandescent rocks were rarely seen. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 June. As of the 2nd of June 2009, CVGHM reported that CVGHM reported that seismicity from Karangetang increased during 30-31 May and tremor was detected. On 30 May, diffuse white plumes rose 10-50 m high and incandescence was seen at the crater. On 31 May, white emissions from Utama Crater in the N part of the summit region rose 100 m. Incandescent material traveled as far as 2.3 km, mostly down the S flank. Ash plumes that rose 25-700 m were accompanied by thunderous sounds. The Alert Level was raised to 4, the highest level on a scale of 1-4. CVGHM reported that on 28th of May2009, based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 24th of May an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km S. Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 50 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

Anak Krakatau ( Sunda Strait) - As of the 4th of November 2009, The Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the Alert level at Anak Krakatau volcano in Indonesia has been lowered from Alert Level III to Alert Level II. Explosion earthquakes measured over the past few months were August 4311, September 541, and October 34. There has been a significant decline in eruptive activity at the volcano since August 2009. As of the 22nd of August 2009, a Volcano Discovery Team has reported that the explosive activity at Krakatau has resumed over the past weeks. Strong vulcanian-type eruptions from the growing lava dome in the new crater occur at intervals of 90-360 minutes as one of the Volcano Discovery Team correspondants reported from a recent visit. Blocks are being thrown over the whole of the southern part of the island, including the forest and often reach the water as well. Small pyroclastic flows sometimes develop on the slope of the summit cone.A news report on 18 June 2009noted that activity at Krakatau had increased significantly. According to the head of the volcano monitoring post in Pasauran village there were 828 small eruptions in the previous six days, reaching the rate of a new explosion every three minutes. Observers on beaches in Java could clearly see rising white gas-and-steam plumes along with incandescent ejecta at night. Residents also reported loud explosion noises. The level of activity decreased again on 19 June, and the Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).As of the 13th of June 2009, Tom Pfeiffer reported that during its recent expedition (from 3-8 June 09), Anak Krakatau continued to display strong strombolian activity, often accompanied by loud blasts, from a new vent located between the old summit crater and the 2007 crater. This activity has essentially filled the 2007 crater with a new cinder cone and 'healed' the 2007 scar. At the time of leaving the island, activity was still going strong. As of the 6th of May 2009, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the number of eruptions from Anak Krakatau increased significantly at the end of March and continued through 5 May. Direct observations of the crater on 24, 25, and 29 April revealed that the eruption originated from a crater on the W slope of Anak Krakatau. Ash plumes generally drifted E and caused ashfall within a 5 km radius of the crater. Clear weather on 5 May allowed for visual observations; "smoke" rose 500 m above the crater. Anak Krakatau until crossing the Kulon Tip territory, in the Banten Province and spread in the distance more than 60 Km The renowned Krakatau volcano lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, resulted in a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this volcano formed Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan, has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. Live Webcam

Ibu volcano (Halmahera)) - As of the 6th of August 2009, the CVGHM reported that results of the monitoring visually that was carried out from the Observation Post in Gamsungi, the eruption smoke that was observed on July 15th to August 4th being white grey with the height 300 through to 400 m. on the peak. On August 2, at 0455 hrs WIT a lava flow happened. At 1800-2200 hrs WIT heard was the thunderous sound totalling 5 times followed with the firelight emergence in the peak of Ibu. On August 3, at 1830 to 2230 hrs WIT observed was the existence of firelight in the peak of Ibu. High firelight that was observed from the Duono Village, Going and Sanghaji be as high (20 m) as well and was accompanied by the quite hard thunderous sound. Lava of Ibu continued to grow and to be able to have been seen from the Duono Village. The conclusion is that the data showed the existence of the rise in the number of eruption earthquakes and bellows that was accompanied by the eruption and the material throw glowing that could be observed visually clearly. The truncated summit of Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the western flank. A group of maars is located below the northern and western flanks of the volcano. Only a few eruptions have been recorded from Ibu in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998. VSI website

Batu Tara volcano (Flores) - As of the 2nd of July 2009, that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-30 June ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-130 km SW, W, and NW. The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is ORANGE

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RUSSIA - Bezymianny volcano (Kamtchatka)

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues and its aerosolic plumes could affect low-flying aircraft. Strong volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoi volcano obscured seismic data of Bezymianny last week. Clouds obscured the volcano all week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the lava dome was registering on April 28th-30th and May 1st-2nd. As of the 30th of April, KVERT reported that activity of the volcano continues. Strong volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoi volcano obscured seismic data of Bezymianny last week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on April 27th-28th, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the lava dome was registering all week. As of the 16th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that strong volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoi volcano obscured seismic data of Bezymianny last week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on April 8th-13th, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the lava dome was registering on April 8th-13th.Prior to its 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3,000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1,000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. That eruption, similar to the 1980 event at Mount St. Helens, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater. KVERT

RUSSIA - Sheveluch volcano ( Kamchatka)

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive-extrusive eruption of the volcano continues. Seismicity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash plumes rose up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) ASL all week. According to visual data, clouds obscured the volcano all week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the lava dome all week. Ash plumes extending about 18 km (11 mi) to the west from the dome was noted on May 3rd. As of the 30th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive-extrusive eruption of the volcano continues. Seismicity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash plumes rose up to 5.7 km (18,700 ft) ASL all week. According to visual data, ash plumes from hot avalanches rose up to 3.0 km (9,800 ft) ASL on April 22nd-25th. Strong and moderate fumarolic activity of the dome was noting on April 22nd-25th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the lava dome all week. An ash plumes extending about 60 km (37 mi) to the south-east from the dome was noted on April 28th. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (3283 m) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. Sheveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanksStrong culmination explosive eruption of the lava dome of Sheveluch volcano occurred in 1993, 2001, 2004 and two in 2005. Live cam link

RUSSIA - Karymsky volcano (Kamchatka)

May 8th, 2010

A s of the 7th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive activity of the volcano continues. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly weak ash plumes rose up to 3.0 km (9,800 ft) ASL last week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano on April 28th-30th and May 1st-2nd. As of the 30th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive activity of the volcano continues. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly weak ash plumes rose up to 3.0 km (9,800 ft) ASL last week. A strong seismic event near the volcano was registered on April 28th, but ash plumes were not noted in the area of the volcano on the satellite images after this event. According to visual data by volcanologist who work at the area of the volcano, gas-steam plumes containing ash rose up to 3.0 km (9,800 ft) ASL on April 20th-21st. Strombolian activity of the volcano was observing sometimes at night time. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano all week. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.
 

RUSSIA - Kliuchevskoy volcano (Kamchatka)

May 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of May, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Seismicityof the volcano was above background levels all week. According to visual data, clouds obscured the volcano all week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano all week. Ash plumes extending about 125 km (78 mi) to the north and about 70 km (43 mi) to the west were noted on May 2nd and May 3rd, respectively. A height of ash plume was 5.5 km (18,049 ft) ASL on May 3rd (according by satellite data). Gas-steam plumes extended until 55 km (34 mi) to the west and south-west from the volcano on May 2nd-3rd. As of the 30th of April, KVERT reported The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity of the volcano was above background levels all week. According to visual data, Strombolian activity of the volcano continues. An effusion of lava flows on the volcanic flanks continues too. Strong gas-steam plume containing small amount of ash rose up to 7.3 km (23,900 ft) ASL and extending to the west and south-west from the volcano on April 25th-27th. Moderate gas-steam with small amount of ash activity was observing on April 22nd. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano all week. A weak ash plumes extending about 65 km (40 mi) to the west were noted on April 24th. Gas-steam plumes extended until 55 km (34 mi) mainly to the west and southwest from the volcano on April 24th-27th. Kliuchevskoi flanks Kamen volcano to the SW and Ushkovsky volcano to the NW. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years . Live cam link

RUSSIA - Koriaksky volcano

November 14th, 2009

As of the 12th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that during 30 October-6 November seismic activity from Koryaksky did not exceed background levels. Fumarolic activity was noted on 29 October and during 4-5 November. The Level of Concern Colour Code was lowered to Green. Fumarolic activity of the volcano continues and such activity is normal for the volcano. Last time there were ash plumes at the volcano on August 13th-27th. But strong gas-steam plumes could affect low-flying aircraft. Seismicity didn't exceeded background levels all week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observing on October 29th and November 4th-5th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet last week. As of the 6th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that fumarolic activity of the volcano continues and such activity is normal for the volcano.seismicity didn't exceeded background levels all week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observing on October 29th and November 4th-5th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet last week. As of the 30th October, KVERT reported that seismicity didn't exceeded background levels all week, weak volcanic tremor was registering in the area of the volcano on October 24th-27th. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observing on October 23rd-25th and 28th-29th. Clouds obscured the volcano on October 26th-27th. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet last week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on October 17-22. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet last week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano sometimes with weak emissions of ash was observed on October 01-03 and 05-07. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano on October 2nd. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes rose up to 3.7 km (12,100 ft) ASL on September 12-17. Aerosolic plumes extended >10 km (6 mi) to the eastern directions from the volcano. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet. . According to visual data, gas-steam plumes raising up to 3.4 km (11,100 ft) ASL were observed on September 4th and 6th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet. Seismicity of the volcano didn't exceeded background levels all week but a volcanic tremor was registering on August 27th-28th and September 1st. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes raising up to 3.7 km (12,100 ft) ASL and extending to the different directions from the volcano were observed last week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes containing ash raising up to 3.7 km (12,100 ft) ASL and extending to the different directions from the volcano were observed on August 26-27. According to satellite data, ash plumes extending >385 km (>239 mi) mainly to the eastern directions from the volcano were registered on August 20-27. As of the 21st of August, (KVERT reported that activity of the volcano continues. Seismicity was slightly above background levels last week. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes containing ash raising up to 3.5-4.2 km (11,500-13,800 ft) ASL and extending to the different directions from the volcano were observed on August 16th-20th. Before ash plumes the height of gas-steam plumes was about 3.5-5.0 km (11,500 - 16,400 ft) ASL on August 13th-16th. According to satellite data, ash plumes extending about 215 km (>133 mi) mainly to the eastern and western directions from the volcano were registered on August 16th-20th. According to satellite data, an ash plume extending >180 km (>112 mi) to the ESE from the volcano was registered on August 12th. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered on July 20th. According to satellite data, gas-steam plumes containing an ash extending for about 100 km (62 mi) to the NE from the volcano were noted on April 17-18 and 22nd. There was registered an SO2 signal (OMI data) for about 15 km (9 mi) from Koryaksky on April 20th. On 11 April, KVERT staff reported ashfall in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (30 km S). Ash accumulated to 0.1-2.5 cm thickness near the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS) FED RAS. The Level of Concern Colour Code remained Orange. According to satellite data, aerosolic plumes containing ash extended about 225 km (140 mi) to the south-east from the volcano on March 25-26. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels on March 13th and at background levels during other days of the week. Aerosolic plumes containing small amount of ash raising up to 4.0 km (13,200 ft) ASL and extending to the eastern directions from the volcano were observed all week. As of the 6th of March, KVERT reported that during 3-4 March gas plumes containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 200 km ENE. Ash deposits were seen at the summit. Ash deposits 1-2 mm thick accumulated in an area between Koryaksky and Avachinsky volcanoes. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Orange. A strong fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on February 22-26. The volcano was obscured by clouds during other days. According to satellite data, an ash plume extending about 50 km (31 mi) and an aerosolic plume with ash to 200 km (124 mi) to the ENE from the volcano were observed on February 25th. During 6-7 January gas-and-steam plumes drifted SW. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Yellow. As of the 2nd of January, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that weak explosive activity of the volcano continued. According to scientists, probably activities of the volcano will increase again. The activity of the volcano is dangerous for low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was at background levels: from 1 to 7 volcanic earthquakes were noting each day at the volcano. Possibly an episode of volcanic tremor were registered on December 30-31 and January 1st. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes possibly containing small amount of ash moves on the surface of north-western slope of the volcano on December 30-31. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. As of the 28th of December, KVERT informed that moderate explosive Volcanian type eruption of the volcano occured. Ash plumes raise about 4.0 km (13.200 ft) ASL and extended to the north-west from the volcano. No seismic data about this event by technical reasons. Gas-steam plumes containing small amount of ash were registering during daylight hours on the satellite images on December 23-25. Strong fumarolic activity were noted at the volcano from November, 2008. According to satellite data, on December 24th of December, at 23:34 UTC (NOAA 17, 4m5)) and 23:42 UTC ( TERRA MODIS, 31m32) a dense ash plume extended over 60 km (37 mi) and a poor ash plume extended 140 km (87 mi) to the northeast of the volcano. According to visual data by observers from Nalychevo valley, a dark column rose about 200-300 m from the vent of a fumarole on the northwestern flank of Koryaksky volcano on December 24. The fumarole is located about 3.0 km ASL. Observers heard a boom from the volcano at night. According to seismic data (KB GS RAS), only 2 earthquakes were registered on December 23 on the depth of 5.0 km under the volcano. KVERT continues to monitor Koryaksky volcano. The colour code at Koryaksky is currently at YELLOW. The large symmetrical Koryaksky stratovolcano is the most prominent landmark of the NW-trending Avachinskaya volcano group, which towers above Kamchatka's largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion has produced a ribbed surface on the eastern flanks of the 3456-m-high volcano; the youngest lava flows are found on the upper western flank and below SE-flank cinder cones. No strong explosive eruptions have been documented during the Holocene. Extensive Holocene lava fields on the western flank were primarily fed by summit vents; those on the SW flank originated from flank vents. Lahars associated with a period of lava effusion from south- and SW-flank fissure vents about 3900-3500 years ago reached Avacha Bay. Only a few moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during historical time. Koryaksky's first historical eruption, in 1895, also produced a lava flow.

RUSSIA - Kizimen volcano

November 14th, 2009

As of the 13th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that fumarolic activity of the volcano continues and such activity is normal for the volcano. KVERT continues to watch the Kizimen volcano. Seismicity was slightly above background levels on November 6th, 8th and 10th, and didn't exceeded background levels in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds last week. As of the 30th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues. KVERT continues to watch the Kizimen volcano. Seismic activity of the volcano was slightly above background levels on October 26th and didn't exceeded background levels in the others days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds last week. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels on October 15-19 and didn't exceeded background levels in the others days of week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was registered on October 16th. Many shallow earthquakes were registered during October 09-11. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was registered on October 9th. As of the 10th of october, KVERT reported that seismic activity of the volcano increased in the last day. Many shallow earthquakes (one with magnitude 3.1) were registered during October 09. Intensification of seismic activity of the volcano is possibly. Possibly there is a preparation of an explosive eruption of the volcano. During September, 2009, seismicity of the volcano was mainly at background levels but since October a number of shallow volcanic earthquakes near the volcano began to increase. According to satellite data by KVERT, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was noted on September 17 and 21. As of the 28th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues. Strong explosive eruption possible in case of further seismicity increasing. Seismicity was above background levels on August 20-22 and at background levels in the other days of this week. According to satellite data, volcano was quiet. As of the 14th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that seismic activity of the volcano continued to increase since July 11. Strong explosive eruption possible in case of further seismicity increasing. Seismicity was above background levels on August 7th and 9th-11th; and at background levels in the other days of this week. According satellite data, volcano was obscured by clouds last week, a thermal anomaly was not registered this week. As of the 31st of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that seismic activity of the volcano increased since July 11th. Shallow earthquakes were registered during three weeks. Strong explosive eruption possible in case of further seismicity increasing. Seismicity was above background levels, several tens of shallow earthquakes per day were registered. Kizimen is an isolated, conical stratovolcano that is morphologically similar to Mount St. Helens prior to its 1980 eruption. The summit of Kizimen consists of overlapping lava domes, and blocky lava flows descend the flanks of the volcano, which is the westernmost of a volcanic chain north of Kronotsky volcano. The 2376-m-high Kizimen was formed during four eruptive cycles beginning about 12,000 years ago and lasting 2000-3500 years. The largest eruptions took place about 10,000 and 8300-8400 years ago, and three periods of long-term lava dome growth have occurred. The latest eruptive cycle began about 3000 years ago with a large explosion and was followed by lava dome growth lasting intermittently about 1000 years. An explosive eruption about 1100 years ago produced a lateral blast and created a 1.0 x 0.7 km wide crater breached to the NE, inside which a small lava dome (the fourth at Kizimen) has grown. A single explosive eruption, during 1927-28, has been recorded in historical time.

RUSSIA - Sarychev volcano (Kurile islands)

September 24th, 2009

As of the 23rd of September, the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) has reported that again weak volcanic activity continues. According to satellite data during the week weak steam-gas emissions and thermal anomalies were observed. Since June 15th, there have been no additional large ash explosions. According to satellite images from today, ( MODIS 0120 hrs UTC) mostly cloudy at volcano. Sarychev Peak volcano is not monitored with ground-based instrumentation to detect earthquakes. SVERT uses satellite data to observe the volcano each day, weather permitting. The next update will be sent tomorrow or earlier if a significant change is detected. As of the 7th of July, the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) has reported that according to satellite images from today, (MODIS 0257 hrs UTC) steam-gas emission stretches to northeast 20 km. Its height is 2-3 km. An intense thermal anomaly is also observed. IMGG volcanologists are visiting Matua Island this week to investigate the eruption. Since June 16th, there have been no additional large ash explosions. SVERT reported that an intense thermal anomaly from Sarychev Peak was detected on satellite imagery during 24-30 June. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 9 km NW on 24 June, S on 26 June, 26 km SSE on 28 June, and 40 km SE at an altitude of 3 km on 29 June. As of the 22nd of June, according data of MODIS 0906220013 UTC, a high steam-gas emission stretched north to 29 km at a height up to 1.5 km. An intense thermal anomaly was visible on 24 June. As of the 19th of June, according to data of MODIS 0906190120 UTC and MTSAT the intensity of activity has declined. Cloudy conditions obscure observations. Possible small volcanic emissions my be occurring. According to NOAA AVHRR data at 09170.0214, a strong thermal anomaly was detected but no ash signal was detected.As of the 18th of June, according to data of MODIS 0906180037 UTC the eruption of the volcano continued. The emission of the mainly steam-gas stretches to south-west direction. weak ash falls were observed in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. According to data of MTSAT great volcanic explosions occurred at 14 June at 1930 UTC and 15 June at 0130 UTC. The suggested height of ash plume is greater than 26,000 feet (8 km). The Tokyo VAAC has estimated the cloud height up to 54000 feet above sea level. According to MODIS 0906150007 UTC all ash cloud are seen on the south-east and north-west. Whole length is more than 600 km. As of the 12th of June, SVERT detected a strong eruption from Sarychev Peak (Matua island, Central Kuril Islands). Ash emission seen in MODIS image from 0019UTC shows was attached to the volcano and extended 200 km to the south-west and 105 km to the south-east. The Tokyo VAAC reported the height of the ash cloud at 34000 feet above sea level. It appears the eruption began around 0200UTC on 12 June. Based on past eruptions at Sarychev, explosive activity could continue for days to weeks. A cyclone in the Kuril Islands makes observation of this eruption difficult. Sarychev is not monitored with ground-based instruments. SVERT will continue to monitor the eruption with MODIS and NOAA satellite imagery as weather allows and issue further reports as additional information becomes available. The regularly-active cone of Sarychev Peak (1446 M) is 6 km in diameter and forms the north-western part of Matua Island. On the south-west, the cone adjoins to the remains of a caldera forming the south-east half of the island. The summit crater has a diameter of about 250 m and a depth of 250m. The inner walls are precipitous and in some places even overhanging. The bottom of the crater is filled with solidified lava in the form of slightly convex shield. The ancient lava flows of the central cone descend on the south-eastern slope of somma. The modern flows of the central cone form small tongues near the crater. Lava flows consist of two-pyroxene basalts and andesite-basalts. Sarychev Peak is one of the most active Kuril volcanoes. Prior eruptions at Sarychev Peak are as follows: 1760–a very great explosive eruption; winter 1878-1879 – a quiet lava outflow, 1928–explosive eruption, 1930 – great explosive eruption lasting 13 hours; 1946 – a very great eruption, explosions with large bombs landing as far as 7 km from the crater and the height of ash emissions reaching more than 6 km; 1954 – small ash emissions; in 1960 - a brief explosive eruption. The most recent eruption began on September 23, 1976 when a series of explosions destroyed the old lava plug. The ash plume extended 300 km to the north-north-east and reached the height of 2.5 km. The eruption terminated with lava outflows. In the August 2008 the personnel of SVERT group conducted observations of the volcano Sarychev Peak, noting large constant fumarolic activity. Precursory signs of volcanic activity were not observed. (information from SVERT)

RUSSIA - Kolokol group (Kurile Islands)

September 3rd, 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, SVERT reported that on 26 August a gas-and-steam plume possibly containing ash rose from Berg (part of the Kolokol Group of volcanoes) to an altitude greater than 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. This group of Holocene volcanoes in central Urup Island is named after its most prominent volcano, Kolokol. Berg and Trezubetz volcanoes, flanking Kolokol on the NW, have breached summit calderas partially filled by lava domes. Trezubetz, whose name means "trident," has
an eroded crater rim with three large peaks when seen at sea from the north. Kolokol volcano rises to 1328 m and is sometimes known as Urup-Fuji because of its symmetrical profile. The crater of Kolokol is not well preserved, but the volcano displays no evidence of glacial erosion. Several lava flows originate from Kolokol; one of these extends almost to the Sea of Okhotsk coast. A viscous lava flow armoring the SE flank is probably the most recent from Kolokol. Borzov volcano, the oldest of the group, lies to the SW of
Kolokol. Eruptions of the Kolokol volcano group have been observed in historical time since the late-18th century. Berg volcano has been most active, but Trezubetz erupted in 1924. (GVN/GVP)


RUSSIA - Ebeko volcano (Kurile Islands)

October 30th, 2009

As of the 29th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 26 October a possible eruption plume from Ebeko rose to an altitude of 8.8 km (29,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Emissions continued the next day. As of the 24th of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues. Moderate gas-steam emission sometimes with small amount of ash occurred at Ebeko. The danger of sudden ash explosions up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) ASL exists. Activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to satellite monitoring, a thermal anomaly and ash plumes were not registered. Ebeko volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT uses satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations from Paramushir Island. As of the 24th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that during 24 April-1 May 2009 observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 6 km in multiple directions. On 23 April, a small amount of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk. Satellite imagery revealed strips of ash deposits radiating from the crater in different directions on 29 and 30 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. The eastern part of the southern crater of Ebeko contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater of Ebeko is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters of Ebeko, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.(From KVERT). To view current activity of Ebeko - More about Kurile Islands

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NEW ZEALAND - White island volcano

October 24th, 2008

A White Island's Crater Lake has continued to rise since December 2007, after being almost completely evaporated in late October 2007. By 23 October the lake was reported to have risen 15 m and was beginning to affect the geothermal features on the Main Crater floor. New springs formed on the floor and old springs flowed again. The lake temperature remained hot at 57 degrees Celsius and the color had changed to light green, reflecting a decrease in suspended sediment. High-temperature fumaroles (101-103 degrees Celsius) were located on the S side of the Main Crater floor. Steam, gas, and mud emissions had increased from the largest vent during the previous few weeks. The Alert Level remained at Level 1 (on a scale of 0-5), indicating signs of volcano unrest.Live cam link - other webcam

NEW ZEALAND - Ruapehu volcano

September 18th, 2008

As of the 18 th of September, Geonet bulletin (INGS) reported this day that Ruapehu appears to be entering a new heating cycle. The Crater Lake temperature has risen to 22°C this month, from 16°C in August, a change accompanied by some volcanic tremor. Between October 2007 and June 2008 the temperature varied between 34°C and 37°C. Sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide levels in the volcano's plume are also showing an upwards trend, consistent with the rising temperature within the Crater Lake. There is nothing unusual about any of this, because cyclic activity in the Crater Lake is very common at Ruapehu. The volcano in central North Island, last erupted on Sept. 25 2007, spitting 2 metre (6 feet) boulders distances of up to 2 kms (1.5 miles). Ruapehu's elevated alert level has not been changed, but IGNS reported on Tuesday that activity within the mountain was greater, with high levels of gas spewing out, a warmer than average crater lake and ongoing volcanic tremors. The volcano remains in a status of unrest and the possibility of further activity remains. If further eruptions occur, they may occur without warning. As of the 3rd of May, the Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences (IGNS) has reported that Ruapehu volcano in New Zealand is showing signs of increasing activity. The Department of Conservation issued a warning to climbers of an increased chance of eruption from the crater lake. Risks to people entering the Summit Hazard Zone within 2km of Crater Lake are assessed to be higher than normal, due to an increase in gas emission. The alert level remains at Level One. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys. ). Ruapehu Live cam

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PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Langila volcano

October 9th, 2009

As of the 8th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 September an ash plume from Langila drifted 260 km NW at an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. On 5 October, a diffuse ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 185 km N. As of the 1st of October, GVN reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 September an ash plume from Langila rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-220 km NW. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

PAPUA-NEW GUINEA - Rabaul volcano

April 10th, 2010

RVO reported on 9 April that deformation measurements at Rabaul caldera during the previous 3-4 months showed an inflationary trend with a total of 4 cm of uplift. During 2-8 April seismicity was low and variable amounts of white vapor rose from Tavurvur cone. As of the 17th of December, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that activity from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone consisted of a few strong explosions towards the beginning of the 4-10 December reporting period, and emissions of gray ash afterwards. Diffuse white vapour was emitted during quieter intervals. Ash plumes rose 1 km above the summit and drifted SE towards Tokua and the Tokua airport, causing suspension of some flights. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35 km SE. Previously (RVO) reported that during 27 November-3 December dense white plumes and gray ash plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. Strong explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the summit and showered the flanks with lava fragments that were incandescent at night. Shock waves rattled windows in the Kokopo area, about 20 km SE. Incandescence from the summit crater was occasionally noted. During 2-4 December, ash fell in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and other villages downwind. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5 and 7-8 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-55 km E. As of the 3rd of December, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that during 20-26 November thick white plumes and gray ash plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. Strong explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the summit and showered the flanks with lava fragments that were incandescent at night. Shock waves rattled windows in the Kokopo area, about 20 km SE. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was noted. As of the 22nd of October, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15, 18, and 20 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-85 km NW, W, and NE. As of the 15th of October, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that during 2-8 October gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 2 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Incandescence from the summit crater was occasionally visible. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 October an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. As of the 24th of September, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that during 11-17 September gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night, and incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Rumbling and roaring noises were reported. Several strong explosions occurred on 11, 16, and 17 September, but were few or absent on other days. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-110 km NW. The low-lying Rabaul caldera lies on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain.

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Karkar volcano

November 28th, 2009

As of the 28th of November, latest information showed that it is clear that whatever it was that caused Darwin VAAC to report a major eruption at Karkar volcano , it was not in fact an eruption. As of the 25 th of November, according Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) a possible significant eruption of Karkar volcano in Papua New Guinea occured (unconfirmed information). The first advisory was issued at 08:39 UTC and reported eruption with eruptive plume to at least 10,000 metres altitude (?). More recent advisories (the latest at the time of posting, issued at 20:57 UTC), reported ash to 13,700 metres altitude. A magnitude 5.1 earthquake hit 90 km SSE of Karkar volcano 7.5 hours before the eruption. No other information on this possible eruption appears to be available at the moment. Details as soon as possible. Karkar (1839 m) is a 19 x 25 km wide, forest-covered island that is truncated by two nested summit calderas. The 5.5-km-wide outer caldera was formed during one or more eruptions, the last of which occurred 9000 years ago. The eccentric 3.2-km-wide inner caldera was formed sometime between 1500 and 800 years ago. Parasitic cones are present on the northern and southern flanks of basaltic-to-andesitic Karkar volcano; a linear array of small cones extends from the northern rim of the outer caldera nearly to the coast. Most historical eruptions, which date back to 1643, have originated from Bagiai cone, a pyroclastic cone constructed within the steep-walled, 300-m-deep inner caldera. The floor of the caldera is covered by young, mostly unvegetated andesitic lava flows. last knows eruption occured in 1979.

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TONGA - Hunga Ha'apai islands

March 22nd, 2009

Local pilot reported that at 1015 on 21 March the island was covered by weather clouds, the crater was not visible, and there was no vertical plume; haze was again below an inversion layer at 1.5 km altitude. No
eruptions were seen during the 15 minutes the island was visible on the return flight around 1250. However, steaming continued, with the plume rising to 1.8 km altitude. A new eruptive episode was reported by Tongatapu airport observers at 1409 on 21 March that sent an ash plume 800 m high. As of the 20th of March,Wellington VAAC reported that eruptive activity at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai appears to have declined somewhat over the last 12 hours. The VAAC advisory, based on pilot observations and satellite imagery, reported no more active eruptions steaming 1800 metres high, with white and wispy ash haze extending to large areas ENE blw 5000ft [below 1500 metres]‘. An earlier advisory (17:58 GMT - 19th March) reported frequent eruptions and ash clouds to FL130 (13000 feet, 4000 metres), with a plume extending 300 miles (480 kilometres) ENE. At 01:30 GMT today NASA's Aqua satellite captured a MODIS image which showed only a small plume extending less than 10 kilometres ENE of the volcano (from the NASA MODIS). As of the 18th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that a new eruption in Tonga was documented on 16 or 17 March by observers flying near the area. Preliminary description and coordinates suggest that the eruption is from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai islands ( approx. coordinates S 20º 27' 73? W 175º 25' 61? given by the pilots). Residents said the steam and ash column first appeared on Monday morning, after a series of earthquakes were felt in the capital, Nuku'alofa. Press reported that spectacular columns spewed out of the sea about 6 miles (10 kilometers) from the southwest coast off the main island of Tongatapu. According to Tonga GeologicaI Service it was likely the underwater eruption was taking place to the west of the low-lying twin volcanic islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai, within sight of Nuku'alofa. Preliminary report and photos.The small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai cap a large seamount located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The two linear andesitic islands are about 2 km long and represent the western and northern remnants of a the rim of a largely submarine caldera lying east and south of the islands. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai reach an elevation of only 149 m and 128 m above sea level, respectively, and display inward-facing sea cliffs with lava and tephra layers dipping gently away from the submarine caldera. A rocky shoal 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga marks the most prominent historically active vent. Submarine eruptions were reported here in 1912 and 1937 and from a fissure 1 km SSE of Hunga Ha'apai in 1988.

TONGA - West Mata submarine volcano

May 20th, 2009

In early May, scientists aboard a NOAA Vents Program rapid-response vessel, the R/V Thompson, traveled to the Lau-Tonga region to inspect the sea floor after strong indications of eruptive activity had been detected during a November 2008 expedition. On 6 and 7 May, team members used the Jason 2 ROV to observe eruptions from two vents of West Mata, a small submarine volcanic cone in the northeast Lau Basin, about 200 km SW of Samoa. Explosive activity occurred from one end of a 5-m-long fissure at Hades vent, at a depth of 1,208 m, while pillow lavas erupted from the other end of the fissure. Glowing bubbles up to a meter in diameter also issued from the fissure. The Prometheus vent, a cinder cone located near the summit and about 100 m N of Hades, erupted explosively with nearly continuous lava fountains that ejected tephra into the water. Both vents were often obscured by sulfur gas emissions, but incandescence was visible for minutes at a time. West Mata, a submarine volcano rising to within 1174
m of the sea surface, is located in the northeast Lau Basin at the northern end of the Tonga arc. It was discovered during a 2008 NOAA Vents Program expedition to be producing hydrothermal plumes consistent with a recent eruption. A return visit in May 2009 documented explosive and effusive activity from two closely spaced vents, one at the summit, and the other on the SW rift zone. (from GVN/GVP)
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Mariannes islands - Pagan volcano

April 17th , 2009

As of the 16th of April, the CNMI Emergency Management Office has elevated its volcano alert level after receiving reports of increased volcanic activity on Pagan Island in the Northern Islands. In a statement issued yesterday, EMO reported they first received a call regarding the volcanic activity from Pagan at 6pm Wednesday 15th of April. EMO consulted with the U.S. Geological Services and the National Weather Service in Guam, which observed a plume of black and white, possible ash and gas emitting from the volcano on Pagan. EMO said it contacted a vessel named MV San Antonio that was on Pagan at the time to verify the situation. According to the captain of the vessel, the plume was about twice the size of Mt. Pagan. Pagan Island, the largest and one of the most active of the Mariana Islands volcanoes, consists of two stratovolcanoes connected by a narrow isthmus. Both North and South Pagan stratovolcanoes were constructed within calderas, 7 and 4 km in diameter, respectively. The 570-m-high Mount Pagan at the NE end of the island rises above the flat floor of the northern caldera, which probably formed during the early Holocene. South Pagan is a 548-m-high stratovolcano with an elongated summit containing four distinct craters. Almost all of the historical eruptions of Pagan, which date back to the 17th century, have originated from North Pagan volcano. The largest eruption of Pagan during historical time took place in 1981 and prompted the evacuation of the sparsely populated island. Last know eruption occured in 2006.
 

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ANTARCTICA - Erebus Volcano

March 1st, 2009

As of the 1st of March 2009, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reported that Antarctica's Mt. Erebus continues with a molten lava lake and vapour emissions. It may be covered with glaciers, but they do little to cool the volcano's molten core. As of the 1st of August 2007, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) was reported that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activityAccording to the Mt. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October 2005, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions. Mt. Erebus, the southern most volcano in the world, still continues to be the most active volcano in Antarctica. Mt. Erebus (3794 meters above sea level) is classified as a polygenetic stratovolcano. The composition of the current eruptive activity on Mt. Erebus is anorthoclase-phyric tephriphonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano. The oldest eruptive products from Mt. Erebus consist of relatively undifferentiated and non-viscous basanitic lavas that form the low, broad platform shield of the Erebus edifice. Slightly younger basanites and phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of an early Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Mt. Erebus edifice. Lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 meters is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the center of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts. Mt. Erebus located on Ross Island, Antarctica is the world’s southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970’s had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment. Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Information from : MEVO - Live cam link

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VANUATU - Gaua - Mt. Garet volcano

April 22nd, 2010

As of the 22nd of April, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that the situation at Gaua is worsening. Ash from the current eruption is contaminating water and food supplies on the island. Authorities are planning on evacuating 3,000 people from the island if the eruption that started in 2009 gets worse, but there has already been significant ash fall, mudflows and explosions. As of the 7th of April, the analysis of data collected from the monitoring network of Gaua volcano since October 2009 indicates the existence of volcanic tremor. The OMI satellite images also show the abundance of gases emitted from this volcano daily. Field observations reported by the Geohazards officer in Gaua confirmed significant change of activity with ticker and higher emissions of ash columns. Since last week (end of march/beginning of April 2010) the ash plumes height dwell between 7000 and 10000
feet every day. Field reports also stated that the explosion sounds could be heard from the villages daily. Moreover, starting from the 3rd of April 2010 the volcanic bombes projections from Gaua volcano could be observed from all the coastal villages from the north to the south of the island with reports of the ashfall.
As of the 29th of January, Geo-hazards Vanuatu reported that the volcanic activity on Gaua has changed significantly during the month of January. More gas has been emitted since 16 January, followed by multiple explosions with thicker and darker ash plume. This plume of ash and gas was being expelled to about more than 3000 meters high and carried by the wind to surrounding villages in the south and west. Strong strombolian activity was evident on the 24th of January 2010 as villagers were able to observe its projections. These signs indicate that the level of magma is rising. Very strong explosions have been heard and seen from the coastal villages of East Gaua this morning, January 29th 2010. Due to the current activity, the level of water and the rate of river flow from the waterfall and outlets were observed to have risen from 20 to 30cm since January 22nd. This occurrence is possibly due to the disturbance within the Lake Letas which is feeding the river due to the rising activity. Water from water thanks in the eastern coast is becoming acid from the acid rains. This means that there can be greater threats posed given the occurrence of volcanic explosions. As of the 13th of January 2010, Geo-Hazards Vanuatu reported that the continuous ash emission activity of the Gaua volcano that begun on Monday 14th December 2009 with the significant emissions of ashes is still ongoing. This was accompanied by explosions heard from the villages on the 29th of December 2009. This eruptive phase is different from previous activities with thicker and darker plumes (see photos). These changes reflect the evolution of the source (alimentation) of the volcano. Ash falls continue to persist in the western part of Gaua and with the changes in the direction of the wind; it is possible that ash falls may also be experienced in the eastern part of the island. Chemical analysis of the ashes that fell and were collected in October, which was carried out by York University in England, have indicated that there is a high concentration of chemicals which are hazardous to the human health within these ash particles from Gaua. More analysis will be coming up on the new deposits. The latest OMI satellite images clearly show the persistence of significant flux of gases being emitted from Gaua volcano. As of the 27th of November, the Geo-hazards Officer who is responsible for the Gaua volcano monitoring works on Gaua has confirmed the big explosion of the Gaua volcano in November 18th 2009 at 2pm. This explosion has been followed by very thick and high emissions of ash columns that were covering the areas exposed to trade winds in the West. Volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring station based in east Gaua shows the increase in volcano activity signals starting from October 25th. Until present, the data shows that the activity of Gaua volcano remains significant. With this trend, it is recommended that the Alert Level of the volcano be remained at level 2 according to the Vanuatu volcano Alert Levels (VVAL) while Geo-hazards is carrying out a very close monitoring with the IGNS counterparts. The danger persists in the red and yellow colour zones of the hazard map, especially the risks of ash falls and mudflows in the zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3 of the revised hazards map. According to news release more than 300 villagers were evacuated on Thursday 26th of November after an eruption started from the volcano and spewing smoke and ash onto the island and villages around. Residents were loaded onto fishing boats and shipped to the far side of Gaua island after the volcano. Also, according to Vanuatu's National Disaster Management Office they're evacuating people to the other side of the island. The Red Cross is providing water containers and purification tablets for the villagers, who have been hit by respiratory problems and diarrhoea caused by the volcano's pungent sulphur fumes. The evacuees will have to stay away from their villages until the volcano subsides, he said. The area has been put on the second highest alert level. No more information was reported directly from VGO yet. Previously, as of the 13th of October VGO (Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory) latest bulletin reported that after the assessment of the geohazards team on Gaua volcano from 3-7 October 2009, it is confirmed that Mont Garet volcano is going through an eruptive phase starting from the 27th of September 2009. Seismic records of the seismic station installed on Gaua show that many explosions occurred on Gaua volcano. Volcanic gas flux measurements on October 3rd show that 3000 tons of sulfuric dioxide is released from this volcano each day, this means that a significant quantity of magma is degassing from Gaua volcano. The lake letas, localised close to the Mont Garet volcano, is one of the biggest crater lake of South Pacific, its volume reachs 800 million cubic meters which is drained out through the river of the Waterfall. With this information, the Alert level of this volcano is now raised to Level 2 on the Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL). This means that this volcano is going through a minor eruption. It is not recommended to approach the volcano. The danger remains in the red zone area on the hazard map including all the river outlets in Gaua, especially the river of waterfall (see Hazard map). With the related alert level, a level of response from the community is required (see attached Community Disaster response plan). Geohazards is doing its best with the limited resources available to continue monitoring this volcano. As of the 6th of october, local New Zealand information reported that volcanologists in Vanuatu are closely monitoring the Gaua volcano to consider whether to move its alert to level two. A senior vulcanologist at the geohazards department, Douglas Charley, reported his team has recorded more activity since last night. Very late yesterday the team started to observe an increase of a high volcanic high frequency. The level remains at one and the team will be trying to observe this until the next 48 hours. If activity will increasing further, Alert level will be putting to level two.Douglas Charley says they have one monitoring station in the field, but are now requesting more to get more reliable data. As of the 1st of october 2009, the national authorities of the republic of Vanuatu from the the Vanuatu Department of Geology Mines and Water Resources have issued an alert (at the lowest level of one , on a scale of 1-5) for Gaua volcano island, also known as Santa Maria Island located the northern part of the archipelago. The volcano has been showing signs of activity for the last two weeks, with accounts of repeated explosions and ash and gas emission. Local inhabitants have reported large quantities of smoke being produced by the volcano, a strong smell of sulphur and some contamination of local water and food supplies. About 2000 people live on the island. The roughly 20-km-diameter Gaua Island, also known as Santa Maria, consists of a basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano with an 6 x 9 km wide summit caldera. Small parasitic vents near the caldera rim fed Pleistocene lava flows that reached the coast on several sides of the island; several littoral cones were formed where these lava flows reached the sea. Quiet collapse that formed the roughly 700-m-deep caldera was followed by extensive ash eruptions. Construction of the historically active cone of Mount Garat (Gharat) and other small cinder cones in the SW part of the caldera has left a crescent-shaped caldera lake. The symmetrical, flat-topped Mount Garat cone is topped by three pit craters. The onset of eruptive activity from a vent high on the SE flank of Mount Garat in 1962 ended a long period of dormancy. Last know significative activity occures in 1982 (GVN/GVP)

VANUATU - Ambrym volcano

April 2nd, 2009

As of 2nd of April based on information from the Port Vila airport tower, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 25 March an ash plume from Ambrym rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 55 km S. The next day, a pilot reported that "smoke" rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery. Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major Plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

 

Bezymianny volcano (H.Gaudru)
VANUATU - Yasur volcano ( Tanna island)

March 10th, 2010

Following the observations of the Geo-hazards team on in March 8th 2010 and the analysis of the volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring network of this volcano, it is confirmed that the activity of this volcano is increasing since January 2010, as indicated in the satellite images. This is also proven by the activity of all the three active vents and the recent volcanic bombs that fell on visitors' observation path. Under these circumstances, the Alert Level for Yasur volcano is raised to LEVEL 2 according to the Vanuatu Volcanoes Alert Levels (VVAL) . This means that eruptions are moderate and danger close to the volcano, within parts of Red Zone of the Hazard map. Thus approaching the volcano could be dangerous; it would be safer to view the yasur volcano from the parking area to avoid the volcano impact. Visitors and tourism agencies are advised to consider this information until the next alert is released. Previously, as of the 12th of August 2009, John Seach reported that eruptive activity continues at Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. During a visit to the volcano from 1-3 August, John Seach observed Strombolian explosions ejecting lava to a height of 300 m above the vent. Ash emissions were lower than normal, which allowed good views into the crater. One vent was active in the northern crater, and two vents active in the southern crater. As of the 1st of March 2009, Yasur volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has done so for at least 800 years. Previously, as of the 1st of October, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur is still currently erupting. Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. As of the 9th of April 2008, mainly from reports of John Seach , reported that a major earthquake (magnitude 7.6) hit southern Vanuatu today at 2346hrs local time. The earthquake was located east of the South New Hebrides Trench and 97 km SW of Yasur volcano. The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre said there was no tsunami threat. The main earthquake was preceded by a large and two medium sized earthquakes; magnitude 6.5, 5.9, and 4.9. Yasur is the closest active volcano to the earthquake epicentre and is currently erupting. As of the 1st of April, activity has been almost continuous at the Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. As of the 26th of March, the Darvin Volcanic Ash Advisory (DVAAC) has reported that Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. On 7-8th March, ash emissions increased at Yasur producing ashfall over villages within 4 km of the crater. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. Previous information from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occurred from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxide measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tonnes per day (500 tonnes per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu) Yasur is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Previous informations from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occured from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxyde measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tons per day (500 tons per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu)Previous significative information (September 2002) reported an increasing level of activity at Yasur since October 2001 and the volcanic quake of August 29, 2002 (about 3:00 pm local time), led local volcanologist to upgrade the hazard rating to Alarm Level 3. Access to the volcano was closed.The August 29 quake, magnitude 6 was strongly felt by the inhabitants of the whole district around the volcano (White Sands, Port Resolution, …). This was the first time since the seismic station was installed in October 1992 that a shock of such magnitude was recorded (see graphs below). Elders of the Yasur district confirm that such a quake had not been experienced within living memory.Two new seismological monitoring stations are about to be installed, to complement the existing alarm system installed 2 km from Yasur and the Isangel station. At this time, evacuation of the roughly 6000 inhabitants of the district has not been considered. Information bulletins will be broadcast by Radio Vanuatu to keep the population concerned informed of new developments. Yasur's activity follows a long volcanic history in the southeastern part of the island , whose main phases, over approximately the last 10,000 years, have produced: 1/ lava flows; 2/ extensive glowing ash flows that covered the entire region from Kwamera to Waisisi, and 3/ the construction of another small volcanic cone, the Ombus. Yasur volcano lies over a large and shallow (less than 10 km from the surface) magmatic chamber whose center is located between Port-Resolution and Sulfur Bay; thus, the possibility of a major eruption within a century or a millennium cannot be ignored. Such an eruption, however, would be preceded by numerous earthquakes. Should this happen, evacuation of the local population toward the west coast, the central districts and the north of the island would have to be carried out rapidly. Informations from :M.Lardy (IRD Noumea)

 

VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on 15th of April 2010 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : New eruption at the Eyjafjallajokull is still continuing - Iceland (read report below) -

 

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano
 

September 28th , 2009

As of the 27th of september 2009. IG reported that both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

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Cratère du Guagua Pichincha - Aôut 1999 -Viracucha
ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

April 10th, 2010

As of the 9th of April, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the activity of Tungurahua volcano maintains a level of activity considered as low. At the moment light drizzles in the sector have been registered. One does not have reports of lahars. The volcano remains cloudy. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity: One has entered 1 event of long period (LP) has been registered, 1 episode of tremor of emission. The volcano has remained dimmed; visual registries of the surface activity are not had.As of the 2nd of April, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the activity of Tungurahua volcano stayed in a level considered as low. The volcano remained cloudy which is the reason why visual reports are not had. In afternoon yesterday, light rains in the sector of the volcano appeared that did not generate lahars. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity: One has entered 1 event of long period (LP) has been registered. The volcano has remained in a storm cloud, thus they do not have reports of its surface activity. Light rains during the afternoon of yesterday have been registered without having generated lahars. As of the 26th of March, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) reported that the volcano presents/displays a low level of activity. The volcano has remained in a storm cloud, especially the high part, reason why it does not have visual reports. Volcanic explosions have not been registered. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity, one has registered 6 events of long period (LP) and 4 small episodes of tremor of emission and 3 small episodes of harmonic tremor have been registered. As of the 24th of March, the IG reported that although inclement weather often prevented observations of Tungurahua during 17-23 March, steam-and-gas plumes were occasionally seen. Explosions were detected by the seismic network and heard in nearby areas on 19 March; the largest explosion generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Choglontús, to the SW. On 20 March small lahars affected the Baños-Penipe highway. On 22 March, ashfall was again reported in areas to the SW.As of the 19th of March, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that the Tungurahua volcano continues presenting/displaying a decreasing tendency of activity. The present level of the seismic activity is moderate-low. Unique two events of long period have been detected. Moderate rains took place during the night that did not generate mud flows nor lahars. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity, one has registered 2 events of long period (LP). LP earthquakes are related to the resonance of flowed in the cracks of the interior of the volcano. Generally the volcano has remained storm cloud, which is the reason why the zone of the crater could not be observed. Moderate rains were registered during the night, which did not generate lahars. As of the 12th of March, the Instituto Geofísico (IG) has reported that seismic activity is decreased with respect to previous days and it is in a moderate level considered as low with tendency falling. Most of the time the volcano has remained dimmed and it has not been possible to realise visual observations. Rains at night and dawn have appeared generating mud flows in the gorges of Pampas, Juive, Achupashal and Mapayacu. The IG also reported that with respect to seismicity: One has registered 4 events of long period (LP).The sector of the volcano has remained in a storm cloud, have not been realised visual observations. During the night and the dawn rains in the sector of the volcano were registered that produced the generation of lahars in the gorges of Pampas, Juive and Achupashal in the corner Baños, the mud flows transported blocks of up to 50 cm of diameter and great amount of fine volcanic material; also registry of the generation of a mud flow is had in the gorge of Mapayacu in the Penipe corner. Previously, the IG reported that although inclement weather often prevented observations of the volcano during 3-9 March, fumarolic activity in the crater was seen on 6 and 8 March. Ash fell in areas to the SW on 3 and 4 March.Tungurahua is a steep-sided stratovolcano or a conical volcano composed of many layers of hardened lava, tephra, and volcanic ash and is located near Ecuador's fourth largest city of Ambato, some 140 km south of the capital Quito. Tungurahua - Live webcam

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ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

April 10th, 2010

As of the 9th of April, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) reported that the activity of Reventador volcano stayed in a moderate level of activity. The volcano has remained dimmed. A total of 18 events of long period (LP), 17 explosions, 26 episodes of harmonic tremor, 7 episodes of tremor of emission and 1 volcano-tectonic (VT) event has been entered. The cloudiness of the sector has prevented to realise observations of the surface activity of the volcano. The strong rain in the sector has appeared during the morning and behind schedule of today; nevertheless, report of lahars is not had. As of the 2nd of April, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) reported that the activity of Reventador volcano stays in a moderate level of activity. The seismic activity is similar to the presented/displayed one in previous days and is related to movements of internal fluids. The presence of cloudiness in the zone has prevented the direct observation of the volcano. Light rains have been registered during the night without having generated lahars. A total of 19 events of long period (LP), 16 explosions, 9 episodes of harmonic tremor and 22 episodes of tremor of emission has been entered. Due to the cloudiness of the sector, visual reports of the surface activity of the volcano are not had. Light rains have been registered in the sector of the volcano during the night, without lahars taking place. As of the 26th of March, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) reported that Reventador volcano presents/displays a moderate level of activity. Signals of small explosions, episodes of tremor have been registered and related seismic events to movements of fluids. A total of 17 events of length has been entered. As of the 19th of March, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) reported that Reventador volcano presents/displays a moderate activity in last the 24 hours. Explosions signals of small, episode of tremor, related event to movements have been registered of flowed and other associates to the fracturing of rocks. The volcano has remained dimmed which is the reason why visual reports are not had; rains in the sector have not appeared. As of the 12th of March, IG reported that the Reventador volcano presents/displays a seismic activity similar to previous days, with related events to movements of fluids. The bad climatic conditions have not allowed to realise visual observations, have registered strong rains that have not generated problems with lahars. A total of 28 events of long period (LP), 12 explosions, 8 episodes of harmonic tremor and 21 episodes of spasmodic tremor has been entered. From yesterday the volcano has remained dimmed the volcanic complex, has not been realised visual observations. Strong rains have at dawn not generated problems with lahars. As of the 5th of March, IG reported that the seismic activity of the volcano is considered as moderate with a slight increase in the number of events, this one flowed activity is related to the movement of the interior of the volcanic complex. They have not generated lahars. A total of 28 events of long period (LP), 21 explosions, 5 episodes of harmonic tremor and 32 episodes of spasmodic tremor has been entered. The night of it was yesterday possible to observe the high part of the volcano and a slight incandescence was observed. During the morning a small steam emission was observed. As of the 26th of February, IG reported that the volcano presents/displays an activity characterized by related events to movement of flowed and some explosive events. The volcano clearing in the first hours of afternoon being observed a steam column of 1km of height. During the dawn light rains took place without generating lahars. A total of 30 events of long period (LP) has been entered, 9 explosions, 15 episodes of harmonic tremor and 20 of spasmodic tremor, 1 volcano-tectonic event. During the today dawn light rains took place without producing lahars. In the first afternoon hours, a steam column could be observed approximately of 1km of height. As of the 19th of February, the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) has reported that the seismic activity is characterized by the generation of tremors, especially harmonic. It is similar to previous days. Light rains appeared without registering lahars. A total of 15 events of long period (LP), 14 episodes of Harmonic Tremor, 8 explosions and 6 tremors of emission has been entered. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua from Pelileo - H.Gaudru - 1999
MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

April 10th, 2010

Report for the period from 5th of February 2010 to 9th of April 2010- Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has been low between 2th to 9 th of April. There have been nine rock fall signals, one long period, three hybrid and three volcano tectonic earthquakes recorded this week. Sporadic rockfalls are still occurring from several areas of the lava dome. The average sulphur dioxide flux measured for three days this week was 376 tons per day, with a daily minimum of 213 and a maximum of 640 tons per day. Several small areas of incandescence (glowing) visible to the naked eye have been seen on the lava dome on a number of nights this week. These are probably due to hotter areas of the dome being exposed by small rockfalls. Heavy rain on the eastern side of the island on the 2 April caused lahars in the Farm River and Trants area. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano also remained low the week from 26th of March to 2nd of April. There have been seventeen rock fall signals, and one hybrid earthquake recorded this week. Sporadic rockfalls and pyroclastic flows are still occurring on the western and southern flanks of the lava dome. The average sulphur dioxide flux this week was 194 tons per day, with a daily minimum of 105 and a maximum of 304 tons per day. Previous week activity was also low from 19th to 26th of March.There were twenty eight rock fall signals, three long-period, three hybrid and one volcano tectonic earthquake recorded. Sporadic small to moderate pyroclastic flows are still occurring on the western and southern flanks of the lava dome. The largest pyroclastic flow, with a runout of 2 km to the west down Spring Ghaut, occurred on the evening of Thursday 25 March. The average sulphur dioxide flux this week was 342 tons per day, with a daily minimum of 256 and a maximum of 540 tons per day. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C. Activity was also low from 12th to 19th of March.There have been forty one rock fall signals, three long-period, seven hybrid earthquakes recorded this week. Small spots of incandescence on the dome were visible to the naked eye on 14 March. Occasional small pyroclastic flows and rockfalls are still occurring mainly from the western and southern parts of the dome, and these may occur at any time without warning. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements this week gave a hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratio of 0.6. The sulphur dioxide flux on 17 March was 2315 tons per day. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano was moderate from 5th of March to 12th of March.There have been forty seven rock fall signals, nine long-period, seven hybrid earthquakes and two volcano tectonic events recorded this week. A small swarm of six hybrid earthquakes occurred on 11 March. Heavy rain on 8 and 9 March caused some degradation of the remaining remnants of the lava dome. As a result a series of small to moderate pyroclastic flows moved down Gages valley to the west on 9 March. The maximum runout of these pyroclastic flows was about 2 km. Ashfall occurred in northeastern Montserrat as a result of these pyroclastic flows. The heavy rainfall this week has caused vigorous steaming of the deposits formed on 11 February that are still hot. Strong geysering was visible at Trants near the old Bramble airport with ash and steam fountaining occurring. In addition lahars travelled down several drainages around the volcano, including the Belham valley. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C. PREVIOUS WEEK Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano was low from 26th of February to 5th of March. There have been seven rock fall signals, one long-period and nine hybrid earthquakes recorded this week. During the early hours of 4 March there was a small swarm of seven relatively large hybrid earthquakes. Later in the morning of Thursday 4 March there were two small pyroclastic flows in the Tar River valley, which resulted in light ashfall in Salem and Olveston. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) gas measurements on the 1, 2 and 4 March gave hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratios of 0.81, 0.71 and 0.98 respectively which is a slight increase on previous weeks values. Observations of the inside of the crater at the summit of the dome on 26 February showed that it is shallow < 100 m deep and approximately 200 m wide. There was no newly extruded lava visible inside the crater. There has been a strong smell of sulphur in some areas of Montserrat at several times this week. This is due to the wind direction causing the gas plume from the volcano to drift across inhabited areas. The Hazard Level is 3. There is no access to Zone C. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has been low between 19th to 26th of February. There have been eleven rock fall signals and six hybrid earthquakes recorded this week. The few rockfalls that have taken place are mainly occurring from the walls of the collapse scar formed on the 11 February event. Night-time views of the dome show that in several places there are small points of incandescence visible to the naked eye. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) gas measurements on the 19 and 22 February gave a hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratio of 0.74 and 0.7, which is consistent with quite slow extrusion of lava. However MVO have not yet been able to make observations into the deep crater that exists in the summit of the dome. The Hazard Level is 3 (as of 23 February 2010). There is no access to Zone C. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano has been low during the week from 12th to 19th of February. There have been fifty three rock fall signals, thirty four long period events, four hybrid earthquakes and one volcano tectonic event recorded this week. There have been sporadic rockfalls occurring off the inner walls of the collapse scar formed by the 11 February event. In addition rockfalls have been generated from the dome summit region into Gages valley. On Sunday 14 February at 14:35 there were a series of four moderate-sized pyroclastic flows into Gingoes Ghaut to the southwest. These pyroclastic flows generated ashfall in inhabited areas of northwestern Montserrat. Clear views of the dome this week have revealed that the dome collapse scar on the northern flank of the volcano formed by the dome collapse event on the 11 February is approximately 300 metres wide. Separate from the collapse scar is a deep crater of a similar diameter in the summit of the lava dome. The pyroclastic flows formed on the 11 February have extended the coastline by a maximum of 650 metres to the east. MVO staff measured temperatures of 470oC at Trants on Monday 15 February, these deposits will retain such high temperatures for months. It is at present unclear whether there is any new dome growth within the crater. However FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements on the afternoon of the 17 February gave a hydrochloric acid /sulphur dioxide ratio of 0.76, which is consistent with quite slow extrusion of lava on that day. Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano was increased significantly during previous week from 5th to 12th of february, with two vulcanian explosions and a partial dome collapse. The two explosions occurred at 1:49 pm on Friday 5 February and 7:57 pm on Monday 8 February, lasted 7 and 6 minutes and ash plumes reached 25,000 and 15,000 ft respectively. There was no ashfall from either explosion in inhabited regions of Montserrat. Pyroclastic flows associated with the explosion on 5 February reached the sea at Aymers Ghaut and smaller pyroclastic flows (maximum run out 2 km) also occurred in several other valleys including Tyers ghaut. The 8 February explosion generated pyroclastic flows only in the Gages valley and these did not reach the sea. During the first part of the week activity was concentrated on the western side of the dome. Beginning on 9 February the focus of activity shifted from the west more to the northern side of the lava dome, although pyroclastic flows on the morning of 11 February travelled to the west, northeast and north simultaneously. The dome collapse event on 11 February lasted 55 minutes starting at 12:35 pm and reaching a peak at 13:04, although there were several pulses. Pyroclastic flows moved mainly to the northeast travelling across the sea at several points on the eastern side of the island. Pyroclastic surges moving over the sea on the eastern side of the island were visible from Lookout village. Significant deposition from pyroclastic flows has extended the coastline several hundred meters at the old Bramble airport. Pyroclastic flows also travelled northwest into Tyers Ghaut and down the Belham valley as far a Cork Hill. The ash plume reached 50,000 ft (from pilot reports) and drifted east and then southeast. Ashfall occurred in northeastern Montserrat, and was reported in southwest Antigua, Guadeloupe and Dominica. A large collapse scar has been excavated into the northeastern flank of the dome, although the summit of the original southwestern portion is still intact. There have been five hundred and twelve rock fall signals, one hundred and forty one long period events, eighty two hybrid earthquakes and four volcano tectonic events recorded this week. according to MVO the largest-scale ejection of material from the volcano for four years. MVO's Paul Coles reported that 10-15% of the lava dome has been removed by this collapse. Montserrat. Information : Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)
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Soufriere Hills dome on December 6, 2000 (Courtesy Caraibean Helicopter)

 

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

April 10th, 2010

As of the 9th of April, CENAPRED has reported that in the last 24 hours, the monitoring system of Popocatepetl volcano recorded 15 low intensity exhalations, accompanied by steam and gas emissions and small amounts emission of ash. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report there is not visibility to the summit of volcano due to the clouds. This morning CENAPRED could observe the volcano with a steam and gas emissions. From high to low probability the expected activity scenarios in the next hours, days or weeks are: moderate exhalations, some with ash emissions; occasionally mild incandescence during nights and sporadic low level explosions with low probabilities of incandescent fragment at short distance to the crater. There is a permanent monitoring of the volcano to detect any change. The traffic light of volcanic alert remains in YELLOW Phase 2. Previous important phase : as of the 23rd of August 2009, CENAPRED reported that the strong eruption of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico on the 20th August had ash emission to 27,000 ft altitude at 1645 hr (UT). Following this event, access has been restricted to a radius of 12 km from the crater. The road between Santiago Xalitzintla (Puebla) and San Pedro Nexapa (Mexico State), including Paso de Cortes, was open only to controlled traffic. Volcano Popocatépetl, 5426 m high is located at 70 km SE of Mexico City. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 250-450 m deep crater. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, have occurred since precolumbian time. Information from CENAPRED - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

MEXICO - Colima volcano

December 11th, 2009

As of the 10th of December, the Government of the State, reported that on the 1st of December a white plume from the Colima volcano rose 100 m above the crater and drifted E. On December 2nd, incandescent tephra was ejected 50 m above the crater towards the SE. Later that day, a white plume rose 50 m and drifted SW.D uring 2009 Colima (also known as Volcán de Fuego) has been emitting white and grey plumes that have reached as high as 6.4 km above sea level, and there have been occasional ejections of incandescent material. Both ground and air exclusion zones have been imposed around Colima by state civil protection authorities. The high level of activity has been causing some concern in the surrounding area, with reports of a high possibility that the volcano is preparing to erupt; the authorities have responded by playing down reports of imminent risks, while stressing the need for local people to remain watchful and prepared to respond to any increase in activity. As of the 4th of december, the Government of the State, through the State Unit of Civil Defence-Colima reported that fresh lava flows and ejections of incandescent material some 50 metres from the crater were observed on 2 December. On 26 November there was an overflight above the summit crater which reported that the lava dome within the main crater of Colima, which has been growing since February 2007, now blocks 80% of the crater and has attained a height of about 45-60 metres, diameter of 270 metres and volume of 2 million cubic metres). Material has accumulated against the western wall of the crater and against a section of the southern wall, which could produce occasional landslides down the western slopes of the volcano. High temperatures were reported within the crater. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base

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GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

March 26th, 2010

As of the 26th of March, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that eExpulsion of a fumarole of weak type rose to a low height in the direction of the West and the Northwest, has felt like 6 rumblings of weak intensity, which expel columns from ash to 300 metres of approximated height, which disperse in the direction of the West, the explosions which they have brought about abundant degassings by lapses of 3 minutes, avalanches in calm. As of the 11th of March, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that in the crater weak fumaroles of white colour rose to 50 m of height approximately. In the course of the night weak and moderate explosions were observed expelling columns of gray ash 300 and 800 and 1200 metres of height, moving to the east and southwest by 8 kilometres. Some of these explosions generated rumblings and shock waves. Also sounds degassing similar to airplane turbines were heard, with lapses of 5, 10 minutes. Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua. From (INSIVUMEH)

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

March 26th, 2010

As of the 26th of March, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) has reported that expulsion of fumaroles of white coloured smoke to 200 metres of height, 2 explosions of weak intensity in hours in the morning, also an expulsion of column of white colour to 300 metres dispersing in the direction of the Southwest, Avalanches of weak intensity and moderate envelope in the cupola on the Southwestern flank. As of the 11th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that in the course of the morning 2 moderate explosions have been observed, in an East direction, the ash column reached 800 metres and deposited fine gray ash particles on the Patzulin property and El Faro, villages Bethlehem and Calaguache. Constantly were observed avalanches of blocks in the lava flow the west. As of the 5th of March, the INSIVUMEH has reported that weak explosions occured which have expelled columns from gray ash to 200 and 500 metres of height transporting it on the flank this in the regions of Santa Maria and populations like Santa Maria de Jesus, Las Majadas and Llanos del Pinal en Quetzaltenango. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

March 26th, 2010

As of the 26th of March, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) reported that expelling fumaroles from moderate type of white and blue colour rose to a 150 m of height. Dispersing in the direction of the Northeast, also Strombolian explosions of type have been observed accompanied by expulsion of material, due to the fog have not been able to observe the direction in which are the lava rivers. As of the 11th of March, the National Institute Of Sismología, Volcanology, Meteorology And Hidrologia, (INSIVUMEH) reported that activity observed showed that 2 intercrater cones exist, in the North and South part of the Mackenney crater, the cone of the north reaches the 20 metres of height and is the assets with Strombolian explosions that expelled volcanic material to 20, 30 metres of height, with lapses of 3, 5, 8, 10 minutes. These explosions in their majority generated audible shock waves and sounds to 8 kilometres of the volcano. As far as the lava flows of the northeast they stay with 200 and 300 metres in length in northeast direction. On this North and northeast flank the growth of lava promontories is observed of several metres of height and a small crater which this constantly desgasification. In this evaluation observed was the tendency of movement of the flows exists towards the North flank. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

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COSTA RICA - Arenal volcano

March 30th, 2010

OVSICORI-UNA reported that during March activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches. A lava flow that began in mid-January remained active on the S flank. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material
affected the NE, E, and SE flanks. Avalanches from the crater and from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW, S, and SE flanks, occasionally igniting vegetation. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that during February activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches. A lava flow traveled down the SW
flank. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Avalanches from the crater and from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW, S, and SE flanks, occasionally igniting vegetation. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity.As of the 19th of November, OVSICORI-UNA reported that during October activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches that traveled down the W and SW flanks. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW flanks. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity.
As of the 15th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that OVSICORI-UNA reported that during September activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches that traveled down the W flank. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW flanks. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity. As of the 16th of July, OVSICORI-UNA reported that on July 7th and 8th, 2009 a probable lava front collapse took place to the south side of Arenal volcano, Costa Rica. For several months, prior to this event, minor explosive activity and rolling blocks were low. Most of the fragmented blocks were associated to the emplacement of summit material from activity triggered during the mid months of 2008. A round noon on Tuesday (10th) and 2200 hrs on Wednesday (the 11th), collapses started from the summit transporting fresh and pre-emplaced blocky lava down the flank, leaving a wide channel (80-100m wide, 20-30m deep, 800m long) and some other topographical changes. Witnesses reports and photographic evidence shows dust clouds developing from the pyroclastic flows as they descended the flanks and moving N and NW up to some 5 km. from the source. Although this activity impacted part of the forest in that flank no tourist or park rangers were directly affected. As of the 18th of June, OVSICORI reported that three strong eruptions on 16 June resulted in pyroclastic flows. The National Park was evacuated as a precaution, but reopened the next day. Increased degassing the previous week had prompted an elevation of the hazard status to Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4). OVSICORI-UNA reported that during April activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches that traveled down the SW, S, and N flanks. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during January, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts that traveled down the SW flanks. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity As of the 2nd of October, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that changes in morphology and the health of vegetation at Arenal were documented during approximately 14-20 September. Fine ashfall produced at the summit by an active lava flow impacted and burned vegetation along the upper and lower E and NE flanks. The impact on the vegetation was more severe near the summit. By mid September, additional material moving down the SW flank had filled the 6 June collapse scar and built an 800-m-high levee. Occasional incandescent blocks roll down the top of the levee. Material accumulated on both sides of the levee and at the distal end, creating a 200-m-wide fan. A mass of material also accumulated at the SW edge of the summit, causing blocks to occasionally roll down the N flank. As of the 1st of August, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica reported that the growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. It continues to erupted, on and off, from time-to-time. As of Friday 6th of June 2008 at 9:15am (15:15GMT) OVSICORI reported that a hot avalanche rolled down the SW slopes of Arenal volcano, Costa Rica. An unestimated amount of blocky, andesitic lava was accumulating, on the summit, since March 2007 due to the extrusion of a lava flow. Even though fragments of such lava flow fell intermittently over these 14 months, it was until now that a mayor avalanche took place. Two minor ones were reported in recent months. The present collapse provoked a scar of some 800m long from the summit to the bottom. Lose, dry, incandescent material was canalized down the slope conforming a wide chaotic fan, at aprox 900m asl. Material rolling down pulverized and generated a tall plume of gases and dust that provoked panic in tourists and park rangers located some 2 kms. away, on the W side. Immediately the park was closed for the day and the tourists rapidly evacuated. No one was hurt. Dust and fine ashes deposited in a small area W and NW of the active flank. Rain rapidly diluted the fine film that was deposited on vegetation.Previously OVSICORI-UNA confirmed that a pyroclastic flow from Arenal traveled W on 18 september 2007. The event was recorded by a local seismic station. Based on field observations, a scientist from Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) reported that multiple pyroclastic flows traveled S an approximate distance of 1 km on 18 September. Explosions occurred that occasionally produced ash. Small avalanches were noted and one larger avalanche on the S flank was incandescent. Avalanche activity continued on 19 September. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

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COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

February 23rd, 2010

As of the 23rd of February, OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new phreatic explosion occured on 23rd of February at 11: 33 AM (local time). Slight ashfalls occured on Southwest and Southeast flanks of the volcano. No precursor signal was recorded. As of the 28th of December, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI-UNA) reported that on the 25th of December a phreatic eruption from Laguna Caliente, a summit lake of Poás, was seen by visitors standing at a viewpoint to the S of the crater. Lake water mixed with sediment and blocks was ejected 550-600 m above Laguna Caliente and fell in the vicinity of the lake, within the crater. The amount of steam emitted from lava-dome fumaroles, at the S edge of the lake, increased subsequent to the eruption. According to a local paper, a phreatic explosion occured on Friday morning, 18 September. This explosive event projected water and sediment to a height of about 300 meter above the surface of the crater lake. It is the northern of the volcano's two summmit crater lakes named Lago Caliente, which is the site of frequent phreatic eruptions; the most recent, a smaller event, was in January.The paper also mentions that scientists visiting the summit of the voclano have found burning sulphur on the north wall of the crater lake, the first time this phenomenon has been seen since 1994. Recent high temperatures and low rainfall have reduced the water volume in the highly acidic lake, and degassing from the crater has intensified with the gas plume of bright yellow' in certain areas and reaching 400 metres in height when measured on 16 September. Previous information : a s of the 14th of January, OVSICORI reported that on Monday 12th of January Poas Volcano produced a shy phreatic explosion, confined to the center of the lake. More intriguing is the fact that such activity occurred after the fatal Cinchona earthquake felt on Thursday, January 08, 2009 resulting of a local faulting event. Epicenter is located some 6 km E of the volcano probably disturbing the balance of an already fractured and shallow hydrothermal system.. As of the 8th of January at 1:21 PM a violent earthquakes (mag. 6.1- 6km depth) occured at about 10km East of the Poas volcano. Ten people were killed by a landslide at La Paz waterfall. Three people were killed by landslides in the Fraijanes-Dulce Nombre area and one person died of a heart attack in the San Jose area. Many people were injured, many buildings were damaged and landslides blocked roads in the area. Electricity was knocked out in parts of San Jose. Felt (VI) at Asuncion, Grecia and San Pablo; (V) at Alajuela, Colon, Curridabat, Desamparados, Escazu, Guadalupe, Heredia, Mercedes, Quesada, Sabanilla, San Antonio, San Francisco, San Isidro, San Jose, San Juan, San Pedro, San Rafael, Santa Ana and Santo Domingo; (IV) at Atenas, Cartago, San Ramon, and Tres Rios; (III) at Jacao. Felt throughout Costa Rica and in southern and central Nicaragua. Following this event, an increasing of the fumarolian activity in the crater was observed by OVSICORI scientists; probably due to the destabilization of the geothermal system. As of the 25th of January, the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI-UNA) has reported that a visit on January 18th, 2008 confirmed a report that a small phreatic eruption occurred within the perimeter of the hot-acidic lake of Poás volcano, around 0900hrs on Sunday, January 13th, 2008. The first notice was given by a park ranger and described as cipresoidal shape with ejection of water and sediments out of the center of the lake. It did reach some 200m high and subsequently collapsed to change rapidly the lake's colour from a dark green to an intense white. This event was also witnessed by a group of tourists who were temporarily evacuated but were always safe at some 1200m, observing the volcano from the main viewpoint. Field inspection revealed also that the explosion produced a wave of 1.5m all around the lake leaving a mark along its rim. Only to the south, next to the north dome's terrace, squirts of sediments were found reaching distances of some 8m from the shore. Such sediments were washed off, probably by the returning wave and reached a thickness no greater than 10cm. Such pockets of sediments contain a large quantity of shining crystals and other pre-existent minor debris from the bottom of the lake. No blocks were expelled out of the lake. The person that made the first report emphasised the calm conditions of the lake and dome before the eruption. Also, a small landslide (8x20m) was documented on the north face of the dome. It did leave a chaotic deposit of heavily altered angular blocks in a gray matrix altered by hydrothermalism. A slurry of yellowish materials reached the edge of the lake. Due to rapid outlet of gases in concentric convection cells from the centre of the lake, the lake changed its colour progressively in a matter of some 3 hours during the visit of OVSICORI´s staff. Even more, rapid degassing from the surface of the lake impedes the sight to the other side, due to thick columns of toxic gases. Lake temperature dropped to 45ºC and water level raised 1.5m compared to the last estimate at the end of November 2007. Nonetheless rapid evaporation promotes rapid reduction of such level. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

March 10th, 2010

OVSICORI-UNA reported that scientists visited Turrialba at night on 7 March. A gas plume, commonly seen drifting with prevailing winds, was seen that night rising 1.5 km above the crater and drifting NW. Noises from the crater were described as sounding like a jet engine and rumblings. A vent, formed in January, emitted gas at temperatures between 300 and 320 degrees Celsius. Small blocks 3-12 cm in diameter and different colors dominated the surface around the vent. Lithics ejected 30-50 m away from the vent measured 170 degrees Celsius. Incandescence seen at night originated from the vent which ejected reddish-colored tephra. As of the 3rd of february, OVSICORI reported that Turrialba, which erupted on a small scale at the beginning of January, has returned to a state of passive degassing similar to that which pertained before the eruption.However, volcanologists have warned that although activity has declined low intensity earthquakes continue, the volcano remains active and people should not be complacent. The comision Nacionale de emergency (CNE) has revised the alert level currently applied to the area surrounding the volcano, with Yellow Alert now applying to a 2 km radius zone around the volcano and Green Alert to areas beyond that limit. Previously, on 20 January 2010 an overflight of Turrialba took place which reported a revitalization of the column of gas and steam with suspended particles. A photography of the activity was taken during this overflight. A sustained emission was reported on that day, with a thick, dark plume from the summit moving WNW, the strong wind preventing the plume from rising much above the altitude of the volcano. Some light ashfall was reported in areas near the volcano. Although the transport and distribution of volcanic particles (old ash) is a new occurrence for this eruptive period of Turrialba volcano, notes the report, the minimal quantity carried this morning could be the first of much more in the near future as material eroded from the internal walls of the active conduit is carried up into the plume. After the first round of phreatic eruptions during 5-6 January from Turrialba volcano OVSICORI published the following field report : "A visit to the field on jan 6th shed light about what happened between the night of Monday 5th and early hours of Wednesday 6th. At least two vents (between 20 and 30m wide) opened along the inner walls of W crater, to eject an unestimated volume of preexistent fine particles. A narrow plume (8x40 km) of sediments moved SW up to 40 kms reaching a small portion of the populated Central Valley where most Costarricans live. Thickness of deposits vary from few mm (near the summit) to a fine sheet after some 15 km away from the volcano. Granulometry of particles vary from 1mm, in the proximal area to micras, in the distal areas. No juvenile material was found in the described deposits, on the contrary its color, shape and general aspect coincide with the openings in the upper summit. Strong degassing accompanied of fractionated material is intermittently expelled from the new vents as we write this report. Although the tremor signal decreased, compared to two preceding days, energy is enough to produce columns of several hundreds of meters above the summit. Fortunately nobody was hurt during the initial explosions and most of settlers, 3 kms around the volcano, got evacuated. Damage to crops, machinery and infrastructure has not been assessed although it is believed that it may increase if emissions persist." A low-amplitude tremor continued until 16:58 on 8 January; since that time the tremor has ended and the volcano has returned to the same LP type earthquakes that were recorded before 4 January, and now activity at the volcano has returned to the levels of before the phreatic eruption. Previously, as of the 5th of January OVSICORI reported that at 14:48 local time an inhabitant of the La Central area located to the south-west of Turrialba volcano reported hearing a strong eruption of Turrialba, much later people living near the volcano reported ashfall. Also, officials of the Parque Nacional Volcán Irazú reported the presence of ash in vehicles parked in the car park inside the national park. Additionally, residents of Turrialba, Tres Ríos and owners of properties on the slopes of Turrialba volcano reported ashfall. From mid-December 2009 until 4 January 2010, LP-type earthquakes (low frequency) had been predominantly registered, with a significant decrease of volcanic tremor. On 4 January 2010 there was a significant increase in volcanic tremor, both in duration of registration and in the amplitude of the signal. Coinciding with the increase in the recording of tremor there was a significant decrease in LP-type earthquakes. In the early hours of Wednesday 6 January an OVSICORI-UNA team will go to the area to make observations and collect data and information to carry out relevant studies. A green (preventative) alert was issued by the authorities for the area around Turrialba, and about 20 people were evacued from the volcano's slopes. Previously, a s of the 2nd of September, according to OVSICORI scientists, the volcano was showing again an increase in degazing activity. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

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NICARAGUA - Concepcion volcano

March 26th, 2010

As of the 26th of March, INETER reported that  on 22 March that degassing and seismic activity had fallen to low levels in comparison with the preceding days. On 24 March INETER confirmed a considerable reduction in activity but reported continuing anomalous levels of seismicity. The current situation is that activity remains low, but the volcano continues to be carefully monitored. As of the 19th of March, INETER, informed that the emanations of gases and ashes in the volcano Conception fell today. In the morning 2 explosions were entered, first of them it reached an approximated height of 500 metres over the crater and a second height that did not surpass the 100 metres on the crater. In the evening the volcano entered a relative calm. Seismic it is observed that it continues the occurrence of small earthquakes, which have not been located due to the very low magnitude. INETER, maintains the monitoring of the volcano the 24 hours of the day and it will generally be continued informing to the population on changes. According to the Washington VAAC, INETER reported an eruption from Concepción on 12 March. A rapidly-dissipating ash cloud was seen on satellite imagery almost 60 km E of the summit. As of the 10th of March, Based on information from INETER and analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 March an ash plume from Concepción rose to an estimated altitude of 2.1 km a.s.l. The plume was last seen in satellite imagery later that day 227 km W. As of the 11th of December 2009, INETER reported that Concepcion volcano erupted on Friday. Summit explosion spewing gas and smoke almost 500 feet (150 metres) into the air and ashfalls occured on three nearby villages, but there were no immediate reports of damage. Volcán Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighboring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

September 7th, 2009

A s of the 10th of December, the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) informs that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 December a gas-and-steam plume from San Cristóbal, possibly containing ash, drifted SW. The VAAC also noted smoke from local fires. As of the 6th of September INETER reported that eight explosions occured on Sunday 6th of September 2009 during afternoon at the San Cristobal volcano spewing gases and ash to about 200 m above the summit crater and some ashfalls on nearby towns. A statement from the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales reports that at 1:50 this afternoon San Cristóbal volcano produced explosions of gas and ashes. The first explosion was detected by the seismic station located on the south-west slope of this volcano, and generated a column that reached an approximate altitude of 200 metres, remaining static because of the absence of wind. There then were four explosions of lesser intensity. According to reports from Defensa Civil personnel in the communities around the volcano, the activity continued until approximately 2:40 in the afternoon. There are no reports of injuries or damage. Sunday's blasts prompted officials to issue an alert for 25 districts near the volcano. The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP - NOTE : a SVE fieldtrip in Nicaragua is planned for November 2010

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COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

April 10th, 2010

As of the 8th of April, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that seismicity levels within are considered as low, they are continued presenting/displaying some fluctuations in the occurrence and energy of the earthquakes. The events related to processes of fracturing of cortical material, continue happening of dispersed way distances of up to 14 km of the main crater. Within this seismicity the registered event is emphasised the 4th of April, with magnitude 1.9, that was located to about 2 km to the southwest of the active cone and to a depth of 2 km with respect to the top. During the week Sulphur Dioxide emissions were registered in considered levels low (SO 2 ). On the 2nd and 6th of April, the climatic conditions favoured the observation of small columns of emission, that reached peak altitudes of 200 m on the top, with preferential dispersion towards the north-western flank of the volcanic complex. As of the 1st of April, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that although a slight increase in the seismicity appeared, as much continue the low levels in occurrence as in the released energy, similar to the reported ones in the previous weeks. The earthquakes related to processes of fracturing of cortical material, happened of dispersed way to distances of up to 11 km of the active cone, with local magnitudes smaller to 1.1 on the Richter scale. The events near the crater are located in more superficial levels, with depths smaller to 3 km with respect to the top. During the week Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 )emissions were not registered. As of the 24th of March, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that the volcano continues low levels of seismicity, similar to the reported ones for the previous weeks. The earthquakes related to processes of fracturing of cortical material, happened of a dispersing way in the volcanic complex, with smaller depths of 7.5 km and magnitudes principles of 0.7 on the Richter scale. During the week it was continued measuring low emissions of SO 2 flow (Sulphur Dioxide), with values of 165 and 115 tonnes/day registered on the 16th and 18th respectively of March of 2010. On the 20th of March, personnel of the OVSP in work of field by the zone of the high part of La Quebradathe Maragato (Municipality of Nariño), reported afternoon in the hours of scents to sulphured gases. In a fly over carried out the 22nd of March, with support of the Colombian Air Force, verified gas discharge of white colour, by different sectors from the active cone and generally in low amount. In the morning of today, they were seen from the city of Pasto, gas pulses of white colour, with smaller heights of 200 m on the top. As of the 17th of March, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that low levels of seismicity, similars to reported for the previous weeks and the absence of earthquakes associated with gas discharge stay. The registry of a volcano-tectonic event on March 12th at 2128 hrs., located approximately to 6 km to the ENE of the active cone in environs of the municipality is emphasized of Pasto, with a depth near 8 km and local magnitude of 2 degrees in the Richter scale. This earthquake reported sense in some districts of the north of the city. During the week low values of SO 2 (Sulphur Dioxide) flow were moderate, being the maximum of 208 tonnes/day, which was obtained on March 11th in a passage between Pasto and Nariño. On March 10th, personnel of the OVSP realised a visit from recognition to the Camino Real, on the flank he orients and northwest of the volcanic complex, and from the sector of La quebrada Maragato in future, they reported to feel strong scents to sulphured gases. On March 15th, in visit of recognition to the top, personnel of the OVSP located in the South sector of the crater it observed exit of gas in little originating amount of the centre of the main crater, Deformed the fumarolic field and from secondary craters the Chavas and the Paisita; scents of sulphured gases were not perceived. As of the 4th of March, OVSP reported that low levels of seismicity stay, similars to the reported ones for the previous week. It continues the registry of events associated with transit of flowed in the volcanic conduits and one emphasises the predominance of events associated with rock fracture, three of which senses in the area of Genoy and Chachatoy were reported, the major of them had a local magnitude of 1.7 on the Richter scale. During the week SO 2 flow was not registered (Sulphur Dioxide), except yesterday in which a measurement of 137 tonnes per day in a passage between Nariño was obtained and El Ingenio. When conditions allowed it, the atmospheric gas discharges were not observed from soothes of the vulcanológico observatory. INGEOMINAS continues kind to the evolution of the volcanic phenomenon and will inform on changes that can be detected As of the 24th of February, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that low levels of seismicity stayed, similar to the reported ones for the previous week. It continues the registry of events that are related to processes of gas discharge. Sulphur Dioxide emissions have not been detected instrumentally. In gratitude for conducted field the 17th of February to the top of the volcano, perceived scents to sulphured gases in the Eastern flank of the volcanic complex. On the other hand, in the afternoon of yesterday, the favourable climatic conditions allowed to observe gas discharges way of pulses, of small height, white coloration and directed towards the southwest of the volcano. As of the 18th of February, OVSP preported that Galeras is within low levels of seismicity, the increase in the occurrence of events is emphasised that are related to emission processes (episodes of volcanic tremor). In these days, earthquakes have not been registered that are considered like precursors of eruptive activity of Galeras. Coincident with the increase in the seismicity, is continued detecting Sulphur Dioxide emissions, with values considered low for Galeras. The maximum of 303 Tonnes/day was moderate today. With the support of the Colombian Air Force (FACE), yesterday carried out air reconnaissance to the top of the volcano; in comparison with the observed thing in a fly over previous realised on the 3rd of of January the past, detected a slight increase in the amount of emitted gases, especially by the periphery of the main crater. As of the 10th of February, the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto reported that one stands out that on the 1st and the 8th of February entered a volcanic process appeared similar that registered between the 8th and the 18th of January, characterized by: registry of earthquakes Tornillo type, low levels of seismicity and the culmination in both episodes with the occurrence of clusters of associate events as much with the fluid part of the system like with fracturing of cortical material. The first cluster registered the 19th of January and most recent, it appeared between the morning of the 6th of February and the dawn of the 7th of February. In both occasions, after the occurrence of these clusters, they disappear events Tornillo type and are slightly increased the processes of gas discharge. From the 8th of February, the seismicity is showing low levels as much in occurrence as in energy. Coincident with the increase in the seismicity of this weekend, Sulphur Dioxide emissions are detected, with values considered low for Galeras. The maximum of 350 Tonnes/day was moderate today. The recent activity of Galeras evidence that before the presence of magmatic material in levels superficial, the system is presenting/displaying overpressure processes - gradual liberation through slow mechanisms of exit, with the relatively small seal conformation that is broken and they allow the degassing. Although the present activity in Galeras continues showing an unstable development, the registered behaviour allows to anticipate the possibility that some time is required so that new conditions of overpressure are generated. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Huila volcano

April 10th, 2010

As of the 8th of April, the the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayan (INGEOMINAS) reports that in the present week 721 seismic events were registered. Of them, 87 were related to fracturing of rock, 633 with the dynamics of flowed within the volcanic conduits and 1 associate event as much to rock fracture as to gas transit and flowed. Of the registered seismic activity during the week, one emphasises the continuous tremor that come presenting/displaying from the 31st of March, and one tendency to the increase of LP activity from the 1st of April; this increase of the seismicity of flowed is associated with the continuity of the process of extrusion of magmatic material to surface, and could be related to the perception of originating sounds of the high part of the volcano reported by inhabitants of Tóez and of the river basin of the Símbola river. In images obtained through the webcam on the 2nd and 5th of April intense degassing of the system is appraised forming columns of white colour, which presented/displayed heights of up to 2 km, with preferential dispersion towards the West of the volcanic complex, according to the prevailing wind regime in the zone. Through the satelite images published by international agency NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), a slight increase in the emission of SO 2 with respect to previous weeks is observed. Of the previous, one concludes that the volcano has shown during the last week an increase of the activity associated with the dynamics of fluids, without until the moment evolves to states of greater excitation than they imply a change of level of activity of the volcano. As of the 1st of April, the the Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayan (INGEOMINAS) reported that in the present week 437 seismic events was registered. Of them, 48 were related to fracturing of rock, 386 with the dynamics of flowed within the volcanic conduits and 3 events hybrid type. In images obtained through the webcam on days 25th, 27th, 28th, 29th and 30th of March, it is appraised continues gas discharge in the form of columns of whitish colour that do not surpass 1000 m of height, with preferential dispersion towards the West of the volcanic complex. In a fly over realised on the 25th of March, it is appraised that in the new dome there are no significant changes with respect to the reported ones in previous weeks, and that the continuous volcanic system desgasification, as much in the part superior of the dome like in the intersection of the domes. Through the satelite images published by the Agency the International NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), it is observed that during the week, the volcano emitted SO 2 in concentrations considered as low. Of the previous, one concludes that the volcano does not present/display significant changes in the different observed parameters, that they could indicate a possible evolution to states of greater activity. Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The andesitic-dacitic volcano (5635 m) was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Only a single 16th-century explosive eruption is recorded in historical time from this little known volcano. Webcam

COLOMBIA - Cerro Machin volcano

December 7th, 2009

Ingeominas reported as of the 7th of December, that a seismic swarm which occured on Saturday has provoked the Colombian state geological service to raise the alert level to Yellow (III), characterized as ‘ "changes in the behaviour of the volcanic activity'. According to a local newspaper, 54 minor earthquakes took place over the weekend. The largest of these was at 1.3 on the Richter scale. The seismic swarm took place from 5:00 p.m. on Saturday, and although small, is the largest to have occurred in 2009, after strong activity in 2008'. No bulletin on developments at Machín has yet been published on the Manizales Volcano observtory website. Any reactivation of Machín voclano could pose a substancial threat to this populous area of Colombia, including the large city of Ibagué (approximate population 500,000). The small Cerro Machín stratovolcano lies at the southern end of the Ruiz-Tolima massif about 20 km WNW of the city of Ibagué. A 3-km-wide caldera is breached to the south and contains three forested dacitic lava domes. Voluminous pyroclastic flows traveled up to 40 km from the volcano during eruptions in the mid-to-late Holocene perhaps associated with formation of the caldera. Late-Holocene eruptions produced dacitic block-and-ash flows that traveled through the breach in the caldera rim to the west and south. The latest known eruption of Volcán Cerro Machín took place about 800 years ago.

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

June 18th, 2009

Based on SIGMET notices and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11 and 13-15 June eruptions from Ubinas produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.9 km
(18,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NE, E, and SE. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery on 13 June Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 5 June plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 6.1-6.7 km (20,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and S. A pilot reported that
an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 6 and 9 June, plumes seen on satellite imagery rose to altitudes of 6.1-7.6 km (20,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and NE, respectively. On 29 and 31 May eruptions from Ubinas produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SW. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery on 31 May. INGEMMET reported on 1 June a bluish gas plume with some ash content. On 2 June, an explosion was detected and gas-and-ash plumes that rose 0.9-1.5 km drifted E. Ubinas in the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions
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CHILE - Chaiten volcano

March 20th, 2010

As of the 20th of March, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on the 17th of March during the previous few weeks, growth of Chaitén's lava-dome complex was concentrated in the W part. Gas-and-ash plumes, seen through the video camera located on the rim of the caldera, rose at most 1 km from the central area of the domes. Seismic activity persisted at a low level. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex, likely mixed with steam and gas, drifted NE on 15 March. As of the 18th of February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 11 February, ODVAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a camera, installed 800 m from the centre of Chaitén's lava-dome complex in late January, showed incandescence and gas emissions on the 28th of January. Seismicity had also increased during 21 January-3 February. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume drifted 25 km NW on the 11th of February at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. During 5-19 January the lava-dome complex continued to grow, although possibly at rates lower than during previous weeks. The magnitude and number of hybrid earthquakes decreased. The Alert Level remained at Red. As of the 3rd of December, SERNAGEOMIN reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 26 November a diffuse plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted ENE. SERNAGEOMIN suggests maintaining Volcanic Red Alert. As of the 25th of November 2009, SERNAGEOMIN reported that Chaitén's seismic activity has remained similar to that of the preceding period, with a prevalence of hybrid type (HB) earthquakes reaching an average of 15 earthquakes per hour and with magnitudes locally calculated to be within the range 1.5 to 4.2. Among these 2-4 earthquakes stand out each hour with magnitudes of above 3.5. Comparing the seismicity of this period with that of previous weeks, the seismic energy liberated RSAM has not exceeded 150,000 units. Both visually and seismically no large changes have been shown, and activity is consistent with that which has developed during the preceding period; this indicates that the eruptive activity continues with the growth of the dome complex. On the other hand, the quantity of pyroclastic material both from rock falls and emitted by the block-and-ash flows and lateral explosions has created large accumulations in the adjacent valleys and particularly the valley of the Chaitén river, so that the occurrence of lahars towards Chaitén during periods of intense rain cannot be ruled out. In consequence, given that the seismicity remains at elevated levels – an effect of the growth of the dome complex – and that the eruptive activity continues with the possibility of the generation of block-and-ash flows in random directions, which may affect surrounding valleys with the generation of new lahars, SERNAGEOMIN suggests maintaining Volcanic Red Alert. As of the 19th of November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 31 October-1 November Chaitén's lava-dome complex produced steam plumes that sometimes contained gas and ash. The plumes were visible on the web camera and rose at most 1 km above the lava domes. SERNAGEOMIN bulletin of the Chaitén eruption, covering the period 16-30 September 2009, reported the results of an overflight carried out on 29 September. Among the interesting facts reported there is the emergence of a new third lava dome, the appearance of an elongated depression in the central area of the dome complex, and a collapse event on 29 September. As of the 1st of October, SERNAGEOMIN reported that based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 28 September a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex, possibly mixed with steam and gas, rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted less than 40 km W and SW. As of the 24th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-16 September, Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to grow. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, SIGMET notices, and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 16 and 20-22 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE A s of the 21st of August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the images observed through the DGAC camera, located in Chaitén to the south of the volcano, show that the eruption has continued in an unchanging form with its column of gas and ash which has occasionally risen to 1.5 km above the dome complex. At times it has been possible to distinguish a secondary and intermittent centre of emission to the west, very close to the principal centre of emission. The block-and-ash flows still persist, indicating that the dome complex continues its growth, particularly towards the western sector of the caldera. .As of the 6th of August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that based on web camera views from the S, and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 29 July-1 August, and on 4 August, ash plumes from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, S, and SE. As of the 26th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity has remained high at Chaiten volcano, Chile, during the period 16-22 July. The eruption continues unchanged with a column of ash and steam rising 1.5 km above the summit. Block and ash flows still persist, indicating the dome complex has continued to grow, particularly towards the western sector of the caldera. Some strong emissions of gas correlated with seismic activity. Dome collapse remains a danger and may affect adjacent valleys. Significant pyroclastic material has accumulated in the adjacent valleys, and pose a lahar risk after heavy rain. Alert level RED remains at Chaiten volcano due to continued dome growth, pyroclastic flow risk, and potential for lahars. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 11 and 14 June ash plumes from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. A thermal anomaly was also seen in satellite imagery on 11 June. Based on web camera views, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 27 May-8 June gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows that were sometimes seen from Chaitén town, 10 km SW. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Chaitén town and nearby areas. As of the 13rd of May SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 29 April-4 May gas-and-ash plumes rose up to 2 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows. An overflight on 1 May revealed a large central spine fractured into three main blocks. The surface of the lava dome complex was very irregular and several spines had grown 100 m above the dome surface. Seismicity remained high. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, SIGMET notices, web camera views, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 5 and 10-12 May, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-4.6 km a.s.l. and drifted N, NE,and ENE. According to SERNAGEOMIN, since 15 April, when the energy released by the seismicity of Chaitén volcano reached 130000 units RSAM, the values have begun to fall slightly, remaining during Thursday 16 April 2009 at 100000 units, therefore values continuing to be very elevated. Llaima, however, has not shown visual signs of significant activity during past days. As of the 2nd of April, the Government of Chile has announced that during 17-23 March Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to grow from an area that includes the central spines and part of Domo Nuevo 1. This was also the main area where collapses from unstable slopes caused block-and-ash flows. Continuously emitted steam plumes with varying amounts of tephra and gas-and-ash plumes generated by block-and-ash flows drifted N and ESE. The block-and-ash flow volume was smaller compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at Red. As of the 19th of March, the Government of Chile has announced that based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11-15 March ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE, NE, E, and SE. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 15 March. On 3 March during an overflight co-ordinated with the Regional Office of ONEMI it was possible to verify that the deposits of the block-and-ash flow that descended through the río Chaitén on 19 February still maintaind high temperatures in some areas, with emanations of water vapour and even burning of trees where they had come into contact with lava blocks from the domes, with high temperatures (over 300ºC). The seismicity of Chaitén volcano has declined slightly during the period in the number of larger HB-type earthquakes, with magnitudes of between 3.2 and 3.6, in comparison to previous days. The earthquakes that have been recorded are principally of HB-type, which indicates the continuing supply of magma to the dome complex. As of the 27th of february, SERNAGEOMIN reported that another large-scale dome collapsep at Chaitén volcano during the afternoon. Reports mention that a large part of the northern side of the dome collapsed and an intense plume rose from the volcano. This collapse occurred at around 14:47 local time this afternoon. An overflight carried out on 24 February, allowed the ovbservatin of the current state of eruptive activity, the morphology of the domes and the dimensions and precise location of the area affected by the collapse that occurred last Thursday (19.02.09). The escarpment or scar of the collapse is oriented in an approximately south-western direction, with a greatest length of approximately 500m and a maximum height of the of the escarpment slopes of 200m. The area of collapse is located in the south-western quadrant of the dome complex and affects, approximately, some 10% of the total volume. The collapse escarpment surrounds the south and west of the spine or pinnacle which has grown in the central sector of the dome complex. The majority of the material removed is from Dome 1, the development of which began in May 2008. The northern sector of the dome showed occasional eruptive activity, which is concentrated to the immediate north of the pinnacle, at the pinnacle, and at a remnant of dome 1 located to the south of the collapse escarpment. In the northern sector, within dome 2, eruptive activity was observed in two sectors and was manifested in the emission of water vapour with occasional ash content. The majority of the eruptive activity was concentrated on the spine or pinnacle, with constant emissions of brown-coloured ash and water vapour. The southern remnant of dome 1 intermittently emitted ash and water vapour of similar colouring to that at the pinnacle, in addition to producing sporadic explosions. Together, they form four eruption columns of gas and ash, which exceed 1.5km in height and which during small collapses of the steep slopes of the pinnacle tend to form one wide and irregular column.As of the 19 th of February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that there was a major reactivation of the eruption at Chaitén volcano on the morning. Everyone still in the town of Chaitén was evacuated, and the authorities have activated their various emergency plans. A major partial dome collapse occured, generating pyroclastic flows that penetrated a long way south along the Chaitén river valley, almost reaching the town itself. A collapse such as this is a process rather than an event, and further collapses of the structure of the dome(s), along with the release of overpressurized gases, is continuing to generate further debris flows along the length of the valley. At 15:20 the same day, an overflight was carried out at Chaitén volcano, revealing a fracture of more than a kilometre on the dome, southern sector, with evident signs of collapse, which constitutes, an important threat to the town of Chaitén. Large emissions of gases and pyroclasts were also observed. Heavy rains over the volcano could generate substantial floods, causing further damage in the town of Chaitén. Previously on 19th of January, between 10:59 and 12:00, a major partial collapse already occured on the steep pinnacles that form the summit of New Dome 2 above the south-eastern flank, with the consequent generation of block and ash flows. On 25th and 28th December, ash emissions reached 2 km above the crater. A lava dome continues to grow in the crater, producing instability on the summit and flanks. Explosions from the lava dome are possible and create the risk of pyroclastic flows. The volcano remains at the highest alert level red. As of the 15th of December SERNAGEOMIN reported that explosive events that have characterized Chaitén's recent activity took place yesterday, 14 December 2008, beginning at around 13:19 local time. The explosion, which appears to have been related to a partial collapse within the caldera, generated a large ash plume which reached hundreds of kilometres south-east into Argentine territory As of the 11th of December, SERNAGEOMIN reported that based on on observations of satellite imagery, pilot reports, SIGMET notices, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3-8 December, ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes 1.8-4.6 km (6,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, NW, and SW. A thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery during 4 and 6-8 December. Gaseous emissions have been observed both from the growing New Dome 2 (north-east sector) and from New Dome 1, on its southern flank, which has almost completely covered the old dome. The emissions have shown a predominance of water vapour, even when occasional increases in the emission of volcanic gases have been seen, with changes in the colour of the columns emitted from New Dome 2, depending on variations in the concentration of ash. The columns of gases observed have reached heights of between 1.5 and 2.5 kilometres above the domes.On Saturday 6 December an overflight of Chaitén volcano was carried out and In the interior of the Chaitén caldera it was possible to see clearly the remnants of the old dome, almost completely buried by the viscous lava of New Dome 1 (coloured red-brown). Very notable were the dimensions reached by New Dome 2 (colour grey) located in the north-east sector of New Dome 1, where the eruptive activity was concentrated, consistent with the evident extrusions of viscous lava forming very unstable pinnacles and ridges, with constant landslides on their sloping sides, which rest on the internal wall of the caldera. Additionally, from two points on its uneven crest, constant emissions of volcanic gases are generated, with a predominance of water vapour. On 29 October, SERNAGEOMIN received reports of an increase in activity at Chaitén characterized by several explosions that darkened the plume and caused it to rise from about 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l to about 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. SERNAGEOMIN reported that variations in seismicity remained similar to patterns detected during the pervious weeks. A gas plume was continually emitted to an altitude of 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. during the previous week. ONEMI reported that during an overflight on 30 October, scientists observed a landslide that had originated from the active lava dome. As of the 20th of October, SERNAGEOMIN published a new report for the period between 13th -17th of October : during this period two eruptive columns have been maintained of no more than 2.0km in height, principally formed of water vapour with a relatively low content of sulphur dioxide and ash, moderately vigorous, white and relatively wide, with dispersion mainly towards the southeast. HB-type earthquakes are continuing without variation in quantity and magnitude. The eruptive activity is related to degassing and the generation of water vapour through rainwater coming into contact with the hot dome and/or remnants of magmatic material in the upper levels of the system. The seismic activity is related to the growth of the dome. In the short term, a possible reactivation of the eruptive process can be ruled out. SERNAGEOMIN maintains Volcanic Red Alert.SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 7-13 October a gas-and-ash plume from Chaitén rose to an altitude of 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR) notices, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 12-14 October, continuous ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.4-4 km(8,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and E. As of the 9 th of October, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during an overflight on 30 September, scientists observed the small lagoon that remained in a depression in the N area of the basal "ring" that lies between the new lava dome and the caldera rim. The base of the S flank of the old lava dome was still evident; fumaroles were noted along the contact of the old and new domes. The new lava dome had grown higher and laterally from the NE flank until it touched the caldera rim. The Alert level remained Red. Based on pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3 and 5-8 October continuous ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.5 km (8,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, ENE, and E. As of the 29th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that eruptive activity returned to levels comparable to those reported in previous days up to the end of last week, that is with columns of a maximum of 1.5km in altitude, weak and of little vigour, with a predominance of water vapour over gases and ashes, dispersing towards the north-east. Since the 26th of this month, the earthquakes of greater magnitude, interpreted as HB-type, have increased their energy to reach, in some cases, magnitude 3.5M. The earthquakes of HB-type recorded by the stations in the vicinity of the volcano (e.g. Pumalín, Pillán and Santa Bárbara) remain at depths calculated as approximately between 2.0 and 5.0km, with epicentres located, also about, at 3.0km south of the volcano. The earthquakes of greater magnitude have been registered as far as the seismic monitoring stations at Llaima volcano, located 457km to the north. SERNAGEOMIN maintains Volcanic Red Alert. SERNAGEOMIN report on the eruptive activity of Chaitén volcano between 23 and 24 September 2008 noted that eruptive activity contines with a column that does not exceed 1.5km in altitude, with a predominance of water vapour over pyroclastic materials, principally ash. A level of 3-4 HB-type earthquakes per hour has been maintained, some with magnitudes around 3.0M, and there have been sporadic small VT-type earthquakes, under 1.0M. The HB earthquakes reflect magmatic activity and the fracturing of rock, probably in superficial levels of the system - it is hoped to clarify the precise depth very soon. SERNAGEOMIN maintains Volcanic Red Alert.From Saturday 6 September until Monday 8 September, poor weather conditions did not permit visual observation. During this period, the seismicity has remained mainly similar to that recorded during the two previous weeks, that is 6 to 8 HB-type earthquakes per hour with a slight oscillation in their amplitude, and 1 to 2 VT-type earthquakes per hour, with maximum magnitude of 2.9M, in addition to rare LP-type earthquakes of low energy and short duration. Both the HB and VT earthquakes have presented very similar times of arrival of 's-p' waves, which establish distances of 23-25km from PUMA station and 15-16km from STBA, placing their epicentres 2-5km south-east of the volcano. As of the 4th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that clouds obscured camera views of Chaitén's eruption plume during most of 26-29 August. Glimpses utilising the web camera revealed that continuous ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. They also reported that seismicity had increased slightly during the previous few days. Based on web camera views and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 27-29 August ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Between 27 and 29 August, seismic activity continued, showing a slight but steady increase. On both 28 and 29 August the increase mentioned was reflected mainly in an increase in amplitude of the HB-type earthquakes (increased seismic energy), which maintained relatively constant numbers (about 4 events per hour). For their part, the VT-type earthquakes showed a slight decline (one per hour). However, during these days, significant LP-type earthquakes were registered (about 5 per day), which are emphasized by their greater amplitude in the seismogram As of the 28th of August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on web camera views, pilot observations, and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 20-23 and 26 August ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. A thermal anomaly over the lava dome was detected on satellite imagery during 22-23 August. As of the 22nd of August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during recent days the eruptive activity of Chaitén volcano has remained without major changes, manifesting itself through a moderately vigorous eruption column, of around 2km altitude, with emission of pyroclastics material, gases and water vapour. The seismic behaviour of the emission centre, for its part, has presented a decreasing trend, without resulting in a significant diminution of the eruptive activity, as in previous periods. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the recorded seismic movements could be interpreted as indicative of the movement of magmatic fluids and rupturing of rocks inside the volcanic system. SERNAGEOMIN bulletin about the Chaitén issued on 12 August 2008 reported that poor weather conditions preventing direct observation of the volcano, except on the morning of 8 August when a continuous emission of gas and pyroclasts was observed ‘which generated an eruptive column of more than 1 kilometre in height that dispersed towards the east. An increase in the number and magnitude of volcanic-tectonic (VT) earthquakes was recorded over the preceding 24 hours, along with a 'sporadic appearance' of hybrid (HB) and long period (LP) earthquakes and an increase in background tremor, ‘phenomena attributed principally to the ascent of magmatic fluids'. The bulletin ends by suggesting that the characteristics of this seismic behaviour can be interpreted as indicators of internal activity within the system that, eventually, could manifest in increases in the eruptive activity of the volcano. Following a meeting, USGS/USAID reported some details about the activity until end of July and in particularly there is fresh information on the lava dome :giving the following estimates for the end of July: average lava dome eruption rate ~60m 3 /s (the average given in June was ~37m 3 /s), area ~1.4 million m 2 (area given in June ~540,000m 2 ) volume ~350 million m 3 (volume given in June ~55 million m 3 ) - Previous news reportd that an explosive eruption appears to have taken place at Chaitén on 1st of August in the morning. This was the webcam image at 08:59 (local time): a sizeable eruption under way at the caldera. More following images indicated that the eruption has subsided, with a lighter, thinner plume (but still larger than anything we saw yesterday) and less evidence of heavy ash content. The latest bulletin (issued this same day at 11:20 local time, noted that an overflight yesterday ‘detected partial collapses in the central part of the new dome' and the removal (through collapse) of some of the material of the dome. As of the 29 th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that, available records indicate weak eruptive activity, which has shown a modest upswing in the last few days without giving rise to a significant eruption column. In general terms, the declining trend appears to continue on course. The weather conditions have not permitted observation of the volcano, except for short periods in which the cloud has left uncovered an eruption column that does not surpass a kilometre in altitude above the summit of Chaitén. Moreover, intense and continuous noise has been perceptible since 24 July, when an emission of ash accumulated to the depth of 3cm around Chaitén. On 27 July weather conditions again favoured the fall of fine ash on the town, albeit in a very restricted manner. The foregoing notwithstanding, the latest seismic data clearly shows an elevated seismicity, which has been sustained for several weeks, both in the number of earthquakes and their magnitude (a large number of them being felt by people over several days) and recorded by stations at a distance, with an increase in the number of earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 3.5M. Likewise, it was possible to verify that the greater part of the earthquakes of greater energy were located to the south-east and south-south-east of the Chaitén volcano. On 24 July, during an overflight conducted over sectors north and north-east of Chaitén volcano, it was observed that there is only one principal eruptive centre in the southern sector of the new dome. This centre produces an intermittent eruption column, with periodical increased activity which forms a more substantial column, although one lacking density and of relatively low altitude (less than 2km) whch disperses rapidly towards the south and south-east. That column caused poor visibility at altitude, and was occasionally crossed by more energetic and denser columns, related to slightly more intense explosions alternating with the intervals of lesser eruptive power which did not produce any proper column. The emission in this case was white in colour, mainly produced by degassification and water vapour, with a low percentage of ashes. It was also apparent that the morphology of the new dome has changed, presenting a major depression in the southern sector, immediately to the north of the principal eruption centre from which abundant water vapour and gases are emitted. At the same time, this structure [i.e. the new dome] appears to have decreased its rate of growth, at least in the northern sector, and significant emissions of water vapour and gases can be observed from the base of the eastern sector of the dome. Regarding seismic activity, during 24 July there was a decrease in the total number of earthquakes and a stabilization, it appears, in the number of earthquakes of greater magnitude. Notwithstanding the foregoing, earthquakes of this type are still being detected by instruments located nearly 300km from the volcano. The significant increase in earthquakes of greater magnitude (greater than 2.6) may imply that the ascent of a new pulse of magma has begun, from depths greater than 10km. Previously, based on observations during an overflight on 17 June, scientists of SERNAGEOMIN reported that ash plumes emitted from the S contact between Chaitén's old and new lava domes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. An explosion temporarily propelled the ash plume to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and steam plumes rose from several other contact points along the S edge of the lava dome. Rockfalls from the active dome continued to descend the S flank of the old dome to the caldera floor. During 18-21 June, visual observations were inhibited due to inclement weather. During 18-20 June, possible ashfall was reported in Queilén (about 70 km W) and Quellón (about 80 km WSW). Ashfall was reported in Chaitén town (10 km SW) and other areas SE, W, and E. Another overflight on 14 June revealed spines rising above the top of the new lava dome, which had grown in height to exceed the old dome. Gas, ash, and steam plumes were primarily emitted from a vent, about 100 m in diameter, at the SE contact between the old and the new lava dome. Previously, emissions came from the NW contact between the old and new domes. Continuous explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Several other points of gas-and-steam emissions were seen along the contact. Small block-and-ash flows from the new dome had descended the S flank of the old dome and occasionally reached the caldera floor. The Alert Level remained at Red Chaitén volcano in southern Chile has now been erupting for six weeks, and seemed over the last few days to be still active. However, latest reports suggest renewed gas and ash emissions, loud rumbles, and the appearance of two new craters. According to a new bulletin issued by SERNAGEOMIN during evening. On 13 June 2008 the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program of the USGS gave further information about the Chaitén eruption that Some of the interesting points to emerged as follows : current lava dome eruption rate estimated to be greater than 50m 3 /s (average ~37m 3 /s); area : 540.000 m2 (900 x 600 m); volume : about 55 million m3. On 12 June people stationed in the town of Chaitén reported new emissions of gas and pyroclasts coming from the south flank of the old volcanic dome and ‘reported that noises were heard coming from the volcano during 11 and 12 June. The source of the emissions was identified as two new craters at the base of the southern flank of the old dome. The Chaitén river produced renewed flooding in the town on the evening of 12 June. The seismic activity increased after the morning of 12 June, both in the number of earthquakes and in the seismic energy that they released. The majority of the earthquakes of less than magnitude 2 were located under the volcano, while two more significant earthquakes were located 5km to the north-east, with epicentres located on one of the lines of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system. As of the 10th of June SERNAGEOMIN that in the last few days, the eruptive activity of Chaitén volcano has remained in patterns similar to those reported during the previous week, that is to say, the volcano continues, but with low intensity. The dome currently maintains its rapid growth and, probably, will continue in this way for weeks or months. The explosivity and discharges of ash have gradually decreased and are now manifested only in a dispersion plume which does not exceed 3km in altitude, without a true eruption column, accompanied by abundant emissions of water vapour. As of the 3rd of June SERNAGEOMIN reported that during Sunday 1 June, because of the distribution of the plume, fine ash and volcanic dust was precipitated across the central-eastern area of Chiloé island (Queilen, Lelbún, Chonchi, Dalcahue and Castro), among other areas. Due to these conditions it proved impossible to advance the consolidation of the seismic monitoring network. On Monday 2 June a dense fog affected the Corcovado Gulf, and especially the coastal area of continental Chiloé, due to the stirring up of the ashfall by the wind. However, a distant inspection flight by helicopter showed that the volcano's eruption column was reaching an altitude of no more than 3km above sea level and that the plume was dispersed in a south-south-easterly direction. Seismic activity shows a slight increase in comparison with previous days, reflected in a larger number of VT [volcano-tectonic] earthquakes and LP [long period] type earthquakes. The latter are interpreted as being caused by the movement of fluids and/or pressurization in the upper conduit. Thus, from 1 to 2 June Auchemó and Santa Bárbara seismic stations registered an average of 5 VT-type earthquakes per hour, with magnitudes of less than 2. In addition both stations observed, although in a very sporadic form, LP-type events of short duration (less than 60 seconds). As of the 26th of May SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruptive activity of the Chaitén volcano has declined to subplinian type, but remains continuous', and that over the weekend, and in particular on Sunday 25 May, the eruption column reached an average altitude of less than 3.5km above sea level, with occasional large explosions lifting it to around 5km above sea level. South-westerly winds pushed the plume in a north-easterly direction.An overflight took place on 24 May, during which it was possible to overfly the volcano's crater and examine the slight growth of the active volcanic dome, which just rises above the summmit of the old dome'. South of the active dome is a 200-metre crater ‘from which there is a continual expulsion of gas and ash'. The new dome ‘generates, especially to the north, flows and blocks of ash, because of the instability of its steep walls'. A second overflight carried out by a Navy helicopter on 25 May revealed that many of the rivers in the Chaitén region are carrying significant quantities of ash. Seismic activity is currently declining over the past four days VT-type [volcano-tectonic] earthquakes have decreased gradually in number and magnitude, indicating a slight but steady decay of seismic activity.As of the 22nd of May, the Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería reported, following an overflight of Chaitén volcano, that the eruptive activity of the Andean massif continues and that a phase of dome construction has begun inside the active crater. The current increase in seismicity corresponds to small internal collapses in this dome. The burden of pyroclastic material being carried by the Río Blanco will continue to be deposited on the city of Chaitén. Since yesterday the remote monitoring instruments installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Chumilden and Auchemó are in operation, jointly monitored from Queilén by the USGS and SERNAGEOMIN. All the people evacuated from the town of Chaitén who were in shelters have been relocated to rented houses or cabins in the cities of Puerto Montt, Osorno, Castro and Quellón. Previous news - 16th of May: t he plinian eruptive activity of the volcano Chaitén is continuing, and over the last two days the column of gases and ashes has been maintained at an altitude not exceeding five kilometres above sea level. Chaitén volcano showed increased activity onThursday 15 May 2008, with heavy ashfall, loud noises and many earthquakes. At 07:30, the upper section of the volcano's eruption column was observed, reaching an altitude of four kilometres above sea level. The plume was directed towards the north-east due to strong south-westerly winds of up to 140 km/h. Since late yesterday a light ashfall has been occurring in some sectors of Chiloé Island, principally affecting the islands of Butacheque, Metaluf, Quenac and Tac and the communes of Quemchi, Achao, Castro, Chonchi and Queilen. Municipal teams are distributing masks in the sectors concerned. The Oficina Nacional de Emergencia (ONEMI) reported that military personnel in Chaitén ‘perceived loud noises coming from the volcano, abundant ashfalls and electrical discharges around the top of the mountain'. Heavy cloud cover and rainfall prevented observation of the eruption cloud. The ONEMI bulletin also confirms earlier reports that 90% of the town of Chaitén is flooded.An Oficina Nacional de Emergencia (ONEMI) bulletin was released late yesterday, 12 May 2008. The volcano was still producing a large eruption column, which at the time of the bulletin was being blown to the north-east. It is expected that the wind will back to the north-west for the next few days, changing the alignment of the eruption plume, towards the south-east. This means that Futaleufú is in danger of further ashfalls. The volcano remains continually active with emissions of ash toward the north-east. An overflight by SERNAGEOMIN during this afternoon indicated that the eruption column reaches a height of 8 kms. For the next few days  the skies are expected to be filled with rain and north-west winds of 40-60 km/hr, meaning that the ashes will be displaced towards the south-east affecting the Futaleufú area and Argentina, according to information provided by the Dirección Meteorológica de Chile. The bulletin also notes that the Chaitén River (or Río Blanco), which crosses the city, broke its banks for a distance of about 200 metres and flooded 40 homes. The entire mouth of the river is blocked by ash and pumice. The flow of the river has now returned to normal levels. Previous information : as of the 9th of May the Chaitén volcano continues to erupt ash and the 50 kilometres security exclusion zone around the volcano remained in force, reported ONEMI in a bulletin of 9 May 2008. On 8 May the volcano was hidden from view between 07:15 and 15:15 hrs. During this period, despite the low cloud cover, grey swirls were clearly seen along the north-south valley immediately east of the volcano Chaitén which drains into the Rayas river, descending towards the river and producing marked evaporation in the north-south valley. This phenomenon is interpreted as being caused by small pyroclastic flows that descend from the volcano into this valley and, heating the river water, produce the resulting evaporation. Between approximately 15:00 and 16:30 hours the prevalent cloud dissipated allowing observation of the volcano and the mushroom-shaped column of gases and ashes, which reached an altitude of 14 km at 16:00 hrs, with a plume dispersing in a north-eastern direction. Moreover, the western part of the column of ash was more dense and of a medium to dark grey colour, which could be due to the opening of a new crater on the western side of the dome. Previous information reported that t he Chilean volcano Chaitén intensified its activity around midnight on Wednesday 7th/8th of May expelling ash and incandescent material, forcing the evacuation of all the military personnel and about 10 civilians who remained in the town closest to the peak. In the southern town of Chaitén, only 10km from the volcano, the total evacuation was ordered after pyroclastic material was seen to emerge from the cone of the volcano for a few minutes followed by dense columns of ash that fell on the surrounding area. ‘Army personnel have seen pyroclastic material, incandescent material, and there has been an increase in the sulphurous smell present in the town of Chaitén. As of 6th of May, latest SERNAGEOMIN bulletin online reported that eruptions continue for at Chaitén volcano. There have also been reports of a sharp increase in earthquakes in the area since the eruption. Evacuations have occurred at a second town, Futaleufu. Some residents have evacuated across the border to Argentina. Around 25,000 head of cattle in the area are in serious danger of dying. According to SERNAGEOMIN, during the morning of 6 May, at 08:20, the eruptive cycle went through a recrudescence with vigorous and rhythmic explosions of great energy producing a much wider laterally expanding eruptive column of about 30 kilometres altitude in its initial phase, declining subsequently. A subsequent helicopter overflight found that two craters on the northern side of the dome had joined into one, 800m-wide vent during this eruptive phase. (Assuming, as appears to be the case from photographs, that the initial site of the eruption was on the southern flank of the dome, it now seems that the volcano is erupting from both northern and southern flanks.) No pyroclastic flows were reported to the north, south or west (the eastern zone could not be inspected, presumably, being obscured by the eruption plume), and it was noted that the rivers around the volcano were carrying a greater load of erupted material. Overall SERNAGEOMIN considers that the eruption may develop in two ways from this point onwards - although, as always with predictions of volcanic activity, it is impossible to be sure. There is the possibility of a collapse of the eruptive column and/or the rhyolite dome, which would generate pyroclastic flows. On the other hand the fall of ashes may continue with accumulations whose thickness will depend on the intensity of the explosions and the prevailing winds. President Michelle Bachelet briefly visited Chaiten and spoke with some of the few remaining residents. At shelters in Puerto Montt, evacuees sought the president's support to rebuild outside the path of the volcano. Most of Chaiten's 4500 residents fled as the eruption polluted air and water supplies. As of 3rd of May bulletin, from the Chilean Government Emergencies Office ONEMI reported that eruptive activity was continued at the Chaitén volcano, with the sky darkened by ash and a constant fall of fine ash in nearby areas. A sulphurous smell has been reported in some districts. A number of earthquakes have also been experienced in the region over the past 24 hours. The volcano was still ‘erupting ashes' and covering the surrounding districts ‘with a dense cloud of ash more than 20km in height … In Chaitén town, the streets are covered with 20-40cm of ash'. The fall of ash from Chaitén is also causing problems in neighbouring areas of Argentina, where airports and schools have been closed, transport disrupted and water supplies affected. In the same bulletin ONEMI also reports that the evacuation of Chaitén is continuing, with the aim being to evacuate the whole population: From yesterday to dawn today a total of 3900 people have been evacuated by sea from Chaitén to Puerto Montt and Castro, which corresponds to 89% of the population … Today approximately 500 people will be evacuated on six vessels bound for Castro and Puerto Montt. This will evacuate the entire population of Chaitén. Previous news : following a short seismic crisis, the Chaiten volcano started an eruption. The Chaiten volcano ejected gas and ash on Thursday night 1st to 2nd of May 2008, causing more than 60 small tremors in the Los Lagos region, 750 miles south of the capital, Santiago.Chile's government declared a state of emergency, evacuating as many as 1,500 people from nearby villages and the town of Chaiten, just over 6 miles from the volcano considered dormant for thousands of years erupted. The blast sent minor earthquakes rippling through the region. The amount of ash falling in Chaiten had dropped considerably by Friday afternoon, and the wind was moving it southeast. Ash from the eruption was polluting water supplies and prompting officials to hand out more than 10,000 protective masks. Winds also carried ash over the Andes mountains to neighboring Argentina, where the Education Ministry suspended classes in several towns, including Esquel and Trevelin - two popular Patagonian tourist. Authorities also declared a state of alert on two major highways as falling ash reduced visibility. On Friday evening a Volcanic Ash Advisory stated that ash rose to altitudes in the range of 13.7-16.7 km. Chaiten lies slightly to the W of Minchinmavida. Chaiten volcano lacks any known modern eruptions but a radiocarbon date on its tephra (CHA1) yields a date of 7,430 BC (plus or minus 75 years). Chaitén is a small, glacier-free late-Pleistocene caldera with a Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. The north side of the rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupying the 3.5-km-wide caldera is unvegetated. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1,122 m. Two small lakes occupy the caldera floor on the west and north sides of the lava dome.Informations : ONEMI, GVN/GVP - SERNAGEOMIN (in spanish) - Live web camera

CHILE - Llaima volcano

March 5th , 2010

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 4 March seismicity from Llaima increased. During an overflight that same day, scientists observed emissions of gas and steam from the main crater. Images taken that day were compared to those taken on 21 February and showed no significant changes in morphology. The
rate of sulfur dioxide emissions had increased, however. Scientists also noted deposits from a large rockfall along with fracturing of the glacier, especially on the upper N and NW flanks. Those observations in addition to the increased seismicity prompted SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Yellow, Level 4.
The previous SERNAGEOMIN bulletin for Llaima, released on 11 February 2010 and covering 20 January to 9 February, reported that emissions of water vapour and occasional slight emission of gases from the principal crater' were observed during that period, reflecting normal degassing, but that the volcano's seismic activity indicates a possible increase in activity in the near future. As of the 7th of December, ONEMI has issued a bulletin, reporting that‘a seismic swarm associated with internal degasification and marked by increased release of the volcano's internal energy was detected between 16:00 and 18:00 local time on 6 December. Fumarolic activity has been continuing, and the main crater remains obstructed. ONEMI is maintaining Yellow Alert for Llaima and surrounding communities, and the 4-kilometre radius exclusion zone remains in force. Previously, as of the 2nd of September 2009, SERNAGEOMIN reported that while seismicity at Llaima volcano tended to decrease in the early days of August, it has subsequently increased, slightly exceeding its usual values in this latest period (17-21 August). These oscillations in seismic activity (LP-type earthquakes [Long Period earthquakes] of high and low frequency) could be related to the rising and falling of the magma column located in the principal conduit of the volcano, demonstrating the instability of the magma column. The absence of other types of seismic activity in this type of phenomenon suggests the existence of an unobstructed volcanic conduit, in which magmatic fluids can suddenly rise freely, bringing about a new eruptive phase. Due to the markedly erratic behaviour which the volcano has shown during recent times, it is not possible to rule out its reactivation. Because of the foregoing, SERNAGEOMIN continues with Green Alert level 2, maintaining a 4-km radius of exclusion around the principal crater. The camera in Melipueco used by OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN to monitor Llaima again showed glow on the NW inner margin of the main crater during 9-16 June. Occasional steam emissions with minor amounts of ash were also seen from the E flank. Seismic tremor has also increased since 5 June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-8 June incandescence from an area in the SW part of Llaima's main crater corresponded to a small active"outcrop of lava." On 6 June, incandescence emanated from a small point along the E-flank fissure. Gas and steam was emitted from an area W of the main crater. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow. On 26 May 2009, after a period of unusually heavy rain, a 500-metre long fissure on the upper east flank of the volcano began to emit dense clouds of water vapour. On the following day, 27 May, small amounts of ash were observed mixed in with the water vapour, and on 28 May the vigour of the emissions and the ash content increased. On 1 June, after further bad weather, the energy of the intermittent emissions along the fissure increased. A powerful phreatic eruption began at 11:20 (local time) on 1 June. The eruption ceased by 12:00, and during that afternoon only one small subsequent eruption was observed. Since the phreatic fissure eruptions began seismicity has remained at normal levels (as measured by POVI instruments 20 km from the volcano) but the number and energy of LP (long period) earthquakes has increased. Previously, during 5-11 May, tephra was ejected from an area on the E flank and, during the night, incandescence originated from this area. During the daytime, observers reported that an almost continuous orange brown plume rose 200 m. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow. During 7-10 April, intermittent incandescence from a lava flow at the SW base of the pyroclastic cone was observed. Incandescent blocks originating from the lava flow descended W. On 8 April, gasses emitted from multiple points on the pyroclastic cone formed a plume that drifted NE. Preliminary calculations indicated that the height of the pyroclastic cone exceeded the top of the main crater by 70 m, making the summit elevation 3,240 m a.s.l. During 9-10 and 13-14 April, gas and steam plumes rose from the pyroclastic cone; views were obscured by clouds on 11 and 12 April. On 14 April, fumarolic activity from the pyroclastic cone was again noted. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Red. As of the 7th of April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 10:00 this day it was only possible to see weak emissions of ash and volcanic gases from various points on the summit. The Llaima continues to erupt but with a much lower intensity compared with the first phase. A light brown ash plume was rising to 1 km above the summit and dispersing towards the north-east. The volcano's seismicity has also declined. At 23:00, the energetic tremor which has been a characteristic of the seismic behaviour of the volcano during the current eruptive cycle suddenly declined to 300 RSAM units and 40 minutes later had reached just 19 units, where it has remained until 10:00 today'. Werner Keller of POVI, confirmed and reported that from around 22:25 local time the persistent seismic tremor declined to background levels. POVI's cameras detected a slow-moving lava flow on the western flank of the volcano early this morning. As of the 6th of April, the eruption of Chile's Llaima volcano that began on 3 April wass still ongoing, and characterized with vigorous and sustained activity. The bulletin from ONEMI (5th of April) reported that 71 people have been evacuated from 11 communities near the volcano, with red alert for Vilcún and Curacautín, because of the danger of lahars, and yellow alert for Cunco, Melipeuco and Lonquimay. In the previous bulletin ONEMI had reported ash emissions to 7000 metres altitude, a plume extending 100 kilometres to the south-east, incandescent material being projected up to 2 kilometres from the summit, pyroclastic flows on the western flank, and lava flowing towards the Calbuco valley. As of the 4th of April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that eruptive activity occured at Llaima volcano in Chile . The Chilean Government's (ONEMI) reported the day before that from around 20:00 local time an incandescence at the crater was visible from the adjacent areas of Cherquenco and Vilcún, and to a lesser extent from Melipeuco. The various emergency and civil protection committees were duly activated. Another bulletin reported that ‘an eruption of weak character is taking place at Llaima volcano with small explosions and eruptions of pyroclastic material at the level of the crater.According to information provided by Regional ONEMI personnel on the ground the volcanic activity has remained stable for the last four hours, with constant explosions which reach 600 metres above the crater; fall of ash and fine scoria has been seen in the eastern sector, towards Laguna Verde and Conguillío Park. Furthermore, a lava flow has been observed flowing towards Río Calbuco, Comuna de Vilcún, with an approximate length of over 1000 metres, following the same route as that of the 2008 eruption, which does not have large accumulations of ice and snow. ONEMI notes that there is a lahar risk on the Calbuco river. A number of people who were in the Conguillío National Park when the eruption began are safe, and evacuations will take place as soon as possible. As of the 4th of January 2009, POVI reported that the volcano has been very active over the Past previous days. But, none of the surveillance satellites, with thermal sensors on board, have detected incandescent lava during the current eruptive cycle. This is because the explosions of lava do not present a high frequency and do not generate incandescent surfaces greater than 50m2. On January 3rd, between 06:08 and 20:31 local time the two monitoring cameras captured a total of 37 phreatomagmatic explosions whose plumes of gases and particulates exceeded 100m in altitude before becoming disconnected from their source. During this period the emissions occurred at 23-minute intervals on average. The emissions came from three distinct points, located in the interior of the intra-crateral cone at the summit. At 07:59, 11:01, 11:40, 12:34 and 15:42 local time the most vigorous events of the day were observed. At 11:01 and 15:42 local time spatters of lava impacted the slope of the intra-crateral cone and the base of the cone. At 16:12 local time a fall of rocks and fragments descended the south-east flank of Pichillaima cone, the secondary summit of Llaima volcano. As of the 25th of december, SERNAGEOMIN reported that Since mid-December, however, the level of fumarolic activity has increased gradually, and on 11 December two small debris avalanches descended the west flank of the volcano, went down through a channel in the ice created by a past eruptive activity. On 22 December there were two weak ash emissions at 13:48 and 21:10 local time. This activity could be a precursor to further eruptive activity in the near future. There had been heavy snow fall on the day preceding this activity, indicating that large volumes of melt water were probably responsible for this phreatomagmatic activity. As of the 26th of November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that from 19 November to 25th of November, observers in the area of Llaima volcanoconfirmed that the volcano presented weak and sporadic emissions of water vapour concentrated around the two small craters of the paired pyroclastic cones nested inside the principal crater. Regarding seismic activity, during this period there has been a slight increase both in the number of LP-type earthquakes and in the energy they have released. Few episodes of tremor, of short duration with an energy level maintained at an average of 20 RSAM units, along with weak and occasional emissions mainly of water vapour, allow the presumption that the seismic activity is of superficial origin.As of the 24 September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during an overflight of Llaima on 12 September, scientists observed diffuse gas-and-steam plumes emitted from the external edges of the nested craters in the main crater. During 13-22 September, observers in Melipeuco(about 17 km SSE) reported that sporadic gas-and-steam plumes emanated from the main crater. During an overflight on 21 September, steam emissions were noted from areas on the NE and W flanks. The Alert remained at Green, Level 2. Explosions were heard during 25-28 August. On 28 August, seismic signals indicated that gas-and-ash plumes were possibly emitted from the pyroclastic cones in the main crater. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Yellow.
As of the 29th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that in the same way as the previous eruptive episodes of this month, the latest occurring on Saturday 26 July had a duration of 11.5 hours, although the stage of the greatest intensity lasted only one hour. This corresponds to a vigorous Strombolian-type event, effusive, with rapid onset and decline. Also, the presence of powerful tremor was associated with the emission of ashes, with intense ejection of pyroclasts and a very high rate of emission of lava. At present, Llaima volcano is in a new period of ‘calm', with weak background tremor and few LP-type earthquakes, which are associated with very weak degassing and movements of internal fluids. However, it could take only a few days for a new eruptive episode similar or greater than that of Saturday 26 July to come to pass. As of the 24th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that after increased seismicity at Llaima on the 14th of July, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. Less than two hours later, very intense orange and red incandescence was seen through breaks in the cloud cover near the summit and at the base of the W flank. At 1915hrs a vigorous Strombolian eruption ejected incandescent pyroclastic material from the N vent in the main crater to heights of 500 m above the summit. Seismicity and the intensity of the explosions decreased later that day. On the 15th of July, diffuse ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. Ash and tephra covered areas of the SSE flank. Seismic activity decreased during 16-18 July.O n 19 July, seismicity again increased and ash-and-gas plumes rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The emissions became more intense and frequent, and one explosion produced an ash plume to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash and tephra fell on the SE flank. Later that day, constant explosions ejected incandescent material 500 m above the summit that fell near the crater. Steam plumes emitted from the W flank possibly indicated the presence of a new lava flow along with mobile incandescent blocks from a previous lava flow. After another brief period of calm, vapour emissions increased and were followed by strong explosions and lava flows. The Alert level remained at Yellow. As of the 17th of July, the SERNAGEOMIN reported that a new eruptive phase at Llaima occurred on the 10th of July following two hours of precursory seismicity. At 1520hrs, a vigorous Strombolian eruption ejected incandescent pyroclastic material from two vents in the main crater to heights of 500 m above the summit, throwing bombs to the E, NE, and S. Lava flows also moved towards the W and S flanks. Explosions were seen from Melipeuco, Cherquenco, El Salto, and El Manzano. Strong activity continued for almost three hours before decreasing. Medium to coarse ash fell in Melipeuco (up to 1.5 mm in diameter). Red glow was seen in the early hours of the 11th of July, and there was no eruptive column or gas emissions. Poor weather prevented observations the next day. As of the 3rd of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that on the morning of 3 July, a large column of water vapour was observed over the western flank. An overflight inspection confirmed that the front of the lava advancing across the flank had generated a small lahar that because of its limited size did not reach the headwaters of the Calbuco river. At the same time, the seismicity for last night shows a slight upturn in the seismic energy released. Until now there has been no report of significant effects on the environment. The low rate of emission of magma has not favoured the massive melting of ice or snow with the consequent generation of lahars (volcanic floods) and both the flow and sediment load of the rivers in the western sector have remained stable. As of the 1st of July, ONEMI reported that following the reactivation of the Llaima volcano at approximately 4 AM, the active lava flow has currently reached almost 800 meters away. The ONEMI director, who was informed of the situation just before 4 AM this morning, stated that the direction of the lava flow places the towns of La Selva and Danubio at most risk, due to the fact that they are located only 10 to 12 kilometers from the crater – which is within the primary emergency radius that has been declared. Evacuations have been underway, however, in the town of Los Lleuques, where 12 people were removed from the area. Llaima, near Chile's lake region, erupted violently on New Year's Day, forcing the temporary evacuation of some tourists and residents from the surrounding Conguillio National Park, and then belched ash and lava in February and March.Previously SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 March-4 April, fumarolic plumes from Llaima drifted several tens of kilometers mainly to the SE. Explosions produced ash and gas emissions. An overflight on 2 April of the main crater revealed that gas, pyroclastic material, and ash emissions, occasionally accompanied by small explosions, originated from three cones. On 4 April, several explosions were heard and also some incandescence was reflected in a gas-and-ash plume. As of the 27th March, the El Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN) reported that fumarolic activity from the central pyroclastic cone in Llaima's main crater reactivated on 13 March and intensified during 15-17 March. Sulfur dioxide plumes rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. People from nearby areas reported incandescence in the crater during 19-21 March. Incandescent material propelled from the crater was observed at night during 20-21 March. As of the 6th March, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that weak sulfur dioxide plumes from two cones in Llaima's main crater during 26-28 February. An overflight on 28 February revealed that the internal structure of the crater had not changed since observations on 21 February. Weak fumarolic emissions from the main crater were noted during 2-3 March. The Alert Level remained at Yellow. As of the 28th February, a weak steam plumes were observed from Llaima's main crater on 20 February. The 'a'a lava flow that traveled 2.5 km during 2-13 February varied in width between 30-40 m and was 10 m thick. On 21 February small ash plumes rose from the E and SE flanks. Pyroclastic flows descended the E flank and possibly down the W flank. Sulfur dioxide plumes that rose from two craters within the main crater were visible during an overflight. On 22 February, a seismic signal pattern similar to that observed during a previous pyroclastic flow was noted. Ash-and-gas plumes rose from the E flank. On 23 February, an ash-and-gas plume rose from the SE flank. On 6 February, intense Strombolian activity that propelled material 500 m above the summit crater was observed. Ash-and-gas plumes from the activity rose to altitudes of 5.1-5.6 km (16,700-18,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE more than 30 km. Multiple lava flows traveled 0.7-1.5 km W and N and generated steam plumes due to their interaction with a glacier. Activity declined later that day. During 7-8 February, explosions from two different areas in the main crater produced brown and gray ash-and-gas plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-6.2 km (13,500-20,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20 km NW. Incandescent blocks from lava-flow fronts rolled down the flank. As of the 8th February, eruptive activity at Llaima continued from the main crater and from multiple areas on the E flank during 30 January-4 February. Lava flows extended about 1.5-2 km in length and caused strong steam plumes due to their interaction with a glacier. On 3 February, material from intense Strombolian activity was propelled 500 m above the crater floor and fell inside and outside of the crater. Multiple lava flows from the W edge of the main crater descended about 150 m. Incandescent blocks from lava-flow fronts rolled down the flank. Plumes rose to an approximate altitude of 4.6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW. Lava flows originating from a lava lake were observed during an overflight. These flows extended about 1.5-2 km in length and caused strong steam plumes due to their interaction with a glacier. According to a news article, about 20 people were evacuated from an area of La Selva, in the community of Vilcún (43 km W). Activity was similar on 4 February. A phreatic explosion on the E flank was accompanied by steam plumes and a small pyroclastic flow. Orange ash emissions were noted from the S lateral fissure. Ash plumes from the main crater rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.7 km (15,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, NE, and W during 5-6 February. As of the 24th January, SERNAGEOMIN reported that eruptive activity at Llaima continued from the main crater and from two craters and a fissure on the E flank during 16-21 January. Based on observations during an overflight on 16 January, three nested pyroclastic cones within the main crater were active. The larger cone produced weak ash emissions that rose about 500 m. Ash emissions were also noted from a crater on the E flank. Glaciers on the NE slope and W flank were fractured and dislocated. Ash emissions from a NE-SW-trending fissure about 80 m in length and 10 m wide were observed. Also noted were incandescent rocks that rolled from the NE end of the fissure and ash plumes generated from rolling rocks in multiple areas during 16-17 January. On 17 January, ash emissions rose from the main crater to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted E. Weak Strombolian activity was seen from the main crater during aerial observation. of the 17th January, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Llaima decreased in energy, but the number of events increased during 10-14 January. Based on seismic interpretation, weak explosions produced plumes of gas and ash. On 11 January, lava flows on the W flank that were observed during an overflight were cooled and snow-covered near the crater but snow-free, and therefore still hot, about 500 m further down on the flank. Blocks of incandescent material rolled about 1.5 km and caused steam emissions at several points where they contacted the glacier. Ash plumes drifted NE. Abundant cracks in glaciers to the SW of the crater were noted. Based on observations of satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SW on 11 and 13 January, respectively. s of the 4th January, INGEOMINAS reported that rescue workers evacuated 54 tourists and staff from a Chilean wilderness park on Wednesday after one of the country's largest volcanoes erupted, spewing ash and molten lava. There were no reports of injuries or damage, but dozens of tourists were evacuated from the base of the Llaima volcano after it erupted on Tuesday evening . The 54 people rescued had been stranded overnight after a local river swelled with meltwater and cut off road access. The volcano was calmer by Wednesday afternoon but according to scientists further eruptions were possible. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by strombolian, hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.The Current Colour Code for Llaima is currently at RED . Llaima webcam

CHILE - Melimoyu volcano

March 21st, 2010

As of the 20th of march 2010, Chile's state geological service SERNAGEOMIN reported  that three earthquakes, two of magnitude 3.3 and one of magnitude 5.0, were detected on 17 March beneath Melimoyu. The earthquakes, which have been felt by people in towns near the volcano, continued at a lower level on 18 March. The earthquakes were detected by the University of Chile's seismological network and by the network set up to monitor the eruption of Chaitén volcano, which is 140 km north of Melimoyu. The foci were located beneath Melimoyu, at depths of between 3 and 22 km. As of the publication of the SERNAGEOMIN bulletin on 20 March the seismic activity was continuing with magnitudes between 2.0 and 3.0 and frequencies of up to 2 earthquakes per hour; during the activity of 18 March the frequency had reached 8 earthquakes per hour. However, no visual anomalies have been detected at Melimoyu. SERNAGEOMIN has responded to this activity with commendable speed by installing a network of six seismic stations at Melimoyu to enable permanent monitoring of the volcano. Melimoyu is a stratovolcano 2400 m high with an 8-km-wide, largely buried caldera located about 40 km NW of the town of Puyuhuapi. The ice-filled caldera is drained by a glacier through a notch in the NE caldera rim. The basaltic-andesite volcano is elongated 10 km in an E-W direction and has several cinder cones. A 1-km-wide crater is located at the summit of the volcano. Two late-Holocene tephra layers have been documented from Melimoyu. Last known eruption has been dated 200 AD +-75 years.

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Volcan Popocatepetl - 19 December 2000 CENAPRED
JAPAN - Suwanose-Jima volcano (Ryukyu Islands)

April 2nd, 2010

As of the 1st of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-Jima on the 29th of March. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported. As of the 25th of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima during 17-19 and 21-22 February. Plumes occasionally rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. As of the 18th of February,that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima during 11-16 February. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 22-26 January. On 24 and 26 January, plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 14th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima during 6-9 and 11 January. Plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 and 9 January and drifted E.
As of the 7th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-Jima during 30 December-2 January and 4-5 January. Plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 and 4 January, and drifted NE and E on 4 January. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

JAPAN - Shinmoe-Dake volcano (Kirishima group)

April 9th, 2010

As of the 8th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that an explosive activity occured from Shinmoe-dake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishima volcano group, on the 30th of March prompted JMA to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Ash blanketed the ground to the W of the crater. Kirishima is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene volcano group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1,700-m-high Karakuni-dake being the highest. Onami-ike and Mi-ike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakuni-dake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Mi-ike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoe-dake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century.

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano

April 10th, 2010

As of the 8th of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that the Tokyo VAAC reported that during the 31st of March - 6th of April explosions from Sakura-Jima sometimes produced plumes identified on satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, E, and NE.As of the 1st of April, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that the Tokyo VAAC reported that during the 24th-30th of March explosions from Sakura-Jima sometimes produced plumes identified on satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E. As of the 25th of March, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during the 17th-23rd of March plumes from Sakura-Jima identified on satellite imagery, and ash plumes seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 10-16 March multiple explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. Pilots reported that on 11 and 16 March ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NE. As of the 11th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that during 3-9 March, the Tokyo VAAC reported multiple explosions from Sakura-Jima based on information from JMA. During 3, 5-6, and 8-9 March, plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. Pilots reported on the 8th and 9th of March that ash plumes rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 25th of February, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17-23 February plumes from Sakura-Jima identified on satellite imagery, and ash plumes seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-4 km (5,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. As of the 18th of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-16 February multiple explosions from Sakura-Jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, SE, and S. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-9 February multiple explosions from Sakura-Jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and N. On 5, 6, and 7 February, pilots reported that ash plumes sometimes drifted SE and S at altitudes of 1.5-3.4 km (5,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. An eruption on the 8th of February produced an estimated 1-km-high lava fountain, and an ash plume with abundant lightning. Incandescent material fell onto the flanks. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 27 January-2 February multiple explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. During 27-29 January and 1-2 February, pilots reported that ash plumes sometimes drifted SE and S at altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 28th of January, based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 20-26 January multiple explosions often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. On 23 January, a pilot reported that an ash plume drifted SE at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

JAPAN - Fukutoku-Okanoba volcano (Volcano islands)

February 5th, 2010

As of the 5th of february, the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) and Japanese Coastguards have reported that an underwater volcanic eruption was detected on Wednesday 3rd of February near Minami-Iwoto island in the Pacific probably from Fukutoku-Okanoba volcano. The Japanese Coastguard caught the eruption on video showing steam billowing out and some dark-grey ash erupting from the ocean. This active submarine volcano erupted seven times since 1904. Fukutoku-Okanoba is a submarine volcano located 5 km NE of the pyramidal island of Minami-Iwo-jima.This is a submarine volcano which is part of the Volcano Islands group, which is about 1000 km south of the main Japanese archipelago. Its summit lies a mere 14 metres beneath the surface. Water discoloration is frequently observed from the volcano, and several ephemeral islands have formed in the 20th century. The first of these formed Shin-Iwo-jima ("New Sulfur Island") in 1904, and the most recent island was formed in 1986. Fukutoku-Okanoba is part of an elongated edifice with two major topographic highs trending NNW-SSE and is a trachyandesitic volcano geochemically similar to Iwo-jima.

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USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

April 14th, 2010

During 7-13 April, HVO reported incandescence from a 60-m-wide active lava surface about 200 m below a 130-m-wide vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor; a few times the level fluctuated between 235 and 260 m below the surface. Rocks from the vent walls fell into the pond, causing spattering. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally Pele's hair and Pele's tears, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 600 and 500 tonnes per day were measured on 8 and 9 April, respectively. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Lava flows moved SE down Pulama pali.During 24-30 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally spatter, downwind. Gas measurements on 25 and 26 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 and 800 tonnes per day, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.As of the 26th of March, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported that DI inflation and Kilauea volcanic activity continued at two locations. At the summit, a circulating and spattering lava surface rose and fell in a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and produced glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone vents, lava probably flowed through tubes and fed scattered surface flows above the pali. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. During 17-23 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash and spatter downwind. Measurements on 19 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 500 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows above the pali. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater. During 10-16 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor towards the end of the reporting period. Lava fountaining from the N edge of the pit was also noted. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. measurements on 11 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain. As of the 12th of March, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported that the switch to DI inflation yesterday afternoon has not yet resulted in increased activity at the two eruption locations on Kilauea volcano. At the summit, lava was only visible to an infrared camera at low levels in a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater but it still produced weak glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone vents, less lava flowed through tubes and fed fewer scattered surface flows on the pali and the coastal plain. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents, however, remained elevated. During 3-9 March, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements during 4-5 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 700 - 800 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain. As of the 5th of March, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that Kilauea continued activity at two locations. At the summit, lava was frequently visible via webcam rising and falling in a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and produced weak glow that was visible from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through tubes and fed scattered surface flows on the pali and the coastal plain. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. As of the 26th of February, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that Kilauea was active at two locations. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam cyclically rising and falling in a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and producing a strong glow visible from the Jaggar Museum. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through tubes and fed surface flows on the pali and the coastal plain but that have not yet reached the ocean. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. As of the 23rd of February, HVO reported that an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Halema'uma'u crater was reported 17-23 February. The lava surface circulated and occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. Bursting bubbles and low lava fountains were also noted. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements on 18 February indicated that the sulphur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 tonnes/day (2003-2007 average rate = 140 tonnes/day). As of the 19th of February, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that DI deflation continued and Kilauea continued to be active at two locations. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through the upper tube system and fed small surface flows above the pali and on the coastal plain; there were no active ocean entries. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. As of the 12th of February, HVO reported that Kilauea was active at two locations. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam sloshing and spattering in two openings in the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. This lava, combined with incandescence from several other small openings, produced glow that was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through the upper tube system and fed small surface flows that have advanced onto the coastal plain; there are no active ocean entries. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. As of the 7th of February, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that DI inflation started early this morning and Kilauea was active at two locations. At the summit, lava was deep and sometimes visible via webcam within at least three openings in the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater producing glow that was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through the upper tube system and fed sluggish surface flows that advanced to the coastal plain; the ocean entry has not been active for about 4 weeks. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. If Kilauea responds to the current DI event as the volcano has responded to past events, surface activity may stall or continue to slow before resuming over the next few days. As of the 3rd of February, HVO reported that during 27 January-2 February, an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted N, NW, and W, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 400 and 1,000 tonnes per day were measured on 28 January and 1 February, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. As of the 29th of January, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that another DI event started yesterday and Kilauea was active at two vents. At the summit, circulating and spattering lava remained within an opening in the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater producing glow that was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. At the east rift zone vents, lava flowed through the upper tube system and fed at least one surface flow that advanced to the top of the pali; the ocean entry has not been active for about 3 weeks and it appears increasingly unlikely that it will be reoccupied as time goes on. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents remained elevated. An active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Halema'uma'u crater was observed during 20-26 January. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted in multiple directions, dropping small amounts of ash and occasional fresh spatter downwind. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through a lava tube system. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on top of the pali from lava-tube breakouts. During an overflight of Pu'u ‘O'o crater on 19 January scientists saw a recent but inactive lava flow across the bottom of the crater. On 22 January a small part of the crater rim collapsed in front of the web camera, revealing an incandescent vent at the base of the E wall. During 23-26 January, incandescence was seen from the vent, as well as from high on the E wall, the crater floor, and low on the S wall. As of the 15th of January, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported that DI inflation continued at the summit and finally started at Pu`u `O`o. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam spattering and slowly rising out of an opening in the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater producing glow that was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. Although inflation has started at Pu`u `O`o, lava has not yet resumed flow from the east rift zone vents. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents probably remain elevated. As of the 8th of January, HVO reported that Kilauea continues to erupt from two vents. At the summit, lava was visible via webcam at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater and its glow was visible from Jaggar Overlook overnight. Lava from the east rift zone vents started back into the tube system early this morning. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents probably remain elevated. As of the 31st of December, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that Kilauea continued to erupt from two vents; a DI event started yesterday morning. At the summit, roiling, receding lava at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater still provided glow from the pit overnight. On the east rift zone, lava continued to erupt from the TEB vent and flow through tubes to the ocean just west of Kalapana; surface flows were active. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents remain elevated. As of the 25th of December, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported that Kilauea continued to erupt from two vents. At the summit, sloshing lava was visible within a single opening at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater providing glow from the pit overnight. On the east rift zone, lava continued to erupt from the TEB vent and flow through tubes to the ocean just west of Kalapana. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both vents remain elevated. As of the 18th of December,HVO reported that Kilauea continued to erupt from two vents-one in Halema`uma`u and the other on the east rift zone. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from these two vents remain elevated. At the summit, a small ponded lava surface and spattering was visible at the bottom of a deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater, resulting in glow above the vent overnight. On the east rift zone, lava erupting from that vent continued to flow through tubes to the coast where it entered the ocean just west of Kalapana. As of the 11th of December, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reports that a DI event started this morning as Kilauea continued to erupt from two vents. At the summit, glow continued from openings in the floor of a deep pit in the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. From the east rift zone vent, lava flows through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at several locations west of Kalapana. Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Overnight, only glow issued from one small hole along the north edge and another out-of-sight hole on the east side of the floor of a deep pit in Halema`uma`u Crater floor. This morning, an off-white plume is moving low and to the southwest. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 800 tonnes/day on December 1, still elevated above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day; new measurements will not be possible until moderate trade winds resume. Miniscule amounts of mostly ash-sized tephra were deposited beneath the plume near the vent. The summit tiltmeter network recorded the start of DI deflation at 0400 hrs this morning. The GPS network, which is less sensitive than the tiltmeter network, recorded about 1 cm of contraction over the last 3 months. Seismic tremor levels increased slightly during DI deflation but remained at low values. As of the 4th of December,HVO reported that at the summit, spattering continued from openings in the floor of a deep pit in the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater floor. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. From the east rift zone vent, lava flows through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at several locations west of Kalapana. As of the 20th of November, HVO reported that a small collapse overnight enlarged a hole deep in the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent cavity floor revealing an active lava pond. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain. Lava was also flowing through tubes to the coast and entering the ocean at two general locations west of Kalapana. A small collapse last night around 2300 hrs enlarged one of the holes deep within the Halema`uma`u vent cavity exposing a roiling, bubbling, and spattering lava pond surface; the surface rises and falls slowly over the next 20 minutes, remains fairly steady, and then starts an episodic rising and falling sequence observed seven times before dawn's early light washed out the view. Stronger glow was visible after 2300 hrs at the Jaggar Museum Overlook. This morning, the dense white plume rises into morning fog, but appears to moving southwest. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 700 tonnes/day on November 18th - still elevated above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day. As of the 13th of November, HVO reported that the sixth DI event in a week is nearing completion. A few small holes deep in the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent cavity floor continued to glow and produce spatter from a lava pond surface below. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. Lava flows are active on the coastal plain. Lava is also flowing through tubes to the coast and entering the ocean at two locations west of Kalapana. DI events often affect surface flow activity on the flow field. Typically, surface flow activity will decrease 12-24 hours after the start of deflation and resume 12-24 hours after the start of inflation. The last five DI events were of short duration and small amplitude and have not produced many effects; the current one has a larger amplitude and we might expect some, probably small, decreases in activity today. Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The Overlook vent webcam images again showed fluctuating glow and spattering from a few small holes deep within the Halema`uma`u vent cavity. This morning, the plume is rising about 600 m (2,000 ft) and moving to the west. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 400 tonnes/day on November 9th, which is the lowest value since early October but still elevated above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day. As of the 4th of November, HVO reported that lava began entering the ocean at a second location, 700 m farther to the W, on 31 October. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. Breakout lava flows were located inland of the Waikpuanaha entry and also immediately W of the County Public Viewing trail. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Incandescence originated from occasionally spattering holes from a surface inside the vent cavity. On 3 November, a collapse of the surface revealed a circulating and spattering lava pond below. During 21-27 October HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry on most days. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. For a few days an active lava flow advanced on the coastal plain, burning vegetation and pavement along the former Kalapana access road. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u ‘O'o crater floor and an East wall vent. During 16 and 17 September, two hybrid earthquakes were followed by 20-40 minutes of sustained tremor. The plume turned briefly"dusty" after the first event and incandescent tephra was ejected onto the rim after the second event; both produced glassy spatter. As of the 18th of September, HVO reports that two more hybrid seismic signals were recorded which produced increased amount of spatter and glow was visible after dark from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent (summit). As of the 7th of August, a minor earthquake has rattled the south flank of Kilauea volcano. The U.S. Geological Survey says the 3.0-magnitude temblor struck last night about 8 miles southeast of the summit and about 6 miles below the surface. As of the 1st of July, HVO reported that a sequence of rockfalls, some quite large, within the Halema'uma'u vent at the summit of Kîlauea Volcano began at 1:38 p.m. H.s.t on June 30, 2009. The initial rockfall produced a seismic signal equivalent to a magnitude-2.4 earthquake and was felt at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) and the adjacent Jaggar Museum. By 4:00 p.m., more than 30 such rim-collapse events had been recorded by the seismometers with a few more occurring through today, July 1. Seismic tremor amplitudes decreased by more than 50 percent. By 6 p.m., the levels were at their lowest values since August 30, 2007. Episodic tremor has now returned with 3 minute bursts of tremor occurring every 15 minutes. As of the 15th of April, HVO reporte that a magnitude-5.0 earthquake beneath the south flank of Kilauea Volcano was recorded on Tuesday, April 14, at 12:44 p.m. H.s.t. The earthquake was located about 12 km (8 miles) southeast of Kilauea's summit and 44 km (27 miles) south-southwest of Hilo at a depth of 10 km (6.2 miles). The earthquake was felt over the entire Island of Hawai`i. The U.S. Geological Survey received over 350 felt reports in the first 30 minutes after the earthquake. Eleven earthquakes with magnitudes of 4 or greater, including three with magnitudes of 5 or more, have occurred in this area, the central part of Kilauea's south flank, at nearly the same depth (8-10 km or 5-6 miles) in the last 25 years. These quakes are thought to be caused by southward movement of the south flank in response to magmatic pressure within the east rift zone. The earthquake caused no apparent change to the current eruption of Kilauea. Monitoring networks supported by HVO have not detected significant changes in volcano activity. During 8-14 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows on the coastal plain or from the Prince lobe were seen or detected by satellite imagery. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted mainly SW. incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. On 2 April, geologists found that the surface lava flow feeding the Kupapa'u entry was 1 km (0.6 m) wide. As of the 20th of March, HVO reported that the anticipated switch to DI inflation occurred the day before in the evening. Lava from east rift zone vents continues to flow through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at two locations. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remain elevated. On 11 February, geologists found a new littoral cone, on the edge of the bench, with a large crack running through it. Spatter on the cone and the bench behind it resulted from lava bubble bursts and steam jetting reported during the previous two days. A second crack between the cone and the sea cliff was also noted. The cracks suggested that the bench was slowly failing and did not collapse as reported a few days prior. Occasional incandescence originated from the Prince lobe, the flow that feeds the Waha'ula ocean entry. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and on the pali. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; the incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and some spatter, were routinely collected. Infrared images taken during an overflight on 11 February revealed the development of a small spattering cone over the conduit that hosted a lava pond the previous week. Images taken on 14 February indicated that the conduit had mostly crusted over; a small, puffing vent was visible. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 800 tonnes per day on 12 February, and 500 tonnes on 13 February; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. As of the 15th of October, HVO reported that Tuesday 14th of October at 12:26 and 4:07 pm, the Halema`uma`u vent produced explosions; the earlier explosion was initiated by a collapse of a thin piece of the vent rim; the second erupted molten spatter deposited as cowpies with 100 m (yards) of the vent and produced an eruption column that rose about 2 km (6,500 ft) above the crater rim. Between explosions, weak easterly winds moved the gas/steam plume to the west resulting in intermittently poor air quality at the summit. Glow from the Halema`uma`u vent overnight was variable and weak; spatter from the 4:07 pm eruption ignited a sulfur deposit on the crater wall to the west of the vent producing a blue flame visible at night. Wednesday morning, weak winds are allowing the plume to rise vertically into generally foggy/voggy conditions. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained elevated and variable. The most recent average measurement was 1,200 tonnes/day on October 10, compared to the 2003-2007 average rate of 140 tonnes/day. Moderate trade winds are needed for emission rate measurements. Kilauea caldera network of tiltmeters recorded an offset with the 4:07 pm explosion followed by accelerated deflation that is slowing this morning. The GPS receiver networks (less sensitive than tiltmeters) recorded no significant contraction or extension.Previously the 13th of october, HVO reported that early on the morning of Sunday 12 October (7:28 am), there was a significant explosive event at Halema'uma'u crater. This new gas vent opened in Halema`uma`u Crater at the summit of Kilauea Volcano. Since then, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions and the associated volcanic air pollution (vog) have impacted air quality on Hawai`i Island and, at times, throughout the entire state. Volcanic ash in the Halema`uma`u gas plume also resulted in the closure of air space above the crater. The  explosive eruption did produce significant tephra deposits, some of the pieces were fist- to grapefruit-sized frothy lava. Most of the samples were glassy lava bits with minor rock fragments and dust. Despite the fact that the 10/12 07:28 hybrid seismic event was larger than the 9/2 hybrid seismic event, the 10/12 deposit was significantly smaller. As of the 10th of October, it has been reported from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that there is an active lava flow on the pali east of Royal Gardens subdivision; lava has resumed flow through tubes to the ocean; Waikupanaha ocean entry is active. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remain high; tephra production continues from the Halema`uma`u vent. Last 24 hours at Kilauea summit: Plume direction yesterday was to the southwest and south. Glow from the Halema`uma`u vent overnight was again episodic and bright but somewhat weaker than previous nights; the lava pond is probably relatively high in the vent but still well below the rim. As of the 6th of October, it has been reported from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that for the DI tilt event that started last Thursday, the inflation, expected to follow deflation, began at the summit just after 2000 hrs; anticipated inflation at Pu`u `O`o may have started just before 0800 hrs this morning. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from both the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remain high; tephra production continues from the Halema`uma`u vent. A significantly reduced amount of lava, if any at all, flows through tubes to the ocean. If inflation has started at Pu`u `O`o, increased lava into the tubes, possible surface flow activity, and resumption of the ocean entry are expected sometime within the next 24 hours. As of the 8th of September, it has been confirmed from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), that for the first time since the new vent opened in Halema'uma'u Crater on March 19, HVO scientists in a helicopter hovering over the crater during the day 5th of september were able to see the surface of a sloshing 50 m (160 ft) diameter lava lake about 100 m (330 ft) below the vent rim. HVO scientists have speculated that a lava pond existed a few hundred meters below the vent, but have not been able to get visual confirmation until this morning. A second viewing early this afternoon revealed a roiling pond with multiple bursting bubbles changing into a central upwelling circulation pattern. The lake level dropped slightly before the cycle restarted. This behavior has been witnessed before, most recently in Pu'u 'O'o vents and the July 21 lava ponds on Kilauea's east rift zone, and is known as "gas pistoning." One model explains pistoning as small gas bubbles coalescing into larger bubbles beneath a crust on a lava pond, rising to the surface, and then bursting. The released pulse of hot gas carries rock dust from the collapsing vent walls, bits of the lava lake crust, and small amounts of spatter. Previously a small explosive eruption at 0737 hours on Aug. 27th was confirmed this morning. At the east rift eruption site, Pu`u `O`o cone continued to produce high amounts of sulfur dioxide gas; lava flows through tubes to the ocean. The signigicative explosion at 0737 hours noted in yesterday's update (8/27) was actually a very small explosive eruption, the fifth in 2008. This morning's collection yielded volcanic glass bits up to several centimetres across within a deposit that was dominantly rock fragments up to 5 cm (2 inches) across. The tephra was ejected hot and burned holes in a tarp used for collection near the overlook. during 20-26 August, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

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U.S.A. - Mauna Loa ( Hawaii)

January 12th, 2010

As of the 11th of January, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported there has been no recent significant change in line length across the summit or the flanks of Mauna Loa as measured by GPS receivers on opposite sides of the volcano. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes other than abrupt offsets that are related to instrumental issues, severe weather, or significant earthquakes. Sensors within a fissure in Moku`aweoweo crater floor reported gas concentrations within normal values; fumarole temperatures continued to slowly decrease. Line lengths have been increasing at a slightly faster rate since September, 2008,due mostly to slippage on basalt faults beneath Mauna Loa's east flank and not to an increase in magma supply to the volcano. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes other than abrupt offsets that are related to instrumental issues. Diurnal tilt, or the tilting due to daily heating and cooling of the ground, was diminished by snowfall starting Christmas Eve, 2008. Sensors within a crack in Moku`aweoweo crater floor continued to record background gas concentrations and temperatures. Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit. Each week, 1-5 earthquakes are also located beneath the Kealakekua area of west Mauna Loa. These levels are typical of the past several years. The Kao`iki seismic zone between Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcano summits remained active with an average of about 10-40 earthquakes per week; these numbers may reflect increased seismic activity nearer Kilauea summit rather than increased Kao`iki activity.

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USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

October 9th, 2009

As of the 9th of October, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that no additional eruptive activity has been observed at Cleveland since the brief eruption at approximately 2330 hrs AKDT October 2nd (0730 hrs UTC October 3rd). Satellite and web camera views of the volcano are currently obscured by clouds. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions with ash plumes that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery. Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). The beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

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U.S.A. - Redoubt volcano (Alaska)

April 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of March, the shallow, small earthquakes at Redoubt Volcano continued at about the same rate as yesterday. Satellite images from yesterday evening show a steam plume extending from the summit. Webcam views of Redoubt continue to be obscured by clouds.As of the 5th of April, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Volcano Alert Level to ADVISORY at Redoubt volcano this morning. A series of small repetitive earthquakes began at 01:44 AKDT (0944 UTC) this today in the vicinity of the volcano's summit. Activity is continuing this afternoon. These earthquakes may be precursory to renewed eruptive activity at the volcano and increased instability of the lava dome. Whether this will result in explosive activity or failure of the lava dome is unknown at this time. However, there is a heightened possibility of volcanic activity that would produce a volcanic ash cloud, pyroclastic avalanches, and lahars and flooding down the Drift River.As of the 6th of January, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that seismic activity at Redoubt Volcano remains low. Web camera and satellite views of the volcano have been obscured by clouds and snow. There have been no reports or indications today of unusual activity at the volcano. The Aviation Colour Code remains YELLOW and the Volcano Alert Level remains ADVISORY. AVO is continuing to evaluate information to interpret this week's uptick in seismicity and gas output. One explanation involves input of new magma or remobilisation of existing magma within volcano's shallow plumbing system. This process appears to have ceased or paused. It remains possible that activity could reappear, intensify and lead to additional eruptive activity. We would expect a sharp increase in seismicity and other marked changes prior to such activity. AVO will continue to issue daily status reports as long as the Aviation Colour Code and Alert Level are elevated. As of the 28th of August 2009, AVO reported that the code status has been lowered for Aviation to Colour Code Green and Volcano Alert at Code Normal at 18:44 GMT on 29 September 2009. Over the past several months, seismic activity, volcanic gas output, ground deformation, lava dome temperatures, and outward signs of lava dome instability at Redoubt Volcano have been declining. The volcano appears to have returned to its normal background condition and for now poses no immediate threat of eruptive activity. Accordingly, AVO is lowering the Aviation Color Code to GREEN and the Volcano Alert Code to NORMAL. The AVO notes that the Redoubt lava dome has reached a volume of approximately 70 million cubic metres, and that lava domes on steep slopes are ‘typically unstable'. However, given that 60 days have passed since the dome ceased to grow, ‘AVO believes the possibility for dome collapse is small and declining toward a background level of danger typical of many active stratovolcanoes with steep unstable rock slopes'. Local hazards remain, associated with the hot lava dome: gas emission, abundant steaming, rockfalls, but these do not pose a significant hazard beyond the summit area of the volcano. On 12 June, the lava dome was an estimated 1 km long, 460 m wide, and 200 m high. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.On 28th of May. a M3.7 earthquake occured on the Alaska Peninsula at approximately 03:11 shows prominently on the Redoubt webicorder records. Again, this seismic event is not related to activity at Redoubt. AVO reported that during 20-26 May seismicity from Redoubt remained above background levels and growth of the lava dome in the summit crater continued. Steam-and-gas emissions from the lava dome were seen on the web camera during 20-21 and 26 May; clouds obscured the view during the rest of the reporting period. Occasional rockfalls originating from unstable slopes of the lava dome possibly produced minor ash clouds in the vicinity of the summit, although no ash was detected by satellite or radar. As of the 20th of May, AVO reported that during 13-19 May seismicity from Redoubt had decreased from levels detected during 2-7 May, but remained above background levels. Rock avalanche events, discrete earthquakes, and minor volcanic tremor were evident in seismic data. Growth of the lava dome in the summit crater continued and vigorous steam emissions from the margins of the lava dome were seen on the web camera. Occasional rockfalls originating from unstable slopes of the lava dome produced minor ash clouds in the vicinity of the summit. Occasional incandescence was observed in nightime images from the web camera. On 15 May, the volume of the dome was an estimated 30-60 million cubic meters. During an overflight on 16 May, scientists observed a turquoise lake along the S margin of the dome, and a hot, vigorous, and persistent fumarole on the W wall of the upper gorge. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. During 29 April-5 May, AVO reported that elevated seismicity from Redoubt and a persistent thermal anomaly over the summit lava dome detected on satellite imagery were consistent with continued lava-dome growth. Changes in the size and shape of the dome confirmed growth; the volume of the dome was an estimated 25-30 million cubic meters. Occasional small rock avalanches originating from the N side of the lava dome produced minor low-level ash emissions. As of the 3rd of May, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that eruption of Redoubt volcano continued. seismic activity has increased in the last 24 hours. Minor emissions of ash have also been visible in webcam views during this time period. A vigorous steam plume, rising to altitudes up to 18,000' above sea level, has been visible in webcam images throughout the afternoon of 3rd of May. Currently, this plume contains small amounts of ash based on web camera views, satelite data, and a pilot report. Seismic activity has also increased in the past 24 hours. previous notable informations : ongoing lava dome growth kept seismicity at Redoubt remained elevated during 15-21 April, and vigorous steam-and-gas plumes (possibly with occasional small amounts of ash) rose to altitudes below 4.6 km a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed thermal anomalies at the summit and drifting SO2 plumes. The lava dome size was estimated on 16 Aril to be 500 x 700 m across and at least 50 m thick. Seismic and satellite data over the past day indicate continued lava dome growth. The volcano was not visible in web camera views during the night. A low-level steam and gas plume that may contain small amounts of ash is likely present. Based on seismic data and satellite imagery, AVO reported that Redoubt's lava dome continued to grow during 8-14 April. As of the 10th of April, A small steam plume with possible traces of ash has been visible in satellite and partially-obscured webcam images today. The plume is currently extending to the northeast of the volcano at low altitudes. Additional significant explosive events with accompanying ash clouds, ash fall, and mudflows are possible and can occur with little or no warning. AVO will maintain 24/7 operations in order to quickly detect renewed significant explosive activity and other hazardous phenomena. Seismic and satellite data over the past day indicate continued lava dome growth. A satellite image from yesterday afternoon showed a continuous sulfur dioxide gas plume extending for more than 600 miles from volcano. As of the 3rd of April, AVO reported that the eruption continued, but the intensity of ash-production has decreased. The current alert level at Redoubt is WATCH and aviation color code is ORANGE. The small, shallow repeating volcanic earthquakes have diminished. A few occasional larger events are still being observed. These earthquakes are most prominent on station REF. As the 2nd of April, AVO reported that the volcano continues to emit a plume of gas, steam and variable amounts of ash to low elevations. Winds are blowing the plume E to ESE. Weak volcanic tremor is ongoing, punctuated by small, discrete earthquakes. As of the 30th of March (11:56AM - AKDT), AVO reported that Over the past twelve hours, ash emissions at Redoubt Volcano have become more frequent, but lower in altitude than during the highly explosive events of the past week. A continuous ash plume has been observed in web camera, satellite and radar images, and by pilots. These plumes vary in their intensity and have generally been at low altitude (less than 20,000 feet above sea level). Occasional, short lived events have produced ash clouds that rise as high as 27,000 feet above sea level. Ash fall from these events is currently not likely to reach population centers in the Cook Inlet. In the evening, Seismicity continued to show small, discrete events. Observers on an AVO gas flight reported ash falling from the plume 20-25 miles from the vent. Winds at that altitude are heading NE from the volcano. A regional earthquake south of Kodiak was visible on the webicorders at 19:28. As of the 27th of March, AVO reported that three more explosions occured on Friday. The first eruption at 17:35 AKDT (01:35 GMT) produced an eruption cloud to 40000 feet (12200 metres) above sea level; the second eruption at 19:25 AKDT (03:25 GMT) sent up a plume to 51000 feet (15500 metres); and the third, beginning at 23:20 AKDT (07:20 GMT), produced a cloud that has reached 40000 feet (12200 metres). Due to important ashfall the Hut webcam has been covered since 18:00 local time and no new images were available.. As of the 23rd of March, AVO reported that the last explosive event occurred during the night (March 23) at 7:41 pm (AKDT) and lasted for roughly seventeen minutes. The top of the ash cloud was estimated to have reached at least 50,000 ft above sea level based on National Weather Service radar. Winds in the vicinity of the volcano carried the ash cloud primarily to the west and north. Pyroclastic flows were visible traveling down the volcano's north flank in web camera images. Last night's explosive event was the sixth thus far since explosive activity began Sunday. The day before, AVO staff visited the area around Redoubt by helicopter to assess conditions and repair equipment damaged by Sunday night's eruptions. They fixed the telemetry link at AVO's observation hut, which is once again transmitting images from the web camera and data from a GPS and two seismic instruments. Clouds obscured the summit, but observers reported very large lahar and flood deposits in the Drift River Valley that likely occurred during and/or following the first five explosions. These flows, which contained ice, water, mud, and other debris, inundated the Drift River Valley and traveled more than 35 km, reaching Cook Inlet. In the middle to upper Drift River Valley, high-water marks reached 6-8 meters above the valley floor. At the AVO hut (roughly 7 miles NNW of the summit), a 6-cm thick fall deposit was observed.As of 2:00AM March 23, 2009, AVO has recorded FOUR large explosions at Redoubt volcano at the following times: March 22 10:38PM; March 22 11:02PM; March 23 12:14AM; March 23 01:39AM. On Sunday morning, 40 to 50 earthquakes were being recorded every hour. The largest eruption sending a plume of smoke some 50,000 feet above sea level The National Weather Service has issued an Ashfall. The first Mt. Redoubt began at approximately 22:38 AKDT, March 22, 2009 (0638 UTC). AVO was raising immediatly the aviation color code to Red and the alert level to Warning. Initial height of the eruption cloud is estimated at less than 20,000 ft above sea level at present. Previously, as of the 19th of March, AVO reported that Mount Redoubt was been going through some interesting seismic evolutions over the past 24 hours. From around 00:00 to around 08:00 GMT on 20 March (around 16:00-00:00 on 19 March, local time) there was a period of marked volcanic tremor. The amplitude of the tremor diminished subsequently, but a pattern of small discrete quakes (around 1-2 per hour) interspersed with occasional larger seismic events continued, with the smaller quakes increasing in frequency and amplitude from around 10:00 local time A special bulletin from AVO reported that seismic activity at Mount Redoubt increased at about 1:05 AKDT Sunday afternoon (March 15, 2009) and approximately 4 hours of continuous volcanic tremor ensued. The onset of the tremor was associated with a small explosion that produced a plume of gas and ash that rose to about 15,000 feet above sea level and deposited a trace amount of ash over the summit-crater floor and down the south flank of the volcano to about 3,000 feet. AVO responded to this increase in activity by raising the color code and alert level to ORANGE/WATCH at 2:50 PM AKDT. At this time it does not appear that the increase in activity heralds a significant eruption in the short term, but conditions may evolve rapidly. An AVO overflight Sunday witnessed activity from 11:30 AM until about 3:00 PM and was able to document ash emission from a new vent, just south of the 1990 lava dome and west of the prominent ice collapse feature near the north edge of the summit crater. Although ash emission was short lived, it represents the first documented ash fall during the current episode of unrest at Mount Redoubt. About twenty minutes after the initial steam and ash burst, a sediment-laden flow occurred from a small area in the ice at about 7000 feet on upper Drift glacier. This flow descended about 1500 feet and produced a distinctive seismic signature seen across the Redoubt network. On 25 February, a small mud flow originating from a melt hole in the Drift Glacier traveled several hundred meters. Satellite images revealed that the next day another mudflow traveled several kilometers and covered a large portion of the Drift Glacier. Web camera views and satellite imagery showed no unusual activity; steam plumes within the summit crater were seen on the web camera on 26 and 1 March. As of the 27th of February, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), reported that at unrest at Redoubt Volcano continues. Beginning yesterday afternoon at 1537 hrs AKST, tremor amplitude increased sharply and remained elevated for approximately one hour. At 1614 hrs AKST, the tremor amplitude briefly matched the highest amplitude seen during the current episode of unrest. This tremor was strong enough to be recorded on all seismic stations on Redoubt Volcano as well as many stations surrounding Cook Inlet. Since that time, tremor amplitude has decreased significantly. Last night around 2240 hrs AKST, the number of discrete earthquakes increased and remained elevated until about 0255 hrs AKST today. Preliminary analysis of these earthquakes indicate they are occurring at shallow depth (1 to 3 km) below the summit crater of Redoubt. Since that time, discrete events are continuing at a lower rate, and tremor levels remain low. These variations in the character of seismic activity indicate that conditions have changed at shallow depths beneath the volcano. AVO is currently analyzing this seismic activity and will issue further information as it becomes available. An observation flight to the volcano is currently underway. Winds are too high at the volcano to perform gas measurements today. A small steam plume is visible in clear Hut Cam images today. AVO continues to monitor Redoubt Volcano closely, and the observatory is staffed 24 hours a day. A burst of volcanic tremor occurred just after 3:00 PM in the afternoon 5th of February lasting for about 30 minutes and is continuing at a sustained but lower level. This did not result in any eruptive activity and no ash emission has occurred. Following bursts of volcanic tremor during the afternoon , background tremor has remained elevated relative to the past several days. AVO continues to monitor the volcano 24/7. As of the 1st of February AVO reported that unrest at Redoubt Volcano continues. Seismicity has remained relatively constant over the last 24 hours and is still well above background. A vapor plume is intermittently visible in the AVO web camera. It appears to rise no higher than the volcano's summit. An observation and gas-measurement flight to the volcano yesterday noted continued vigorous fumarolic activity and runoff of muddy water down the north flank of the volcano. Volcanic gas was detected; data analysis is ongoing to compare these measurements with previously measured gas output. As of the 30th of January, AVO reported that seismicity levels have increased since yesterday evening and have also risen markedly over the last hour. Pilot reports, clear AVO webcam views, and satellite and radar views confirm that Redoubt Volcano has not yet erupted at the time of this report. Redoubt remains at Aviation Color Code ORANGE and Volcano Alert Level WATCH. As of the 25th of January, AVO previously reported that over the past 48 hours, seismic activity at Redoubt Volcano has increased markedly. This has taken the form of periodic tremor bursts that are most visible on the two seismic stations closest to the summit. Beginning at 00:58 AKT (9:58 UTC) this morning, tremor became sustained and its amplitude increased markedly. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Alert Level to WATCH in the morning at 2:09 AKT (11:09 UTC). This activity could be precursory to an eruption, perhaps within hours to days. A further increase in seismicity is expected to accompany an eruption. Information Statement Unrest at Redoubt Volcano continues. AVO conducted an overflight of the volcano in the afternoon of 25th of January, and observations confirmed that an eruption has not occurred yet. Increased steaming through previously observed sources in the snow and ice cover were seen and sulfur gas emissions were noted. There was no significant disruption of the glacial ice, nor any apparent increased water discharge down the Drift River. Seismicity began to decline at about 05:30 AST (14:30 UTC) on the morning, but remained elevated. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Volcano Alert Level to ADVISORY on November 5, 2008, in response to increased emissions of SO2, H2S, and CO2; melting of snow and ice near the volcano's summit; and a subtle increase in seismicity. These observations reflected a change in the volcano's hydrothermal system, possibly associated with an influx of new magma beneath the volcano. It is also possible that the change was related to the development of a new pathway of heated fluids rising from magma intruded during the 1989-90 eruption. From Miller et al (1998): "Redoubt Volcano is a steep-sided cone about 10 km in diameter at its base and with a volume of 30-35 cubic kilometers. The volcano is composed of intercalated pyroclastic deposits and lava flows and rests on Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith (Till and others, 1993; 1994). It has been moderately dissected by the action of numerous alpine glaciers. A 1.8-km-wide, ice-filled summit crater is breached on the north side by a northward-flowing glacier, informally known as the Drift Glacier, which spreads into a piedmont lobe in the upper Drift River Valley. The most recently active vent is located on the north side of the crater at the head of the Drift glacier. Holocene lahar deposits in the Crescent River and Drift River valleys extend downstream as far as Cook Inlet." Live webcam


USA - Mount Cleveland volcano (Aleutian islands)

October 2nd, 2009

As of the 2nd of october, AVO reported that satellite data indicate that Cleveland volcano erupted briefly on 02 October in the morning at ~0730 UTC (2330 AKDT) producing a small, detached ash cloud that drifted northeast of the volcano at maximum altitudes of 15,000' to 20,000' (4.5 – 6.1 km) . AVO increased the aviation color code to Orange, and the volcano alert level to Watch at 02:29 AKDT (10:29 UTC) this morning. Satellite views until about 6:45 AKDT (14:45 UTC) show that the ash cloud drifted northeast about 600 km (373 mi) and dispersed over the Bering Sea. While no more events have been detected this morning, further eruptive activity is possible. Previously, as of the 26th of June, the Washington Volcano Ash Advisory Center (WVAAC) reported that the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported small eruption at 1915Z to 15,000 ft. with mostly steam and little ash. Dark visible ash can be seen in visible and in infrared and multi-spectral imagery and visible ash is now in the Washington VAAC area. In a further update, AVO reported a small eruption at 1915Z to 25,000 ft. with mostly steam and little ash. Eruption can be seen in imagery and visible ash is now in the Washington VAAC area. Forecast updated with currently VAFTAD. Visible ash to 25,000 moving S at 69 mph. Beautifully symmetrical Mt. Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands.

U.S.A. Veniaminoff volcano (Alaska)

May 28th, 2009

On 26 May, AVO reported that seismicity from Veniaminof had decreased during the previous week. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. As of the 8th of May, AVO reported that seismic activity began to increase significantly above normal background levels on the morning of May 6 at Veniaminof Volcano. This increase caused AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Volcano Alert Level to ADVISORY on the afternoon of May 7. Seismicity continues at an elevated rate with numerous small magnitude earthquakes being registered across the entire seismic network. Visual observations from residents of Perryville over the past several days indicate no change in the typical steaming from the summit caldera cone that has been the site of activity over recent years. Satellite images show no evidence of increased heat flow or ash emissions. Given the elevated seismicity, it is possible that low-level ash emissions could occur with little or no additional warning. Ash emissions from typical eruptions of Veniaminof are relatively minor, and usually do not rise much higher than 15,000 ft above sea level. These ash plumes can extend for tens of miles and could be hazardous to aircraft in the vicinity of the volcano. Ash fall is typically confined to the summit caldera and the upper flanks of the volcano. Mount Veniaminof is a broad central mountain, 35 km wide at the base, truncated by a spectacular steep-walled summit caldera 8x11 km in diameter. The caldera is filled by an ice field that ranges in elevation from approximately 1750 to 2000 m; ice obscures the south rim of the caldera and covers 220 square km of the south flank of the volcano. Alpine glaciers descend from the caldera through gaps on the west and north sides of the rim and other alpine glaciers occupy valleys on the north-, east-, and west-facing slopes of the mountain. In the western part of the caldera, an active intracaldera cone with a small summit crater has an elevation of 2156 m, approximately 330 m above the surrounding ice field. The rim of a larger but more subdued intracaldera cone protrudes just above the ice surface in the northern part of the caldera; based on limited exposure and physiographic features, it may have a summit crater as much as 2.5 km in diameter. (GVN)
 

U.S.A. - Mount St.Helens

May 3rd, 2009

No recent significative report has been published from the CVO. The volcano remains quiet since the year 2007 when an explosive event occured. The pause in lava dome growth continues. This pause, which began in late January 2008, was recognized by absence of measurable growth among successive fixed-camera images, nearly quiescent seismicity, and the absence of tilt signals that might characterize extrusion of lava from the conduit. Previous activity : as of the 9th of March 2007, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) was reported that on 8th of March a small explosive event at Mt. St. Helens volcano began at approximately 5:25 p.m. PST one hour after a magnitude 2.0 volcanic earthquake was registered under the volcano. Pilot reports indicate that the resulting steam-and-ash plume reached an altitude of about 36,000 feet above sea level within a few minutes and drifted downwind to the east-northeast. The principal event lasted about 30 minutes with intensity gradually declining throughout. The USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory lost radio signals from three monitoring stations in the crater soon after the event started. The cause of the outage won’t be known until scientists can visit the crater tomorrow to assess the situation, weather permitting. The event followed a few hours of slightly increased earthquake activity that was noted but not interpreted as precursory activity. The main part of the eruption lasted 30 minutes. Three monitoring stations in the crater have stopped operating, and will be checked by scientists when conditions permit. There were no other indications of an imminent change in activity. During 21-26 October, the new lava dome inside the emerging dome of St Helens continued to grow, and seismicity remained at low levels compared to early in the unrest. Geological and thermal-imaging observations on 20 October confirmed that both the area of uplift, and the new lava extrusion increased in size noticeably since last seen on 14 October. In addition, the area of uplift and intense deformation continued to move southward and was nearing the crater wall. About 0.3 m of new snow with a light dusting of ash covered much of the uplift, except for the new lava extrusion, which was steaming heavily. The new lava extrusion, which occupies the western part of the uplift, was about 275 m long by 75 m wide, 70 m high, and had a volume of almost 1.5 million cubic meters. Its maximum temperature was about 600 degrees C. Low levels of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide were recorded on the 20th, an observation which did not rule out the continued rise of magma from depth. On 21 October a new protrusion had a maximum temperature of about 650 degrees C. As of the 11th of October, CVO reported that earthquakes continue to occur at a rate of about 1 per minute, but most have magnitudes of 1.0 or less. With the improving weather, a gas measuring flight is planned within the next two days. Additional analysis of lidar and photographs of the intensely uplifting area on the south side of the lava dome suggests that the total volume change represented by the deformation between late September and October 6 is about 16 million cubic meters (21 million cubic yards). The average rate of change is about 2 million cubic meters per day (2.6 million cubic yards per day). If this figure represents the rate of intrusion of magma into shallow levels of the dome and(or) underlying crater floor, it is an intrusion rate about twice that measured during dome-building eruptions at Mount St. Helens in the 1980s. Cartographers with the USGS office in Denver are working to develop precise volume change estimates for the uplifted area from stereo airphotos acquired between 1 and 5 October. As a result of the intense unrest of the past 17 days, we infer that magma is at a very shallow level. During times of unrest, Mt. St. Helens and similar volcanoes elsewhere typically go through episodic changes in level of unrest over periods of days to weeks, or even months. Such changes are in part driven by variations in the rate of magma movement. CVO expects fluctuations in the level of unrest to continue during coming days. Escalation in the degree of unrest and perhaps an eruption could occur suddenly or with very little warning. There may be little time to raise the alert level before a hazardous event occurs. Therefore, CVO continues to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted. As of the 8th of October, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that part of the lava dome in Mt. St. Helens' crater has risen 50 to 100 feet since Tuesday while earthquake activity remained lower than previous days. This indicates magma is moving upward without much resistance. The south side of the dome has been rising for the past week and has uplifted 250 ft. A new steam vent opened overnight of 6th-7th October, and joined the two that have been present for several days. Steaming from the vents generated a cloud rising above the south side of the lava dome. October 6th update : Following yesterday morning’s steam-and-ash eruption, seismicity dropped to a low level and has remained low. Low-level tremor observed following the eruption is also gradually declining. Lack of earthquake and rockfall signals suggest that deformation of the uplift area on the south side of the 1980-86 lava dome has slowed. Brief visual observations this morning from Coldwater Visitor Center showed weak steam emissions from the crater. We infer that the vigorous unrest of the past few days has lessened and that the probability of an imminent eruption that would endanger life and property is significantly less than at any time since Saturday, October 2, when the alert level was raised to Volcano Alert (Level 3). Therefore, we are lowering the alert level to Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2).New steam release began at 9:40 am PDT yesterday, October 4, 2003, generating a steam and ash/dust plume that rose above the summit (to about 10,000 to 11,000 feet altitude) and was carried slowly to the NE by very gentle winds. Steam releases continued at a lower rate after the initial release, but after 15-20 muntes the activity ceased. More dust/ash was released than on October 1, and an ashfall advisory is in effect until 1 pm PDT for the southern Washington Cascades. Seismicity continued without interruption through the steam release. As of 3rd of October CVO reported at 2 pm , CVO increased the alert level to Volcano Alert due to a change in the character of seismic signals (50 minute long tremor) that occurred immediately after a steam emission at 1216, recognition of ongoing uplift of the crater floor, and reports of sulfur gas odor. In addition, CVO believes that there is a significantly increased probability that gas-rich magma is moving toward the surface. After another period of tremor starting 4th of October at 0257 AM seismicity returned to discrete earthquakes. Seismic activity decreased gradually until about 2:00 P.M. then increased again, reaching levels comparable to those prior to steam and ash eruptions. M3 earthquakes are occurring at a rate of about one every 5 minutes. All earthquake locations remain shallow. Yesterday’s gas sensing flights detected significant concentrations of carbon dioxide north and west of the dome. No significant levels of sulfur gasses were detected. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)odors detected by helicopter crews are attributed to steam emissions. These low levels of hydrogen sulfide are likely the result of boiling of the hydrothermal system. Results from GPS measurements indicate no significant deformation of the outer flanks of the volcano. However, visual observations and photographic analysis show large-scale uplift (10’s of meters) of part of the glacier and a nearby segment of the south flank of the lava dome. This suggests rise of magma to shallow levels. Additional steam and ash eruptions could occur at any time. There is also an increased probability of larger magnitude and more ash-rich eruptions. Today field crews took additional thermal images of the dome and crater and conducted gas sensing, infrared and geologic observation flights. Deformation crews retrieved data from GPS instruments and lowered a new GPS station from a helicopter onto the dome. In addition, two telemetered microphones are now operating to detect explosions. Mount St. Helens erupted on 1st of October at 12:03pm PDT. The activity continued for about 24 minutes, creating a steam and dust plume that reached about 10,000 feet elevation and drifted SSW toward Portland, OR and the Pacific coast. Steam vented from a location at the southern edge of the dome where the dome edge is covered by glacial ice and debris from the southern crater wall. On Thursday afternoon N-S linear cracks were observed in the glacier ice there, implying a slight uplift beneath the ice. Video images of the eruption showed steam, some possibly superheated, venting from a limited area and carrying blocks and fines upward into a mostly-white steam plume. Mt.St. Helens Live Cam

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Pu'u' O'o cone ( Kilauea ) - HVO -
ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

April 9th, 2009

As of the 8th of April INGV reported that a series of earthquakes occured on April 2-3 along a fault near the north flank of the volcano - 175 earthquakes in all producing some impressive results. Boris Behncke has noted increased rumblings at Etna since. This has culminated in explosion and ash on April 7-8. Most of the ash appears to be made from merely crushed rock of previous eruption - accidental material rather than new juvenile magma, but all of this suggests that Etna could be headed for a new eruptive period. There has also been an increase in the gas emissions from the volcano. Last previous information :as of the 20th of December 2009, from John Seach reported that a swarm of earthquakes occurred at Mt. Etna volcano on the 19th of December. More than 30 earthquakes occurred in the swarm, with the largest being magnitude 4.6. The swarm was located under the northwest side of the volcano. Previously INGV reported that on 6 November 2009 deep explosive activity resumed at the SE Crater. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia monitoring web cameras detected pulsating red glowing from the eastern base of the SE Crater, produced from a vent within the depression that cuts its eastern flank. Explosive activity is quite deep and visible as red glows only at night, and no ejecta have been found on the snow that covers the summit of the volcano. This activity is still going on as on today, 10 November 2009. As of the 26th of July, the INGV-CT reported that in a visit on the morning of the 23rd of July, of the summit craters, North Is, Bocca Nuova and Voragine with Pietro Vinciguerra Alessandro Alaimo. The wind today was rather strong breath on the tops compared to yesterday and pushes the gas emissions letting appear in the interior of the craters. They did not perceive any explosive activity in North Is and Bocca Nuova. The Northern crater East emits only puffed out gas. New cracks appeared on the edges of the crater and others present before crumbled at the bottom of the crater. As of the 3rd of June 2009, INGV-CT reported that during 25-31 May the NW-SE-trending fissure E of the Etna summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove. At least three lava flows were active. Elsewhere on the volcano, activity was restricted to degassing from the Northeast Crater, from the NW and SE Bocca Nuova vents, from the E flank of the Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The activity was observed directly and by utilizing surveillance cameras in Milo (about 11 km ESE). As of the 30th of April, the INGV-CT reported that two new earth tremors of a magnitude of 3.0 on the Richter scale occurred today in Sicily the first this night with the Agrigento and the second closer to Mt. Etna at 1142 hrs (local time) with 13 kilometres of Patti to a depth of 1 kilometre. As of the 26th of March, the INGV-CT reported that after a week of Strombolian activity and ash emission from the top of Etna's 2008 eruptive fissure, activity from the summit craters during 16-22 March consisted of degassing from the Northeast Crater, the NW Bocca Nuova vent, from the E flank of the Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The activity was observed directly and by utilizing surveillance cameras situated in Milo (about 11 km ESE). The NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove. As of the 14th of March, the INGV-CT reported that since two days on March 10, a resumption of the explosive activity s' is produced on the " boutonnière" located at 2800 metres of altitude under the Southern crater East. This new explosive activity is accompanied by an increase in the flow by lava flow which flows in Valle del Bove. As of the 13th of February, the INGV-CT reported that to date, the eruption which began in May 2008 continues. This explosive and effusive eruption initially and maintaining only effusive until to date continues; to run out within the interior of Valle del Bove. Several transitory mouths pours small castings the most advanced face of lava is with approximately 2000 metres. The activity of the summit craters is made up exclusively by degasifications. The craters of North East and that of Bocca Nuova western are the most active INGV-CT reported that during 5-11 January activity from Etna's summit craters was observed utilizing surveillance cameras situated in Milo (about 11 km ESE); inclement weather prevented direct inspection of the summit area. Degassing was seen from the NW Bocca Nuova vent, from the walls and floor of Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove. As of the 27th of November INGV-CT reported that an inspection of Mt. Etna's summit craters on the 19th of November revealed degassing from the Northeast Crater and, to a lesser degree, from the Bocca Nuova BN-1 crater. A 100-m-long lava flow was active in mid-November; the lava flow field on the upper Valle del Bove has been active since the 13th of May. As of the 23rd of September INGV-CT reported ( Charles Rivière information) that the eruption which had started on 10 May this year, still continues with weak emission of lava from the fissure vents east of SE crater at 2900 m a.s.l. The lava continues to flow into the Valle del Bove, but for most of the time and its way, the active lava is hidden inside crusted-over channels and tubes. The first snowfalls occurred today on the tops. No change particular to the effusive mouth of 2800m, several small castings run out in the top of Valle del Bove with much of passage in the cave. The most advanced face of lava is with approximately 2300m. As of the 16th of September it has been reported by INGV-CT that the explosive and effusive activity which began on May 10, 2008 has continued now for 4 months with the eruptive mouth of 2800 metres and the lava flows run out inside Valle del Bove. The overflowing of lava is in reduction compared to the previous week and at the last weeks. However, on September 7th, in the evening, an increase occurred with the presence of many transitory mouths and several ramifications along the Western wall of the Valley of Bove. From 1930 hrs with the top of the effusive mouth, the cone which before had a weak activity with a light degasification, left the place with a weak Strombolian activity accompanied by light but appreciable increase in emission of lava to the effusive mouth. The explosive activity, with alternative phases, became exhausted towards 2100 hrs approximately. Small isolated explosions were observed thereafter with the effusive mouth until 2300 hrs. With regard to the activity of the summit craters the last observations do not present variations compared to those observed during August. Degasification continues mainly with the Northern Crater Is and the Western mouth of the crater of Bocca Nuova. Lastly, the bottom of the crater Is of Bocca Nuova entirely arises blocked by crumblings of walls. An explosive activity is quite audible at the bottom of the Northern crater Is, as could note it Pietro Vinciguerra, Carmelo Cavallaro and of the colleagues of Soccorso Montana of Corpo Forestale de Linguaglossa on the edge of the crater. The crater of Voragine presents a modest degasification with localised fields of fumerole along the internal walls. A weak degasification is visible with the Crater of the South East with fumeroles present along the edges of the crater. The values of SO 2 flows recorded on Mt. Etna showed, in the first week of September, an average of 3000 tonnes/day with a maximum of 4000 tonnes/day on September 3rd. This progressive increase was accompanied by an increase in the volcanic tremor. As of the 24th of July it has been reported by INGV-CT that an inspection of Etna's summit craters on 15 July revealed degassing from the Northeast Crater and to a lesser degree from the BN-1 crater of the Bocca Nuova. Explosive activity was restricted to Vent 2 of the active NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters and characterised by weak Strombolian activity and diffuse ash emissions. During 15 and 17 July lava flows were active in the Valle del Bove. On 17 July, no explosive activity was seen along the fissure. As of the 21st of July it was reported by INGV-CT that that the eruption of the May 13th fissure at Mt. Etna volcano continues. The lava flow into Valle del Bove is still alimentated, although the intensity of spattering from the upper vents at 2800 m elevation has decreased since the 17th of July. As of the 4th of July INGV reported that since the early of this afternoon explosive activity from the buttonhole vent is generating an ash plume. Lava are still flowing from this area into two arms. As of the 27th of June, INGV reported that the eruptive plume was still rose above the volcano, but the explosive activity ceased. (www.ct.ingv.it). New Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page

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ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

March 12th, 2010

As of the 12th of March, INGV-CT reported strong explosions from Stromboli on 10 March mainly from craters located in the N part of the crater terrace, a flat area in the upper part of Sciara del Fuoco (a depression cutting the NW flank of the volcano). After one of the more powerful explosions, lava flowed over the NW edge of the crater terrace for tens of meters before fragmenting and producing small landslides of hot material that likely reached the sea. PREVIOUS NOTABLE NEWS . As of the 24th of November, INGV reported that at 11.20 pm GMT on 23 november 2009, a strong explosive episode occured and generate an important plume above the volcano. The falls of fragments (lappilis, small bombs fallen around the summit area maily the Pizzo Sopra la Fossa and east flank of the volcano. As of the 8th of October, INGV Catania, reported that a violent explosion occured at 12:28 GMT from the summit crater of the volcano, fragmenting and blowing out part of the eastern flank of the cinder cone. The explosion produced an eruptive column more than 350 m high that was drifted SE by the wind. The explosion was soon followed by a lava flow erupted from the widened central vent. The lava flow spread within the crater depression for a few minutes, and reached the maximum estimated lenght of ~60 m. Lava flow within the crater depression formed also between 22 and 25 April, on 3 May, and on 30 August 2009. After the 8 November explosion, the explosive activity returned to the background levels. PREVIOUS NEWS : as of the 20th of July, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that during the period of the 6th-12th of July, eruptions continued from 4 vents at Stromboli volcano in Italy. Two vents were active in the north crater, and two in the south crater. The north crater showed short eruptions which ejected bombs, lapilli and fine ash. The intensity of eruptions was average, with emissions to a height of 150 m above the vent. During the reporting period, there were an average of about 15 explosions per hour.As of the 6th of April, the Volcano Discovery team has reported that as observed during an ongoing tour with Dr. Tom Pfeiffer and a small group, the activity at Stromboli volcano is usually strong. Explosions from several vents, often accompanied by loud thundering noises that can be heard on the whole island, occur frequently from seveal vents, and often throw blocks and incandescent bombs to up to 400 m height. Bombs are sometimes hitting the trail and the Pizzo. PREVIOUS SIGNIFICATIVE INFORMATION : As of the 8th of December 2008, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported a strong explosion occured on 6th of December at 8:48 PM. Duration of this phase has been about 2 mn, then some rocks fallen on the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco. Since, the seismic and volcanic activity returned as previous and usuel level. As of the 1st of November, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that eruptions still continue at Stromboli. Mild Scirocco wind makes for perfect visibility of the collapsed crater terrace, on which four vents were erupting about twenty times per hour. After 8 June 2008, the activity at the E-W oriented eruptive fissure in upper Valle del Bove increased. On the evening of the 13th of June 2008 when the most active vent displayed very strong strombolian activity reached altitudes of several hundred metres above the vents. A similar eruption style had been present during much of 2006 and sometimes in 2007. Previous information : after the effusive eruption which ended on 4th of April this year and a powerful vent-clearing explosion on 15 March, there have been deep-seated explosions ejecting black ash clouds since May. In July, these have beomce more regular and it seems that the magma level inside the vents has been rising and there could soon be visible lava ejections again. As of the 5th of April, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that the lava flow issued from Stromboli volcano stopped . Whether this is the end of the effusive eruption that had started 5 weeks ago and heralds the beginning of a new cycle of summit activity is still unclear. As of the 30th of March, INGV eported that the lava continues to flow on Stromboli. Three branches of lava flows originate at the 420 m vent on the Sciara del Fuoco, two of which still reach the sea. As of the 22nd of March INGV reported that on 20 March, lava emission from the 400 m vent on the Sciara del Fuoco increased, accompanied by increasing levels of tremor. Two well-alimented lava flow branches were present on the Sciara. On 21 March, tremor has decreased and thermal camera observations show that at least one of the two branches were no longer alimentated and cooling. On 15 March 2007, while the effusion from the 400 m vent was still going on, a major explosion occurred at 2037 GMT time. This event was similar to the 5 April 2003 paroxysm, and was recorded by all the INGV-CT monitoring web cams. As the previous event, it occurred during a flank effusive eruption, when the summit craters of the volcano were obstructed by debris collapsed from the crater rims. As of the 9th of March, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that the eruption at Stromboli that started on 27 February continued during 9March. Lava from a fissure on the NE flank of Crater 1 (the NE crater) flowed down the Sciara del Fuoco and formed two branches that reached the sea, resulting in steam plumes and a modified coastline. A new eruptive fissure opened on the morning of 9th of march at about 500 m elevation in the Sciara del Fuoco. Explosive activity from the summit craters ceased when the lava flowed from the fissure, but gas puffing accompanied by small landslides inside the craters started again after 3 March. As of 2nd of March, INGV reported that Stromboli was calming down since Thursday 1st of March, after spewing spectacular lava flows for three days. During the night between 28th of February and 1st of March, the flows of lava has decreased in importance and was moving more slowly. Volcanic tremor remained weak. Previous news reported that on 27th of February, the volcano had been placed under heightened surveillance on Tuesday after dicovering lava spewing from two faults located on Sciara del Fuoco about 600 m elevation. One of the lava flow already reached the sea. On Wednesday 28th of February , a third lava flow outpoured from an active fissure. Following this increasing of the activity, civil autorities decided to put its emergency plan into action. According to italian scientists, for the moment there is no sign of a large-scale collapse or important flow that could induce a tidal wave. However, the situation is under constant surveillance and all measures had been taken to ensure the security of the population. Many buildings, including two oil containers, have been evacuated as a precautionary measure and residentss have been told stay away the coastline. Several explosions per hour are still occurs from the summital craters.(INGV). As of the 15th of September 2006, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania and SVE team have reported that Stromboli has continued to be exceptionally active in August and early September, with as many as 10 vents emitting lava and steam rings occasionally being produced. Stromboli is the northernmost of Italy’s Aeolian Islands, Stromboli is simply the summit of a volcanic mountain that rises up out of the sea. The volcano has been in a virtually constant state of eruption since Roman times, and its spectacular nighttime eruptions make it a popular volcano-watching location. As 5th of May Stromboli Volcano continued its normal "Strombolian" eruptions, with frequent summit explosions.Previous significative information : as of the 1st of November 2005, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that a plume emitted from Stromboli that may have contained ash was visible on satellite imagery on 14 October at a height around 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume extended ~10 km NW of the volcano. Stromboli is one of the Aeolian Islands of Italy. It is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. It has been in nearly continuous eruption for about 2,000 years. Explosive activity at the summit craters of Stromboli volcano resumed on early June 2003, before the end of the effusive eruption that finished between 21 and 22 July 2003. Eruptive activity at this volcano is continuously monitored by INGV-CT using two web cameras located at Il Pizzo Sopra la Fossa (920 m a.s.l.) and at 400 m elevation along the east margin of the Sciara del Fuoco, the depression on the north flank of the volcano that contains the summit craters. Additionally, a web thermal camera is also located at the 400 m elevation site, and a web infrared camera at Il Pizzo Sopra la Fossa. The thermal and video cameras at 400 m elevation give important insights when visibility of the summit is poor or craters are surrounded by clouds. The infrared video camera at Il Pizzo allows a continuous view of the activity at the summit craters, and a quantification of the energy released by the explosions at the three summit craters through an automated system called VAMOS (Cristaldi et al., 2004). Explosive activity at the three summit craters increased after 10 February 2004, leading to a significant growth of the cinder cones inside the three summit craters. Several powerful explosions, especially from crater 1 (the NE-crater) and crater 3 (the SW-crater) carried scoria 200 m above the craters. These powerful explosions led to fallout of fresh bombs and lapilli on Il Pizzo Sopra la Fossa in early March. Samples of lapilli and scoria collected on Stromboli by local guides have been analysed with the scanning electron microprobe and microanalysis instruments of INGV-CT (Corsaro et al., 2004). Measurements of glass compositions evidence that products erupted until 25 February 2004 belong to the “black scoriaceous volcanics” normally erupted during Strombolian activity. No “golden basaltic pumices” were present in available samples. Emission of golden pumice at this volcano is generally associated with paroxysmal explosive events (Bertagnini et al., 1999) such as that of 5th April 2003. Analysis of components carried out on several ash samples allowed us to recognize sideromelane and tachylite as the main components, making up ~80% of the erupted ash (Andronico et al., 2004). The activity of this volcano at the time of writing (8 March 2004) can be described as Strombolian activity, with variations in the number and frequency of explosions within normally observed limits, and intensity of explosions at the higher limit of commonly observed activity. As of the 2nd of January, the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania has reported that a year after a tsunami was caused by the detachment of lava material along the Sciara del fuoco, Stromboli volcano has intensified its activity, launching scoriae and lapilli. Technicians and volcano experts, who are constantly monitoring Stromboli, have said that the situation is not alarming. The Stromboli Web video camera showed a small explosion on 10 December that produced a plume to a height of ~1 km above the volcano. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. From the seismic point of view, not only explosive events are recorded (sufficiently deep that no visible strombolian activity is associated to them in the crateric area), but also events related to the continuous small rockfall episodes that continue to descend along the Sciara del Fuoco- INGV-CT webpage www.ct.ingv.it. *************************************************************************************************************************

ICELAND - Eyjafjallajökull volcano ( Fimmvörduhals)

April 15th, 2010

As of the 15th of April, Newspaper reported that Markarfljót river to the west of Eyjafjallajökull glacier flooded for the second time last night. The second flood was completely unlike the first one. The floodwater in the first flood was 3.5-t degrees Celsius and contained almost no ice. In the second flood the water was close to 0 degrees and cotaining a thick layer of ice chunks, often 5-15 centimeters thick. The explanation for the difference between the two floods is that in the first one the water came from a lagoon by the glacier but the second flood was melted ice from the glacier. According to mbl.is Sigurdur Reynir Gíslason, geologist at the Geological institute at the University of Iceland, last night, the fissure in the volcano was doubtless melting more ice. Air traffic in north Norway has now been banned due to fear that ash fall from the volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallajökull glacier in south Iceland might reduce visibility. Yesterday, 1PM last report showed that The eruption was many times larger than the eruption in Fimmvörduháls. Information gathered from scientists on board the Coast Guard airplane TF-SIF showed that the total length of the fissure is about two kilometers. The fissure lies north-south. That is a large fault trough (graben) has formed around the crater which is up under the summit of the glacier. There is ash fall to the east close to the Fimmvörduháls. The cloud of volcanic ash and smoke has now risen up to 22,000 feet. The eruption is only in the top crater, not in the southern sides. The glacial river is in flood, 1,000 cubic meters per second, and is increasing. A huge flood is on its way down the Markarfljót sands and the old bridge is submerged. To try and save the new Markarfljot bridge, the Ring Road was broken up to the east of the river. As of the 14th of April, news reported that two airplanes flying over Eyjafjallajökull this morning indicated that smoke is coming up in a new place to the south west of the eruption in Fimmvörduháls. During morning all indications are that a new eruption is starting in Eyjafjallajökull glacier. Rivers are growing bigger and smoke was seen over the glacier this morning. Residents of the area were evacuated but some were allowed to go to their farms to attend to animals this morning. Geologist said that indications are that an eruption has started under the glacier just before seven o'clock. Markarfljót, the biggest river close to the glacier is growing at a fast rate. At this moment it is difficult to estimate the size of the eruption. The eruption has now been confirmed but no magma has been seen yet.Earthquake activity started late last night in the area. Roads to the area have been closed both from the east and the west. They have confirmed that there is glacial flooding on both sides of Gígjökull and that the water level in the lagoon in front of the glacial tongue is constantly increasing. The water that flows into the lagoon is dark in color. However, the water flow has yet to reach the peak of spring thaw. Visibility is still very limited in the area but an airplane's crew has spotted a cloud of volcanic ash and smoke which extends 12,000 to 14,000 feet into the air and appears to be coming out of the glacier's summit. Magma is melting its way through the icecap; there is a circular ice free area by the summit measuring approximately 200 meters in diameter. Yesterday scientists indicated that the eruption in Fimmvörduháls could have ended. New video eruption As of the 12th of April, last scientific report showed that seismic tremor reaches a minimum - eruption stops? As of the 11th of April, the Institute of Earth Sciences University of Iceland reported that eruption tremor approaches pre-eruptive levels, but visual observation reveal eruptive activity in late afternoon. As of the 9th of April, the Institute of Earth Sciences University of Iceland reported that after little change in deformation rates during the eruption, timeseries at continuous GPS-stations north of the volcano show sudden change, partly jumping back to pre-eruptive levels. Signals may relate to decreasing pressure in the magma conduit feeding the eruption. some data about the eruption. They measured the size of the new volcano which has formed around the craters on Fimmvörðuháls. The area of the new lava is now 1.3 square kilometers, the average thickness is 10-12 meters and estimated volume of eruptive material 22-24 million cubic meters. Accordingly, the average flow rate has been approximately 15 cubic meters per second since the eruption began. The eruptive cone stands 82 m above previous ground level and the highest peak is 1067 m a.s.l. As of the 8th of April, there is significant activity in the new volcanic crater on mountain pass while the original crater has ceased spurting lava-for now, at least. However, the lava still seethes in the older crater. A broad lava stream now extends to the west of the Hvannárgil canyon and flows one or two kilometers per hour. Blue volcanic fumes extend from the older crater but there are no explosions. That is an indication that the crater was cooling down. Aerial pictures showed that there was still a seething lava pool within the closed crater. There is quite a lively activity in the new crater and a lot of lava that flows from it. There are no indications for the moment that the eruption is about to stop. As of the 7th of April, news reported that there haven't been any changes to the nature of the eruption. Activity has stopped in the original craters of the eruption, and is limited to craters on the new fissure formed on 31 March. Lava flows cover an estimated area of 1.3 square kilometers, with estimated average thickness of 10-20 m. Maximum elevation of scoria craters formed in the eruption is 82 m. The Civil Protection Department emphasized yesterday that all traffic on Eyjafjallajökull is prohibited and the area in a one-kilometer radius around the crater on Fimmvörduháls is closed. As of the 5th of April, the eruption continued with little changes. On April 4th, lava flowing to the west encountered some patches of glacial ice, causing some water discharge into river Hvanná, steam plumes and low frequency tremor bursts. NASA satellite image shows the eruption on April 4, 2010. The original fissure—originally about 1,000 meters (3,000 feet) long and composed of several distinct vents—has coalesced into a single vent. The new fissure is hidden under a volcanic plume, likely composed primarily of steam. Black lava flows reach several kilometers north from the vents, eventually spilling into Hvannárgil and Hrunagil Canyons As of the 2nd of April, a report in Morgunblaðið puts the length of the new fissure at 300 metres, and its location as 200 metres north of the initial location of the eruption, while RÚV reports the length as 300-400 metres. The new fissure trends north-south, roughly at right angles to the east-west alignment of the first fissure. The Icelandic Met Office have published an article looking at what the patterns of seismicity at Eyjafjallajökull reveal about the path of the magma over the period from the 13th-24th of March: "The magma path revealed". It seems that the main feeder conduit for the eruption is situated beneath the eastern part of the Eyjafjallajökull ice-cap and rises nearly vertically to around 2-3 km depth, and then changes direction to run horizontally eastwards for about 4.5 km to the point outside the ice margin where the eruption began on the 21st of March. Police estimate that up to one thousand people went to the eruptions site at Fimmvörduháls after the place was opened up again Thursday afternoon. The eruption remained similar in strength as before. As of the 1st of April pilot reported that at just before seven P.M. on Wednesday 31st of March a new rift opened up. The split went south towards the other crater. The new rift is not in the same direction as the old one, this one goes from north to south. The new row of up to seven craters is closer to Thórsmörk and came up in the middle of the flowing lava forming the “lava fall” into Hvannárgi. After a new crater formed on Fimmvörduhals on Wednesday night, the site was closed to all traffic. This change was not accompanied by any detectable seismic activity, neither tremor nor micro earthquakes. Most of the lava seems to accumulate near the vents, but there are intermittent flows into the gullies of Hruná and Hvanná. As of the 30th, Volcanic activity at the crater increased yesterday afternoon 29th of March after having subsided the night before and yesterday morning. From a helicopter on 28 March, scientists saw lava flowing into both canyons and noted fewer jets of lava. Shortly after 6 pm last night a series of earthquakes measuring 2-2.5 on the Richter scale shook the region. Geophysicist Gunnar B. Gudmundsson at the Icelandic Meteorological Office noted that seismicity was gradually decreasing and was an indication of the force of the eruption is gradually decreasing. He added that GPS monitors that measure tectonics show that the lithosphere has ceased expanding and even contracted a little. However, that is no certain indication that the eruption is about to finish. Roughly estimated, 15-20 million cubic meters of solid volcanic debris might have spurted to the surface from inside the earth since the eruption began on March 21, said geophysicist Magnús Tumi Gudmundsson. The lava now covers approximately one square kilometer.As of the 29th of March, the eruption in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system has been on a small scale so far, and tremors signal are diminishing, at least for the time being. Lava has flowed north into two gullies, either side of Heljarkambur ridge. It has been predicted that lava might reach the river Krossá within a few days. Krossá flows due west, north of Eyjafjallajökull, and into the larger river Markarfljót. As of the 26th of March, the webcams appear to show diminished activity (although the reduction of ice and snow in the vicinity of the eruption through melting may also be playing a role in reducing the scale of the eruption plumes). Lava effusion issued from the Northeast of the eruptive fissure. Strombolian activity remained from the Northernmost cone. A warning has been issued about toxic plume in the vicinity of the eruption: sulphur, flourine, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are being released by the activity. Seismically things appear relatively stable underneath Eyjafjallajökull and Katla and there is little sign of the latter stirring, although preparation are under way locally, just in case. As of 24th of March, the latest observations from Iceland on the Eyjafjallajökull fissure eruption have been limited by poor weather and low visibility, but overall the activity, located at Fimmvörduháls between Eyjafjallajökull and Myrdalsjökull, does not appear to be changing significantly in character. As of the 22nd, the volcanic activity was increasing slowly but surely, according to an estimate of scientists who flew over the eruption zone in the afternoon. The lava flow from the crater is spreading out over a larger area and the eruption is becoming more forceful. Visibility was limited to begin with but then the weather cleared up and the scientists could see the eruption clearly; the lava is flowing down a canyon south of the craters on the pass and clouds of steam rise up from where the lava melts ice and snow. As of 22nd of March, an increase in activity at the Fimmvorduhals eruption on the morning has led to the no-fly zone in southern Iceland being widened. Volcanic activity near the Eyjafjallajokull glacier increased significantly at around 07.00 this morning, with a series of explosions sending a gas and ash cloud 4km into the air. Geologist Hjörleifur Sveinbjörnsson at the Icelandic Meteorological Office reported that the activity which increased about an hour ago was decreasing now at about 8:30 AM. Instead of a large cumulus there are now small puffs, yet they release a large amount of volcanic debris into the atmosphere. The jet from the eruption zone reaches a height of approximately eight kilometers and is light in color. It is likely that it is mixed with water, which indicates that a steam explosion with an increased volume of water has entered the system. The eruption is under constant observation by the Icelandic Meteorological Office and the coordination center in Skógarhlíd in Reykjavík remains active. Geophysicist Páll Einarsson has pointed out that there is a connection between the volcano in Eyjafjallajökull and the neighboring volcano Katla underneath the Myrdalsjokull icecap. The current eruption could trigger a larger eruption in Katla. As of the 21st of March, according press agencies and VAAC, the volcano near the Eyjafjallajoekull glacier began to erupt shortly on 20th of March before midnight, leading to road closures in the area. Several hundred people have been evacuated from their homes. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was observed at the volcano, lightening up the sky above the eruptive site. The eruption was preceded with intense seismicity and high rates of deformation in the weeks before the eruption, in association with magma recharging of the volcano. Immediately prior to the eruption the depth of seismicity had become shallow, but was not significantly enhanced from what it had been in the previous weeks. Deformation was occurring at rates of up to a centimetre a day since March 4 at continuous GPS sites installed within 12 km from the eruptive site. The eruption broke out with fire fountains and Hawaiian eruptive style on about 500 m long NE-SW oriented eruptive fissure at N63º 38.1', W19º 26.4' on the northeast shoulder of the volcano at an elevation of about 1000 m. It was observed from air from 4-7 A.M. on March 21. Lava flows short distance from the eruptive site, and minor eruption plume at elevation less than 1 km was deflected by wind to the west. Volcanic explosive index (VEI) is 1 or less. Tephra fall is minor or insignificant. The eruption occurs just outside the ice cap of Eyjafjallajökull, and no ice melting is occurring at present. Satellite data is being used to study the eruption and associated intrusion. Several MODIS thermal images on 21 March show a temperature anomaly where the eruption is occurring. ENVISAT ASAR images before and during the eruption have been acquired, and a series of TerraSAR-X images cover the area. Ashfall occured in the town of Fljotshlid, located to 20km Northwest - NVI images shows an eruptive fissure with lava fountains and lava flows - Also map of localization. Geophysicist Freymódur Sigmundsson reported that the volcanic activity seemed stable the three hours he watched the eruption from a circling airplane this morning. It is possible that the rift will grow longer as time passes by. Lava is flowing in two directions, to the east and the main stream to the west. Because of heat turbulence it was impossible to fly over the western stream. The direction of the row of craters is a bit unusual, going from north to south. Most of the rifts go from east to west. At the moment it seems unlikely that the eruption will lead to a major flood as would happen when an eruption starts under a glacier. As of the 5th of March, the the Department of Geophysics, University Of Iceland reported that the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull has been very restless recently. The current seismicity and apparent inflation may be precursory to an eruption, or it may not - this kind of activity has been seen before, associated with dyke intrusion events (although the current seismicity is unusually energetic) and it is not possible at the moment to say whether this time it will end in an eruption. An interesting detail about the current activity comes from a source in Iceland who tells me that magma degassing under Eyjafjallajökull produced an 'acid pulse' that led to local water supplies become temporarily acidic about a month ago. Eyjafjöll (also known as Eyjafjallajökull) is located immediately west of Katla volcano. Eyjafjöll consists of an E-W-trending, elongated ice-covered basaltic-andesite stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the eastern and western flanks of the volcano, but are more prominent on the western side. Although the 1666-m-high volcano has erupted during historical time, it has been less active than other volcanoes of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, and relatively few Holocene lava flows are known. The sole historical eruption of Eyjafjöll, during December 1821 to January 1823, produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera. More recently an intrusion at Eyjafjallajökull in 1999 appears to have been followed by a small subglacial eruption in the Katla caldera. Video 24th of March - webcam

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FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

January 12th, 2010

As of the 12th of January, OVPLF reported that the eruption ended. Following a slight increasing of the eruptif tremor yesterday, eruption within the Dolomieu crater dropped during this night at about 2 am. Nowthe moment only a weak degassing occurs. As of the 7th of January, the volcanic eruption begun January 2nd of this year is always was still progress in the crater Dolomieu. Yesterday evening, the eruptive trémor weakly increased but remained stable. As of the 5th of January, OVPLF reported that intensity of the at present current volcanic eruption in the sommital crater Dolomieu is stable. It is however necessary to indicate from time to time some renewals of activity comparable to one pulse of more important intensity. This day two of these phases were observed at 9:30 am and 11:30 am (GMT 4).A mission of measure of the deformations of the sommitale zone led this morning also allowed a visual recognition of the activity. Some lava flows and a main eruptive vent remained active. As of the 4th of Jnanuary OVPLF reported that eruptive activity was continuing but with a reduced outflow.. Only lava fountains with small high and one active lava flow were visible. Tremor was slighly decreasing but remained stable. An aa lava flow covered about 90% of the 2008 flow on the floor of the Dolomieu crater. As of the 2nd of January, OVPLF reported that Piton de la Fournaise volcano erupted this day at 14:30 local time (GMT +4). The eruptive fissure is situated in the cliff around the Bory and Dolomieu summit craters. Some lava fountains tens of metres in height have been observed during a reconnaissance jointly carried out by the Gendarmerie Nationale (PGHM) and the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory. During this reconnaissance, lava flows were observed flowing in the interior of Dolomieu crater. significant landslides and cliff collapses within Bory crater were also recorded. These collapses fuel eruption plumes of ash and gases that are rising above the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise. This eruption was preceded over two hours by a seismic crisis commencing at 12:00 local time. A small plume of volcanic gas from the eruptive zone was already observed around 12:00. After some minutes of calm, an eruptive tremor appeared on the screens of the seismological network of the observatory at 14:25. PREVIOUS ERUPTION : As of the 15th of December, OVPLF reported that the Piton de la Fournaise volcano erupted Monday, December 14, 2009 at 18:45 (local time GMT +4). The eruption was preceded by a seismic crisis and a raise of the summit area deformations, which started at 17:30 (GMT +4). The eruptive tremor began at 18:30 (GMT+4). A system of sub-parallel fractures along the summit of Dolomieu crater fed lava flows on the southern slope of the Piton de la Fournaise, inside the Enclos Fouqué. A second fissures system opened on the eastern flank of the Dolomieu summit crater at 20:25 (GMT +4). Then lava flows were spent towards the eastern slope. This eruption ended during the night at 00h40 (GMT +4) after a gradual decrease in magma supply from midnight (local time). This morning, Tuesday, December 15, 2009, a visible degassing in the south and southeast fractures is associated with a low intensity eruptive tremor. All of the lava flows was confined to high zone of the volcano and more specifically the slopes south and south-east of Piton de la Fournaise. As of the 6th of November OVPLF reported that on November 5, an intense seismic swarm occurred between 7:30pm and 8:30pm (GMT +4) at about sea level, including an earthquake of 80 seconds. This crisis was followed by a 30 minutes aseismic phase and then by sustained tremor. The first vent opened at 8:50pm on the southern cliff inside the Dolomieu crater. At 9:05pm, a fracture propagated towards east on the upper south-eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise feeding a first lava flow. A 9:20pm, a second fracture opened on the eastern volcano flank between 2450 and 2300m asl. The eruption was also recorded by the three webcams of the observatory, which, together with the deformation and tremor patterns, allowed a rapid identification of the eruption sites. The fractures fed strombolian activity, small (about 20 meters high) fountains and aa lava flows, which were visible from the national road lining the coast in the Grand Brûlé area. At 3:00am on November 6, the eruptive tremor declined to a very low intensity level. A first survey on the volcano summit at 7:30am confirmed that the lava fontaining was no longer active and the lava front had stopped at about 1900 m elevation. At 9:00am the eruptive tremor disappeared, thus confirming the end of the eruption. As of the 30th of October, OVPLF reported that the seismicity was still in light increase. A new seismic crisis occured on the morning of 03:00 to 06:00 (local time). The hypocentres are still localised under Dolomieu. Volcanologists of the Observatory noted a partial migration of the earthquakes and deformation towards the North (this could be due to injection of a dyke towards north). The level of alarm remains to 1. As of the 23rd of october OVPDLF reported that during the day before (22nd of October) 18 earthquakes occured, but no eruption started yet. As of the 21st of October,OVPDLF has reported that seismic activity indicates magma is probably within 500 m of the surface. A change in the chemistry of volcanic gases appeared for the first time yesterday since the outbreak of volcanic alert on the 4th of October. The whole of these observations clearly confirms the progression of the magma towards surface. An eruption thus remains possible in the short or medium term. The level of alarm remains to 1 for the moment. On 18 October, OVPDLF reported that another seismic crisis was noted along with deformation on the N and S sides of Dolomieu crater. Aerial observations on 19 October revealed a small new fumarole in the crater. Changes in the chemical composition of the gases were also noted. A greater number and duration of rockfalls than in previous days was detected on 20 October. As the the 17th of October (09:30 am)), OVPF reported that during past night (16th to 17th of October), the frequency and the intensity of the seismicity were in progressive increase. The trend of progressive deformation of the volcano was confirmed, in particular on the side the North of Dolomieu and close to the Dolomieu crater.Collapses of small volume inside Dolomieu were registered.No variation of the chemical composition of gases was noted. Previously, a new seismic crisis started on 14th of October at 8:09am (local time) and ended at 10:04am. This important seismicity was associated with weak ground deformation of the North flank of the Dolomieu. The day before 79 earthquakes have been recorded, mainly in the areas mentioned above. As of the 9th of October, The observatory of the Piton de la Fournaise reported that the seismic crisis that occured yesterday ended on 8th of October in the morning at 10:57 am. This seismicity was located beneath the volcano summit under craters Bory and Dolomieu. This phase has been associated with weak North flank deformation of the Dolomieu crater. No chemical variation in gas was noted. Previously, as of the 7th of October, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris from the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPDLF) reported that seismic activity increased on 7th of october in the morning from 8:30 am and since remained at high level. Not eruption occured yet, but local prefecture of the Reunion issued the alert level 1. Enclos Fouqué entrance has been closed . Yesterday 6th of october, 120 earthquakes were registred from the network accompanied with sligh ground deformation. Previous eruption started on 14th of December 11 PM (TU) ended on 4th of February at 8 PM (TU). On February 2nd, 21 earthquakes were recorded including one with mag. 2.2 accompanied with a decreasing of the volcanic tremor. As of the 3rd of February seismic activity increased again and tremor decreased. In the morning, only one lava flow was active on the Northwest side. Between 8-9th of January, two earthquakes located above the sea level were recorded (max = 1.5 mag). As of the 29th of December, OVPF scientists observed during a fieldwork the small lava pond which remained active with few lava ejection above the cone. Following an active episode during the past week-end with about 10 visible lava flows on the talus and some outpouring on the flow within the Dolomieu, the situation changed on Monday. Except from the active cone, no other glowing lava could be observed. Degassing remained relatively important, time to time, the Dolomieu was filled with bluish gaz emission. As of the 26th of December in the morning (9am), OVPF reported that eruptive tremor increased again (3 time more compared at the beginning of the eruption), but remained fluctuating. Following a fieldwork during the afternoon of 24th of December, volcanologist reported (5pm) that a small active lava pond formed within the small cone in the Dolomieu. Time to time, lava fountaining occurs. Many small lava flows are issued from small lava tubes around the main lava flow. GPS measurements did not showed inflation or deflation at the summit. OnThursday 18th of December, in the evening, the eruptive tremor increased but this day returned at the previous level, the same at the beginning of the eruption. As of the 17th of december SO2 output was estimated at about 1000 Tons/day. As of the 15th of december, OVPF reported that following a seismic crisis during Sunday (more than several hundred earthquakes), and an important seismicity during the night, a volcanic tremor, located beneath the summit, started at 2:45 am. An inspection carried out on 15th in the morning showed that two eruptive fissures were active within the Dolomieu crater, at half slope NNE and NE. The lava flow rate is very weak; the lava covered only 15-20% of the September 2008 lava. Also the SO2 output was very low. As of the 28th of November, OVPF reported that the volcanic tremor declined since the early morning, suggesting that the eruption was declining, with a phenomenon ‘Gaz Piston' (important gas bubbles with very few or not magma emission) making its appearence in the seismic record. From 2pm ( local time) "gas piston" phenomenon ended and this short eruptive phase ended. No seismic signal was recorded since this time. As of the 27th of November, according to a report of the OVPf, following a short seismic crisis between 1125am et 1140am, the volcanic tremor started at 1150am (local time). From the tremor map, this new eruption occured within the Dolomieu crater, probably at the same place of the previous activity during October 2008. A volcanic plume was visible in the West part of the Dolomieu. As of the 31st of October, a new OVPF Buletin reported that during the previous night a new seismic crisis occured between 4am and 440am with about 100 earthquakes accompanied with weak ground deformation recorded by the tiltmeter network. As of the 22nd of October, OVPF reported that 11 summital earthquakes were recorded this day (max. magnitude1,2). No deformation occured. As of the 20th of october, OVPF reported that in the morning, between 8AM et 10AM, a new seismic crisis occured. No other event was noted for the moment. As of the 17th of October OVPF reported that since 3 days ago seismic activity increased. This activity increased more on 16th of October beetween 630PM and 830PM (51 earthquakes) then re-decreased. Repartition of the earthquakes : 14th of October: 62 ; 15th of October: 59 ; 16th of October: 166; No long-term inflation was recorded for the moment. Previous activity : as of the 2nd of October OVPF reported that eruptive activity within the Dolomieu ended in the early morning. The tremor dropped from 410AM and totally disapeared at 445 AM (local time). Only a very weak deflation has been recorded during the eruption and for this reason, it's possible that other eruptive episode could occurs in the short term (days or weeks). Total lave volume of the eruption is about 850.000 m3 for 10 days of activity.As of the 27th of September OVPF reported that eruptive activity was still continuing in the Dolomieu. Volcanic tremor remained stable at a low level since the 26 september in the morning. Three summit low intensity earthquakes were recorded. No direct observation was possible due to the poor meteorological condition. Wednesday estimation of the size and volume with an aerial photography showed that the lava surface on the Dolomieu floor was about 180x100m (24 September in the morning) and a maximal thickness of 30m. The present volume has been estimated at about 300 000m3, an flow rate is 1m3/sec. As of the 21st of September, a special bulletin of the OVPF reported that following a short seismic crisis (about 10 earthquakes) a volcanic tremor appeared and the eruption started at about 330 PM. This new eruption occured in the West part of the Dolomieu (half hight) under the Bory crater. Several lava flows went down toward the floor of the Dolomieu and formed a small lava pond. As of the 17th of September , ovpf reported that important seismic activity is still continuing with 48 earthquakes recorded this day ( 41 with mag. < 1,0 ,   5 with mag. between 1,0 et 1,5 and  2 with mag. between 1,5 et 2,0) . Field observations confirmed an increase in degassing from the SW part of Dolomieu crater and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. Another seismic crisis was detected during 15-16 September. Numerous landslides followed the crisis, but may have also been associated with heavy rains. The Alert Level was not changed. As of the 12th of September, a preliminary bulletin from OVPF reported that since 1015AM (local time) this morning volcanic tremor started at the volcano and stayed until 1130AM. The tremor (weak and variable) is located beneath the summit of Dolomieu. According to an aerial observation during the end of the morning, no eruptive activity occured yet, but important SO2 emissions were noted. Another trémor (more high frequency) occured in the afternoon at 350 PM, but stopped around 8PM. During the day of the 12th of September, 30 earthquakes were recorded with a maximal magnitude = 1,6. According to OVPF scientists an eruption could be occurs within days or weeks. Alert level remains 1. As of the 9th of September, OVPF reported that an important seismic crisis occured during the night between 1123PM and 120 AM characterized by several hundred eartquakes. No deformation was recorded. On 3rd of September, 76 earthquakes were already recorded with a maximum magnitude 2.9 and 3.0. As of the 15th of August, OVPFalready reported that a seismic crisis (2h35 duration) occured this day between 5AM (local time) and 735AM (local time). This short crisis was accompanied with ground deformation in the Dolomieu area. At 10am, some superficial isolated earthquakes (about 500 m a.s.l.) still occured. Previously on 4th of August another short seismic crisis (10mn) already occured. Previous activity : as of 21st of June 2007, OVPF reported that from one week many earthquakes occured every day beneath the volcano (sometimes more than 100 per day). several of them occured under the sea. As of 21st of June, maximal magnitude was 2.6. As of the 2nd of Maythe Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP, reported that after one month of very high activity, the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise, which started on April 2nd in the Grand Brûlé at 650 m altitude, finally stopped on May 1st. The debit at certain moments was estimated between 100 and 200 m3 per second and the lava flows covered an area of about 4 km2, with up to 30 or 40 m thick lava. A platform of about 35000 m2 was build on the sea and first estimations of the erupted volume amount to 120 x 106 m3 , which ranges this eruption between one of the largest known historical eruptions at Piton de la Fournaise. As of the 27th of April the OVPF reported that the seismicity under the summit was reinforced. There were 50 seismic events the day before and the lava flows remained very abundant in the Grande Brulé. As of 21st of April, the latest OVPF report informed the the volcanic tremor remained at the same low level. Lava flows were still went down in the Grand Brulé from the vent located to 650 m elevation with important variations. As of the 20th of April the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP that the collapse of Dolomieu crater was continuing. The tremor was on a very low level, the seismics under the summit of the Piton of Fournaise persisted. As of the 12th of April the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP reported that members of the PC of St. Philippe observed two lava flows, the first going along the rampart, a second in the medium of cast in place, arriving at the sea. The inhabitants of the small village of Tremblet breathe better, the situation finally seems to still be improving. The crater which broke down on a 300 m height stabilizes slowly. As of the 7th of April, OVPF reported that following a fligh over the volcano on the morning, observation showed that a large part ot the Dolomieu crater floor collapsed on a surface estimated to 1000 x 700 m and a depth of about 300 m. The activity seismic remained at high level and many local collapse occurs. As of the 6th of April the OVPF, reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano continues and eruptive activity, lava fountains and lava flow emissions from the fissure vent at 600-500 m elevation, increases. Lava flows had already crossed the National Road in the afternoon of 2 April and the southernmost of the 3 principal lava flow branches reached the sea in the evening the same day. After decreasing for a while, an unusual increase in seismic activity has been observed since 3 April. It is marked by earthquakes below the summit of the volcano at altitudes between 0 and 500 m above sea level, similar to the ones registered before the opening of the fissure on 30 March SE of the summit. They are interpreted as consequence of internal collapse phenomena and might be preceding a collapse event similar or stronger than the one in 1986 when a 100 m deep pit crater was formed. At the same time, tremor (thought to be caused by the erupting magma moving along the conduit and the radial dike) has increased as well, accompanied by increasing visual effusive activity. In addition, a marked increase in sulphur dioxide emission has been noted. Inhabitants in the nearby city of St. Pierre have been suffering from "vog" - volcanic smog caused by clouds of aerosols rich in sulphur dioxide (SO2) emitted mainly at the eruptive vent and from the lava flows. Several people have been brought to hospital for treatment of skin and eye irriations as well as asthma caused by the gas whose concentration temporarily reached alarming levels, triggering the autorities to issue a general health warning for the island. Reports of a new eruptive fissure near the Pointe du Tremblet with its inhabited centres in the lower areas just outside of the Enclos turned out to be wrong. However, but scientists from the observatory don't exclude the possibility that a new fissure could open up at even lower elevation. Preparations for an emergency evacuation of this area have started since late of 4th of April. Access to the summit area of the volcano and the low elevation area near the lava flows from the side of St. Pierre has been restricted by authorities. As of the 2nd of April, OVPDLF reported that a new eruption started at 10 AM. A new eruptive fissure opened in the Southeast part of the enclos; the lower part of the fissure is located at 500 m a.s.l at the foot of the Rempart du Tremblet. The 1 km long eruptive fissure trend NO-SE- During the morning lava fountaining (50 m high) occured from the fissure. Associated lava flows went down fastly and about 2 PM the front was at 300 m of the RN2. On Wednesday 3rd of April eruption was still continuing. Lava flows crossed the road RN2 during the afternoon. As of 30th of March, OVPDLF reported that following a seismic crisis and deformation of the summit zone, a new eruption started on 30th of March ( 23 PM - local time) on the South-East flank of the volcano within the Enclos close to the Chateau Fort area. This short erutive phase ended on 31st of March at about 8 AM in the morning. (from OVPF-IPGP report) from OVPF-IPGP - (Thomas Staudacher, OVVPF) -(OVPF information d'après Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

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COMOROS - Karthala volcano

January 20th, 2007

As of 19th of January, Volcano observatory reported that on Thursday 18th the volcano shook twice again and local volcanologists said there was still a threat of eruption despite the tremor seems weakening. Comoros authorities have made emergency plan to help as many 30.000 people in case of eruption. As of 13th of January, volcano observatory reported that Mount Karthala (2631m) begun emitting fumes and producing a red glow over the tops. According to the chief geologist, the volcano has become eruptive since yesterday evening 12th of January. The lava level had risen in the volcano's crater. Preliminary information reported that residents of Mvurni, a town at 1000 m altitude on the volcano West slope were broken up by strong fumes. The island had been on red alert. The last big eruption of the volcano occured in April 2005, sent thousands fleeing in fear poisonous gas and lava. The worst disaster on record came in 1903, when 17 died from noxious fumes that seeped from cracks. The southernmost and largest of the two shield volcanoes forming Grand Comore Island (also known as Ngazidja Island), Karthala contains a 3 x 4 km summit caldera generated by repeated collapse

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TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

February 22nd, 2010

As of the 22nd of February GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website)
Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

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CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

February 4th, 2010

During 27 January-2 February, the MODIS sensor aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite frequently detected thermal anomalies from Nyamuragira. The Toulouse VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume was seen on satellite imagery on 29 January. As of the 18th of January latest news reported that the eruption of Nyamuragira volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo that began two weeks ago seems continuing according to satellite data. The availability of MODIS hotspot data is affected by cloud cover, which has been considerable in the area of the volcano over recent days. However, MODIS images for 13 and 15 January shows the thermal signatures of fresh lava emissions to the east and south of Nyamuragira's summit crater. The volcano has also been emitting considerable quantities of sulphur dioxide, as shown by OMI SO2 data. Significant SO2 clouds were detectedon 13 and 17 January 2010. As of the 11th of January, the previous information on the eruption from Samantha Newport, director of communications for Virunga National Park, reported that lava fountains were reaching almost 300 metres in height on Saturday 9 January, but that volcanic activity had since diminished. The decline in activity appears to be confirmed by the fact that no thermal hotspots have been detected by Modis at Nyamuragira since 8 January 2010. As of the 7th of January, five days after it began the eruption of Nyamuragira volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo is continuing, with fire fountains and very liquid and free-flowing lava. The flows are directed towards the south-west. Information from the UN reported that the advance of the lava has slowed, with only 100 metres of advance in the last 24 hours, not because the eruption rate has slowed – the activity of the volcano remains intense – but because the lava front has widened from 15 metres to about 200 metres. As of the 5th of January GVO reported that the eruption which began early on 2 of january was continuing and seems to be increasing in intensity, raising concerns about local human and animal populations. Lava flows are causing forest firesaround the volcano and some reports say nearby villages are threatened by the eruption. The United Nations is providing aircraft to help the local authorities monitor the eruption. As of the 2nd of January 2010, according to a government official the Nyamulagira volcano erupted sending lava toward a national park on Saturday at dawn. While the area where the lava was headed is sparsely populated, wildlife officials say it is home to about 40 endangered chimpanzees. Government observers are monitoring the situation with help from U.N. helicopters. The director of Virunga National Park says the eruption is "of great concern" and that rangers have been deployed to monitor the lava flow. Further details as soon as possible. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

February 4th, 2010

During 27 January-2 February, the MODIS sensor aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite continued to frequently detect thermal anomalies from Nyiragongo, likely from lava lake activity. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that during 30-31 January a diffuse plume drifted 240 km W. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO)
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ETHIOPIA - Manda Hararo area

July 24, 2009

As of the 16th of July, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo that were detected in satellite imagery during 28-30 June prompted a science team to visit the area on 4 July. After conducting ground-based and aerial observations for approximately 2 hours, they reported that the eruption occurred near the August 2007 eruption site, and was possibly bigger than that event. No active lava effusion was seen, but steaming was observed from the 4-5 km-long fissure that, because of high temperatures, had to be observed from a distance. They also saw new predominantly 'a'a lava flows that were 2-3 m thick. The fissure was lined with scoria ramparts 30-50 m high. Temperature measurements taken with a FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer) indicated that the lava flow had cooled significantly with temperatures between 30 and 120 degrees Celsius at the surface. A maximum temperature of 238 degrees Celsius was measured during aerial observations. Thermal anomalies and dense sulphur dioxide plumes in Ethiopia appear to indicate that a significant effusive eruption has taken place along the Karbahi graben at or near Manda Hararo fissure vents. There is as yet no visual confirmation of the eruption from the ground. The Modis thermal alert service at the University of Hawaii has shown hotspots of varying intensity over a considerable area of the Manda Hararo region since 27 June, while the OMI dioxyde sulfur group has mapped considerable SO2 emissions on 29 and 30 June. MODIS thermal anomaly indicating surface lava flows. Preliminary analysis (based on SO2 emissions) suggests that it is larger than the Manda Hararo eruption in August 2007, but not as large as the Alu-Dalaffilla eruption last November. On the MODVOLC thermal alerts website the interface allows one to zoom in at specified coordinates. Entering those for Manda-Hararo (40.8E, 12.2N; degrees and decimal degrees) show a series of alerts spread over considerable area for as late as 30 June 2009. Going back in time, there appeared a large intense cluster (29 June), a less intense cluster (28-27 June), and then no hits on earlier days. A map appears in Volcanoes of the World, with comparatively few volcanoes identified surrounding Manda Hararo (Haroro Manda). The 2007 Bulletin report on that volcano contains a map of the area (BGVN 32:07) From Rick Wunderman GVN/GVP.
 

ETHIOPIA - Alu volcano area (or Dalafilla)

November 25th , 2008

During 19-24 November, the MODIS satellite continued to detect thermal anomalies over the area near Dalaffilla and Alu volcanoes from the eruption that began on 3 November.On 16 November the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) equipment aboard NASA's Terra satellite acquired the area of north-east Ethiopia where the volcanic eruption took place on 3 November 2008. The ASTER data provides the clearest imagery made available to date. On the evidence of these new images it is the Alu fissure vent zone, rather than Dalaffilla volcano, which is responsible for the current eruption. A new, large dark lava flow is evident, covering a large area and extending about 12km north-east of the Alu vents. The lava flow produced by this eruption covers a large area and overlies previously-deposited flows. As of the 15th of November, Modis instrument reported that hotspots continue to be measured between Dalaffilla and Alu volcanoes in Ethiopia. This indicates continued lava flows following last weeks eruption of Dalaffilla-Alu volcano. Satellite images show sulphur dioxide emissions over north Indian Ocean and central India. As of the 8th of November, the Global Volcanism Netork (GVN) has reported that now there is some debate over exactly which volcano erupted in Ethiopia this week. Satellite images show that a large lava flow originated from a region between Dalaffilla and Alu volcanoes in the Erta Ale Range. Alu and Dalaffilla are twin volcanoes separated by only 3 km. Alu volcano is ellipsoidal in shape, and built of old basaltic lavas. In contrast Dalaffilla is a steep cone built by eruptions of silicic lava. Some reports have assumed this week's large lava flow must have come from Alu volcano bacause it has produced basaltic lava flows before. However, satellite images have shown lava hotspots on the side of Dalaffilla volcano. Dalaffilla volcano as the source of the lava flows was declared by a researcher at Addis Ababa University. The summary is that an eruption of lava began at at Dalaffilla volcano in the Afar range of Ethiopia on Tuesday 4th November (?). According to recent news articles, observers reported ground shaking, hearing loud noises and explosions from a distance, and seeing smoke. Thermal anomalies continued to be detected during 3-6 November in the area. Primary information : satellite instruments detected an eruption in northern Afar, Ethiopia from November 3. The eruption first manifested itself as a large sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud drifting eastwards over the Arabian peninsula, detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). MODIS data from the University of Hawaii's MODVOLC hot-spot monitoring tool (http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu) confirmed an extensive hot-spot (presumably lava flows) near Alu volcano ( or Dallafilla ?), in the northern part of the Erta ‘Ale range. Details are still sketchy and these observations are as yet unconfirmed from the ground. Addis Ababa University's Institute of Geophysics researchers said on Wednesday, prompting a minor earthquake and record lava flows covering 300 square kilometres. Satellite pictures also showed that the volcano area covered a record area of 300 square kilometres, According to the ethiopian institute no major damage to infrastructure or population displacement were immediately reported. A total of 0.1-0.2 Tg of SO2 was measured in the eruption cloud by OMI at ~1100 UT on November 4, by which time the SO2 cloud had reached southern Iran. Using the OMI SO2 data and radiosonde soundings, observed SO2 cloud drift yields a preliminary estimate of the eruption onset time of 1400-1600 UT on November 3. Near real-time OMI SO2 data can be viewed at: http://satepsanone.nesdis.noaa.gov/pub/OMI/OMISO2/index.html . The summit region of Alu volcano, lying immediately NW of conical Dalaffilla volcano, is an ellipsoidal volcanic horst, elongated in a NNW-SSE direction, and formed primarily of older basaltic lava flows. Very recent fractures along the axis of the chain cut the main volcanic horst. Major fumarolic activity is located on the numerous parallel faults, some of which have uplifts of 100 m. Fissure vents west of the horst have fed silicic lava flows, and other fissures to the south have produced voluminous youthful basaltic lava flows that extend north as far as Lake Baki. Dalaffilla, also referred to as Gabuli, is a small, but steep-sided conical stratovolcano that rises 300 m above surrounding lava fields SE of Alu volcano. This morphology, unusual for the Erta Ale Range volcanoes, results from the extrusion of viscous, silicic lava flows with primary slopes up to about 35 degrees. These silicic flows extend primarily to the east; on the west they are blocked by walls of a horst structure along the crest of the Erta Ale range. Other basaltic lava flows from regional fissures surround the 613-m-high volcano. Fumarolic activity occurs in the 100-m-wide summit crater and has weathered surrounding lava flows.

ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

March 6th, 2010

As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an international team led by SVE carried out a new visit at the Erta Ale from 22nd of January to 23rd of January 2005. During these two full days at the summit the eruptive activity showed no significant change since our previous observation carried out in November 2005. Degassing activity was still occuring from 3 of the 4 coalescents hornitos located in the SW part of the South crater, but decreased slightly in comparison with our December observations. There were about 10 m high and represented the only portion of the lava crust covering the crater floor where gas emissions were in evidence. One of the hornitos contained glowing molten lava visible from a window located in the upper part. During the clear day of Sunday 23rd of January, members of the team abseiled down within the crater to collect recent lava poured out from the hornitos during partial collapse. Degassing activity (mainly SO2) from the North crater has also slightly decreased in comparison with early December 2004. From a small terrace located in the NW part of the crater it was possible to observe the degassing activity from several hornitos ( some of them were several meters high in the central part of the " lava bulge ") - Near the NW wall of the crater two small red glowing areas were visible at the summit of two other hornitos. Seismic activity of the volcano, together with infrasound signals were recorded by a portable system of the University of Hamburg. Preliminary results of this deployment will be reported soon at this place. Informations : Henry Gaudru, SVE Geneva ; Alexander Gerst , University of Hamburg, Germany ; Georges Kourounis, Derek Tessier, Brian Fletcher (Toronto - Canada) , Motomaro Shirao (Tokyo- Japan) . A previous visit of the SVE-SVG group (4th of December 2004) have permits to observe an important change in the activity of the volcano. The lava lake activity stopped within the South pit crater and a solidified lava crust has filled the whole part of the crater floor (about 15 m below the crater rim). Three (4) coalescent hornitos (about ten meters high) have built on the solidified lava crust in the SE part of the South crater. During the night between 4th of 5th of December, some incandescent degassing lava was visible at the summit of two hornitos. Moreover, we have also noted that a new activity has recently occured within the North crater. A solidified lava bulge uplifted and filled more than 4/5 of the crater floor (about 20-25 below the crater rim). Strong and noisy degassing activity was occcuring in the central part of the lava bulge from several small hornitos. From the smell and bluish color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2. During the night , ten small incandescent vents were visible at the periphery of the lava bulge. In the morning, two plumes rose above the volcano. Information : Henry Gaudru (SVE) and Co (SVG) - Erta Ale report in case of problem with this link look directly at "articles page"

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Piton de la Fournaise - Eruptive fissure - 16th November 2002 - Photo Laï-Yu (JIR)
PHILIPPINES - Mayon Volcano

March 5th, 2010

As of the 4th of March, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that there has been a lowering of Mayon volcano's status from Alert Level 2 (evidence of magmatic intrusion that could eventually lead to an eruption) to Alert Level 1 (no hazardous eruption imminent). After the alert status was lowered to Alert Level 2 last 13th of January, Mayon volcano has consistently manifested the following: 1. The number of volcanic earthquakes recorded daily (0 – 4 per day) is well within the normal level for Mayon of 5 volcanic earthquakes per day; 2. Volcanic tremors associated with magma movement within the volcano conduit became scarce and sometimes not recorded at all; 3. Ground deformation measurements showed a deflated volcano edifice indicating the absence of fresh volcanically-induced deformation or fresh supply of magma from below; 4. The sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission rate measured since the 13th of January to March ranged from 110 to 2,021 tonnes per day (t/d) is consistent with its post eruptive gas emission rate, and; 5. The observed crater glow prevailed at intensity II (can be observed with the naked eye) but does not indicate any re-intensification. Steam emission was most of the time weak and passively rising from the summit crater. The above observations suggest that Mayon volcano's condition is improving and likely heading towards normalcy. In view therefor, PHIVOLCS is now lowering its alert status from Alert Level 2 to Alert Level 1, meaning that eruption is not imminent. The public, however, is reminded that the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) remains off-limits due to the continuing threat from sudden small explosions and rock falls from the upper and middle slopes of the volcano. Active river channels and those areas perennially identified as lahar prone in the southeast sector should also be avoided especially during bad weather conditions or when there is heavy and prolonged rainfall. As of the 17th of February, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that Mayon volcano's seismic monitoring network detected two (2) volcanic earthquakes and eleven (11) rockfall events were detected by the seismic network. The seismic network recorded a total of twenty-six (267) volcanic earthquakes and fifty-seven (57) rockfall events (01 - 07 February 2010). With respect to Ground Deformation deflation. No change relative to 08-10 Nov. 2009 survey. Overall, the volcano remained inflated by five (5.0) mm. cumulative to February 2008 baseline data SO 2 Flux Reading: 1667 tonnes/day (12 Feb.) but otherwise at: 719 tonnes/day (11 Feb.), 425 tonnes/day (10 Feb. ), 447 tonnes/day (9 Feb.), 430 tonnes/day (8 Feb.). Steaming activity was obscured and crater glow was at Intensity II As of the 6th of February, PHIVOLCS reported that Mayon volcano's seismic monitoring network detected five (5) volcanic earthquakes and twelve (12) rockfall events were detected by the seismic network. The seismic network recorded a total of seventeen (17) volcanic earthquakes and sixty-nine (69) rockfall events (18 - 24 January 2010). With respect to Ground Deformation deflation. No change relative to 08-10 Nov. 2009 survey. Overall, the volcano remained inflated by five (5.0) mm. cumulative to February 2008 baseline data SO 2 Flux Reading: 1687 tonnes/day (28 Jan.) but otherwise at: 868 tonnes/day (26 Jan.), 288 tonnes/day (25 Jan. ), 1076 tonnes/day (24 Jan.), 1001 tonnes/day (23 Jan.). Steaming activity was moderate and crater glow was at Intensity II. As of the 15th of January, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that Mayon Volcano's seismic network recorded 3 volcanic earthquakes and 13 rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes during the past 24 hours. Steaming activity and crater glow were not observed due to thick clouds that covered the summit crater. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) emission rate was measured yesterday at an average of 635 tonnes/day. As of the 12th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that six (6) volcanic earthquakes and seventeen (17) rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes were detected by seismic monitoring network during the past 24 hours. Weak to moderate emission of white steam at the summit crater was seen during cloud breaks yesterday and early this morning. Pale crater glow was still observed last night. Yesterday's measurement of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission rate yielded an average of 820 tons/day. Results of ground deformation measurements at Buang and Lidong precise leveling lines showed deflationary trend compared to 02 December 2009 survey. Alert Level 3 is still in effect over Mayon Volcano. As of the 5th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that three (3) volcanic earthquakes and twenty one (21) rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes were detected by seismic monitoring network during the past 24 hours. Steaming activity and crater glow were not observed due to thick clouds that covered the summit crater. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) measurement was not conducted yesterday due to rain that occurred over the volcano area. As of the 4th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic monitoring network detected 7 volcanic earthquakes and 33 rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes. Steaming activity was not observed due to thick clouds that covered the summit crater. Pale crater glow was observed last night. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) measurement was not conducted yesterday due to rain that occurred over the volcano area. As of the 2nd of January 2010, PHIVOLCS reported that the seismic monitoring network around the volcano detected 13 volcanic earthquakes and 68 rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes during the past observation period. Emission of weak volume of white steam at the summit crater was observed during cloud breaks yesterday. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) emission rate was measured yesterday morning at an average value of 2,621 tonnes/day. The latest activity of Mayon still indicates that its overall state of unrest remains relatively high. However, this phase of unrest, characterized by moderate seismicity, high volcanic gas outputs and continuing glow of the summit are processes normally associated with very gradual return to the repose period. The volcanic system is expected to continue producing earthquakes and to vent a large amount of gases because fresh magma still resides along the whole length of the volcanic pipe and near the summit. From 28 December to present, a declining trend in Mayon volcano's activity was noted as reflected by the following observations: 1. No ash ejections were observed since 29 December. Steam emission was most of the time weak and white in color indicating considerable decrease in energy and absence of ash. 2. Majority of the type of earthquakes that were recorded during the past days were associated with rockfalls and rolling down of fragments from the lava deposits along Bonga gully and the advancing lava front. 3. Measured SO 2 levels have also showed a decreasing trend from a maximum of 8,993 tons per day to 2,621 tons per day. The still high concentration of SO 2 gas emission suggests that there is residual magma degassing at shallow depth. In view of the above observations, PHIVOLCS-DOST is lowering the alert status of Mayon from Alert Level 4 to Alert Level 3 to reflect the overall gradual decrease of activity. Previously, As of the 30th of December, PHIVOLCS reported that for the past 24 hours, one ash explosion occurred at Mayon Volcano (13.2576 N, 123.6856 E). The explosion produced a dirty white ash column that rose to about 100 meters above the summit and drifted to the northwest. Lava continued to flow down along the Bonga-Buyuan, Miisi and Lidong gullies. The lava front has now reached about 5.9 kilometers from the summit along the Bonga-Buyuan gully. Mayon Volcano's seismic network recorded 16 volcanic earthquakes. A total of 150 rock fall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes was also detected by the seismic network. Yesterday's measurement of Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) emission rate yielded an average value of 4,397 tonnes per day (t/d). The volcano edifice remains inflated as indicated by the electronic tilt meter installed at the northeast sector of the volcano. As of the 25th of December,PHIVOLCS reported that Mayon Volcano continued to show an intense level of activity during the previous 24-hour observation period. Ninety-six (96) ash explosions were observed during times of good visibility. These explosions produced light brown to grayish ash columns that reached heights of up to 2 km. One hundred twenty five (125) rumbling and booming sounds from the volcano were heard at the Lignon Hill Observatory in Legaspi City . Seismic activity remained elevated as the seismic network recorded a total of eight hundred seventy one (871) volcanic earthquakes. Ninety eight (98) rock fall events, related to detachment of lava fragments at the volcano's upper slopes, were also detected. Three of these events were observed to have generated pyroclastic flows that moved down within 2 km from the crater. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission rate was high and was measured at an average of 2,738 tonnes/day yesterday. As of the 23rd of December, bulletin of PHIVOLCS reported that Mayon Volcano continued to show an intense level of activity during the past 24-hour observation period. Seismic activity remained elevated in number and size as the seismic network detected 1,051 volcanic earthquakes and continuously recorded harmonic tremors. Many of these volcanic earthquakes were recorded at maximum deflection. Sixty six (66) ash explosions were observed during times of good visibility. These explosions produced grayish to light brown ash columns that reached height from 100 to 1000 meters above the summit before drifting towards southwest. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission rate remained very high and was measured at an average of 6,737 tons per day (t/d) yesterday. Two hundred eighty (280) audible booming and rumbling sounds were intermittently heard for the past 24 hours. Red hot lava also continuously flowed down along the Bonga-Buyuan, Miisi and Lidong gullies. As of the 21st of December, PHIVOLCS reports that activity escalated during the past 24-hour observation period. Seismic activity dramatically increased in number and size. A total of 1,942 volcanic earthquakes was detected by the seismic network. Many of these volcanic earthquakes were recorded at maximum deflection and continually occurred beginning at 12.21 yesterday. Harmonic tremors were also continuously recorded. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission rate remained very high at 6,089 tonnes per day (t/d). Audible booming and rumbling sounds were first reported in the eastern flank of the volcano at about 1455H then occasionally occurred beginning 2200H last night. Intensified crater glow and rolling down of incandescent lava fragments from the crater was also persistent. Red hot lava also continuously flowed down along the Bonga-Buyuan, Miisi and Lidong gullies. Lava fountains rising approximately 200 meters above the crater were observed at 2007H, 2008H and 2018H. The lava front has now reached about 5 kilometers downslope from the summit along the Bonga-Buyuan gullies. Alert level is 4. As of the 19th of December, PHIVOLCS reported that the volcano continued to exhibit intensified activity for the past observation period. A total of one hundred ninety seven (197) volcanic quakes and tremors were recorded by the seismic network. Eighteen (18) of these events were explosion type, however, only fifteen (15) were observed during times of good visibility. These explosions produced dirty white to grayish ash columns that reached height from 100 to 2000m above the summit before drifting towards southwest. Harmonic tremors were continuously recorded by the seismic instruments. During cloud break this morning, steaming activity ranged from dirty white to light brown in color. Night observation showed an intensified crater glow and continuous rolling down of incandescent materials from the crater. The advancing lava flow has now reached approximately 4 kilometers downslope from the crater along Bonga Gully. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission increased from 1,065 to 2,034 tonnes per day (t/d). As of the 17th of December, PHIVOLCS reports that two lava domes have formed at the crater of the volcano, raising concerns among government volcanologists over the possible extensive damage should these collapse and a major eruption occur. Renato Solidum, director of Phivolcs, said the domes were growing and that an aerial survey must be conducted to determine the hazards these would pose to residents living within the danger zone. As of the 16th of December, PHIVOLCS reported that the volcano has continued to erupt lava and ash as thousands of people are evacuated from surrounding towns and villages. Phivolcs also reported glowing lava fragments continually being ejected onto the upper and middle slopes of the volcano. The head of disaster relief for eastern Bicol region has reported that ash explosions have reached heights of 1000 metres. Mandatory evacuations of around 10,000 families from within Mayon's 6-8 km danger zone have begun, with more than 20,000 people moved out so far. Ultimately around 50,000 people may need to be evacuated. As of the 15th of December, PHIVOLCS reported that after lava began flowing from the crater earlier today, evacuations are under way around the Mayon volcano. A number of small ash explosions took place during the day, and the lava flows were reported from around 18:00 local time. At 20:00 local time the Phivolcs raised the alert level from 2 to 3. Mandatory evacuations of communities within the 6-8 km danger zone around Mayon will begin on Tuesday morning. Parts of the cities of Legazpi, Tabaco and Ligao, and the towns of Daraga, Camalig, Guinobatan, Santo Domingo, Bacacay, and Malilipot, fall within the danger zone: many thousands of people will be affected by the evacuations. Albay provincial authorities say that at least 9,000 families will be evacuated. As of the 12th of December,PHIVOLCS reported that a small ash eruption occured on the evening of Friday 11 December 2009. The eruption occured at around 19:59 local time, and was preceded by rumbling sounds and about 50 earthquakes, felt by people living in nearby villages. Ash was ejected to an altitude of 0.5 km above the crater. As of the 3rd of December, PHIVOLCS repored that the volcano was calm for a week, but on Thursday shook and spat out sulfur dioxide. Instruments detected 18 volcanic quakes, of which eight were low and five were high- frequency earthquakes, indicating that magma was climbing up the volcano's vent. The volcano discharged 858 tons of sulfur dioxide in the past 24 hours, or above the normal 500 tons ejected by a restive volcano. Alert level 2 remains Mayon, a 2463-metre stratovolcano, is famous for the near-perfect symmetry of its cone, as well as its ability to unleash destructive eruptions, with hazards including pyroclastic flows, lahars and heavy ashfall. Particularly violent eruptions causing many deaths occurred in 1814 and 1897; more recently an eruption in September 1984 caused no fatalities after warnings from Philvolcs brought about the evacuation of more than 70,000 people from at-risk areas near the volcano. Information : PHIVOLCS - Latest satelllite image of the Mayon (every 30 mn)

PHILIPPINES - Taal volcano

August 30th, 2008

As of the 29th of August 2008, State PHIVOLCS scientists advised the public to observe precautions when going near Taal Volcano in Batangas, saying the volcano has shown an “increase in seismicity." the Taal seismic network recorded 10 volcanic earthquakes from 5:30 a.m. to 3 p.m. Thursday. Two of the quakes that occurred at 12:33 p.m. and 12:46 p.m. were both felt at Intensity II at Pira-piraso villages. Accompanying the quakes were rumbling sounds. The events were located northeast of the volcano island near Daang Kastila area with depths of approximately 0.6 km (12:33 p.m.) and 0.8 km (12:46 p.m.). Surface thermal observations however, did not indicate significant change in the thermal and steam manifestations of the Main Crater Lake area. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) reported that increase in seismicity (frequency and distribution of earthquakes) reflects a "low-level episode of unrest," and that Alert Level 1 remains in effect there. At present, no imminent eruption is indicated although the public is advised to observe some precautions. Previously, past year, on June 24th , PHIVOLCS already reported that Taal volcano showed signs of unrest when two volcanic earthquakes were felt at Pira-Piraso village. According to local people, this seismic unrest was accompanied by rumbling around 2:30 in the morning. A total of 8 volcanic earthquakes were measured by PHIVOLCS seismographs. There was no change to the alert status of the volcano. As of 18 th of December 2006, PHIVOLCS reported that between 13-14 December, 10 volcanic earthquakes were detected. Ground deformation surveys conducted on 28 November-6 December 2006, revealed inflation of the volcanic edifice by 14.0 mm, suggesting possible magma intrusion. Taal volcano manifested a sustained moderate level of seismic activity since 18 November 2006, characterized by occasional large amplitude volcanic earthquakes. The main crater lake water is becoming more acidic since 12 September 2006. the newly formed mud geyser, which is now merged with the crater lake due to increase in water level, continues to be very active. The increasing acidity and hydrothermal activity are probably caused by the injection of hot gases and fluids coming from below the crater floor. As of the 22nd of November, the PHIVOLCS was reported that tall volcano's main crater (Northeastern part) was spewing three or five-meter-high geysers of muddy water since the past Friday. Since, mud geysering has continued, but the volcano stays at alert 1. A similar event, which was recorded in November 1999, lasted until February 2000. Previous report - As of the 5th of October, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) has reported that the Taal Main Crater Seismic Station recorded twenty nine (29) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24-hour period since 0600 yesterday. Five (5) of these quakes that occurred at 0233, 0234, 0242, 0247 and 0249 were felt at Intensities II to III by residents on Volcano Island. These quakes were accompanied by rumbling sounds. Initial earthquake locations showed epicenters generally dispersed in the vicinity of Daang Kastila (Northeast), Tibag (North), Tablas (Northeast), Mataas na Gulod (Northeast) and Panikihan (Northwest). This seismic activity is notably higher than the usual levels, which is generally only 5 or less events detected in 24 hours during quiet periods. Surface thermal observations, however, did not indicate significant change in the thermal and steam emission manifestations of the Main Crater Lake area. The increase in seismicity at Taal Volcano reflects a low-level episode of unrest. However, there is still no indication of an impending eruption. Possible precursors, such as increased steam emission, increased temperatures of steam vents and other changes on the Main Crater Lake waters and of the ground are continuously being monitored. The ongoing seismic unrest could intensify in the coming days or weeks so that PHIVOLCS recommends appropriate vigilance by the public when visiting the island. As a safety measure, PHIVOLCS reiterates its previous recommendation that the Main Crater area remains off-limits because sudden steam explosions may occur or high concentrations of toxic gases may accumulate. There are also several fissures traversing the Daang Kastila Trail which, when reactivated with steam emission, are also potentially hazardous to people. PHIVOLCS will provide information on the status of Taal Volcano as necessary. The colour code at Taal is currently at YELLOW . PHIVOLCS will provide information on the status of Taal Volcano as necessary.

PHILIPPINES - Kanlaon volcano

September 5th, 2009

As of the 4th of September, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) reported that there has been a large increase in volcanic earthquakes at Kanlaon volcano, Philippines. Between 23rd August and 1st September there were 257 earthquakes measured. This seismic activity is higher than the background levels, which usually varies from 0 to 4 events in 24 hour period. Two earthquakes were felt by residents surrounding the volcano. At 1726 hrs on August 23rd, one earthquake was felt at Intensity II in Barangay Ara-al, La Carlota City. A second earthquake at 2227 hrs on August 30th, was felt at Intensity III in La Castellana and Intensity IV in La Carlotta City and Bago City. Epicentres of the earthquakes clustered at the northwest slope of the volcano. These earthquakes may indicate movements of an active local fault which may be caused by magma movement beneath the volcano. Surface observations did not indicate significant change in the steam emission from the crater. Since Kanlaon Volcano has a history of sudden steam-driven explosions without precursors, the public is reminded to avoid entering the 4 km Permanent Danger Zone. The status of Kanlaon Volcano is maintained at Alert Level 0. Kanlaon volcano (also spelled Canlaon), the most active of the central Philippines, forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The massive 2435-m-high andesitic stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. The largest debris avalanche known in the Philippines traveled 33 km to the SW from Kanlaon. The summit of Kanlaon contains a 2-km-wide, elongated northern caldera with a crater lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active vent, Lugud crater, to the south. Historical eruptions from Kanlaon, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.

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Mayon volcano - Philippines
INDONESIA Volcanoes activity VSI - CVGDM reports : Recent events in 2009 - 2010

Mount Semeru ( Java) - As of the 5th of March 2010 the CVGHM reported that activity has increased at Semeru volcano in Indonesia. Harmonic tremor recorded at the volcano over the past few months November 2009 - 98, December 2009 - 148, January 2010 - 313, February 2010 - 298. In February 2010 ash emissions occurred on 41 occasions and reached a maximum height 200 m above the crater. On 28th February, lava avalanched 750 m from Jonggring Seloko crater. Between April 2009 and 1st March 2010 the activity at Semeru volcano changed to predominately ash emissions. Since the 25th of February, lava avalanches have resumed at the volcano. People are advised to stay more than 4 km from the volcano on the SE side, and not approach the summit from other sides. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The volcano, rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967

Mount Kaba (Sumatra) - As the 20th of October 2009, CVGHM reported that seismic activity from Kaba increased in August and remained elevated in September and October. Inflation was also detected. When weather permitted, diffuse white plumes were seen rising 25-50 m above the crater rim and drifting E.
Based on the deformation and increased seismicity, CVGHN raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Kaba, a twin volcano with Mount Hitam, has an elongated summit crater complex dominated by three large historically active craters trending ENE from the summit to the upper NE flank. The SW-most crater of 1952-m-high Gunung Kaba, Kawah Lama, is the largest. Most historical eruptions have affected only the summit region of the volcano. They mostly originated from the central summit craters, although the upper-NE flank crater Kawah Vogelsang also produced explosions during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Dieng volcanic zone (Java) - As of the 27th of September 2009, VSI reported that a phreatic explosion occured on the 27th of September at about 8PM (local time) probably from South part of the Silaki vent. Mud ejecta have spread 140 m around the vent. The noise of the explosion was heard to 2 km away. Previously, as of the 16th of January 2009, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) reported that a phreatic activity occured on 15th of February at about 6pm (local time) at the Sibenteng crater. Two explosions opened a new crater (50 m diameter) and ejected mud and water at about 50 m distance. The alert level was raised at 2. The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century AD. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect. (GVN)

Batur volcano (Bali) - As of the 12th of November, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that hiking trail has been closed at Batur volcano in Bali, Indonesia due to fears of an eruption. Since the 1st of November 2009 there have been 53 deep and 83 shallow volcanic earthquakes. Evacuation will be necessary if the alert level is raised to the next higher level. Currently residents are allowed to continue activities around the volcano, but should stay away from the summit area. Batur volcano is a popular tourist location on Bali, and offers spectacular views of one of the world's most impressive calderas. The last eruption of Batur volcano was in 2000 when ash emissions reach a height of 300 m above the summit. The Batur volcano is located at the centre of two concentric calderas NW of Agung volcano. The outer 10 x 13.5 km wide caldera was formed during eruption of the Bali (or Ubud) Ignimbrite about 29,300 years ago and now contains a caldera lake on its SE side, opposite the satellitic cone of 2152-m-high Gunung Abang, the topographic high of the Batur complex. The inner 6.4 x 9.4 km wide caldera was formed about 20,150 years ago during eruption of the Gunungkawi Ignimbrite. The SE wall of the inner caldera lies beneath Lake Batur; Batur cone has been constructed within the inner caldera to a height above the outer caldera rim. The 1717-m-high Batur stratovolcano has produced vents over much of the inner caldera, but a NE-SW fissure system has localized the Batur I, II, and III craters along the summit ridge. Historical eruptions have been characterised by mild-to-moderate explosive activity sometimes accompanied by lava emission. Basaltic lava flows from both summit and flank vents have reached the caldera floor and the shores of Lake Batur in historical time. The colour code at Batur is currently at YELLOW .

G. Rinjani ( Lombok) - The volcano is continuing to erupt, as it has been doing pretty much continuously since the current phase of activity began on 2 May. The eruption is located at Barujari cone Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21 June ash plumes from Rinjani rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km N. As of the 18th of June 2009, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that base on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during the 11th-12th and the 16th June ash plumes from Rinjani rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-55 km W and WSW. As of the 5th of may, CVGHM reported that the activity at Rinjani volcano on Lombok Island was continuing. The eruptive activity eruptions had not caused important impacts but a small crater began to form in the eastern part of the mountainous area at Mount Baru Jari. However, according to scientists, the peak of the activity was on Saturday with four tremors and the eruption of ash. A team from the Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation agency is at Rinjani to monitor the activity, and the national park around the volcano remains closed to visitors.CVGHM reported than during 29 April-2 May seismicity from Rinjani increased and tremor was detected. On 2 May, an eruption produced dense brown "smoke" that rose 1 km from Barujari cone and was accompanied by a booming noise. On 4 May, an eruption of ash produced a white to brown plume that rose 500-700 m above the cone and drifted N. Fog often prevented observations. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Previously, a CVGHM preliminary information reported that Mt Rinjani , which has gone to yellow alert following ‘two small explosions on Saturday 2nd of May 2009 during the afternoon. The area of the national park surrounding the volcano has been immediatly closed to tourists as a safety measure. Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak caldera. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions at Rinjani dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lak

G. Merapi (Java) -Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Merapi rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. on 19 May 2008. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.
Previous significative activity : As of the 24th of May 2007, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Merapi volcano in Indonesia erupted on 23th of May at 0924 local time. Hot clouds and glowing lava moved 1km down the Gendol river. Residents in Muntilan reported ashfall over surrounding areas. As of the 22nd of March 2007, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that based on pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Merapi reached an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 19 March. As of the 10th of August 2006, the VGHM reported that based on pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Merapi on 2 and 3 August reached altitudes of ~6.1 km (~20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to CVGHM, during 2-4 August rockfalls traveled 1 km SE toward the Gendol river and gas plumes reached a maximum of 400 m above the summit (10,900 ft a.s.l.). On 3 August, the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). As of the 27th of July 2006, the VGHM reported that during 19-25 July, gas plumes at Merapi reached maximum heights of 400 m above the summit (11,000 ft a.s.l.). Lava flows were observed daily, advancing at a maximum distance of 1.5 km SE toward the Gendol River. Pyroclastic flows were not observed during the reporting period. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). On 17 July, CVGHM reported that the Alert Level was lowered one level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) in all remaining areas previously at Alert Level 4 (S slopes). Pyroclastic flows were not observed during the reporting period. As of the 6th of July, the VGHM reported that pyroclastic flows and rockfalls at Merapi decreased in frequency and intensity during 28 June-4 July. Pyroclastic flows were observed during 28-30 June and reached a maximum distance of 3 km SE along the Gendol River. Gas plumes were observed during 28 June-1 July and reached a maximum height of 1 km above the summit (12,800 ft a.s.l.) on 28 June. As of the 29th of June, the VGHM reported that during 21-25 June, seismic signals at Merapi indicated almost daily occurrence of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows. Due to inclement weather, pyroclastic flows were only observed on 24 June and reached a maximum distance of 4 km SE along the Gendol River and 2.5 km SW along the Krasak River. Gas plumes were observed during 22-25 June and reached a maximum height of 1.5 km above the summit (14,600 ft a.s.l.) on 24 June. As of the 23rd of June, the VGHM reported that eruptions continue at Merapi Volcano in Indonesia. Yesterday there were 15 pyroclastic flows and 256 lava avalanches. The volcano remains at maximum level 4 alert. On 21 June, visual observation toward the summit was obscured during the day. Events of pyroclastic flow and lava avalanches only could be marked from their noise and glare, but the direction and distance could not be determined. Within this day seismograph recorded 65 events of multiphase, 256 events of avalanches earthquakes, 15 events of pyroclastic flow, and 4 events of tectonic earthquakes. On 22 June, the weather was clear in the morning. Visual observation from Babadan observatory noted a white-thick solfatara gas emitted moderately about 700 m from the summit. Seismic record marked 8 events of multiphase earthquakes, 84 events of avalanches earthquakes, 5 events of pyroclastic flow, and 3 events of tectonic earthquakes. The events of pyroclastic flow tend to decrease, while lava avalanches is still fluctuated. Surficial magmatic activity around the summit is still potential to generate pyroclastic flow. Areas along 300 m from the side of K.Krasak/Bebeng, K.Bedog, K.Boyong and K.Gendol, and within radius of 8 km from the summit is forbidden for any activities. Update 16th of June 2006 - The VGHM reported that two emergency workers have been trapped in an underground bunker after an eruption from Merapi volcano on Wednesday 14th of June and unfortunatly have been killed. There are the two first victims since the beginning of the eruptive activity. Gas plumes were observed almost daily during 7-13 June and reached a maximum height of 1.2 km above the summit (13,600 ft a.s.l.) on 10 June. On 8 June a pyroclastic flow, lasting 12 minutes, reached a maximum distance of 5 km SE toward the Gendol River, the predominate travel direction since the 27 May earthquake (M 6.2). On 8 June, according to a CVGHM report, the lava-dome growth rate at Merapi was an estimated 100 thousand cubic meters per day and the estimated volume was approximately 4 million cubic meters. An estimated volume loss of 400 thousand cubic meters on 4 June was due to a partial dome collapse of the S part of the Geger Buaya crater wall (constructed from 1910 lava flows). As of the 2nd of June, the VGHM at the Kaliurang observatory reported lava avalanches events : 122 times toward K.Krasak and part of K.Boyong with maximum distance of 2.5 km, 100 times toward K.Gendol with maximum distance of 1.5 km. Pyroclastic flow events also reported from the same site : 15 times toward K.Krasak and K.Boyong with maximum distance of 3.5 km, 5 times toward K.Gendol with maximum distance of 2 km. At 0310 WIB there was lava avalanches toward southwest-west sector along the upperstreams of K.Boyong, K.Krasak, K.Lamat, K.Sat and K. Senowo. It has 2.5 km of maximum sliding distance. This is the first lava avalanches that affected west area during recent eruption. Seismic record noted : 276 events of avalanches, 127 events of pyroclastic, 36 events of multiphase earthquakes, and 24 events of tectonic earthquakes.Previous update of 26th of May 2006 - according the latest information from VSI, the eruptive activity declined since the two past days and most of people come back home in the Umbul Horjo village. However, the scientists of VSI continues to monitor 24/24 the volcano, because a new increasing activity could be occurs in the next days or weeks. On Saturday morning (20th of May), mount Merapi continues to spew lava from the lava dome. This lava dome on the top was still growing at a slower rate. Merapi sent 70 flows of lava and nine outbursts of heatclouds in the first six hours of Saturday. Some of them reached as far as 3.5 km down the slopes. Aster Satellite Images of the Merapi volcano from Nasa.

Dukono (Halmahera) - As of the 16th of October 2008, the Volcano Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 110 km WNW. . On 26 August, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW. As of the 5th of June, VS) has reported that incandescence at Dukono's summit during 31 March-24 April. On 25 April, incandescent material was ejected 25 m above the summit. During 30 April-2 May seismicty increased. On 25 May, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.4-2.1 km (4,600-6,900 ft) a.s.l. and was accompanied by thunderous and booming sounds. On 29 May, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. and again was accompanied by thunderous and booming sounds. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were not permitted within 3 km of the summit CVGHM reported incandescence at Dukono's summit during 31 March-24 April. Geologic Summary. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed .

G. Karangetang (Siau Island)- As of the 12th of November 2009, the CVGHM reported that according to news articles, a pyroclastic flow and a lahar descended the flanks of Karangetang on the 4th of November. Residents saw active lava flows the next day. On the 11th of November, incandescent material was ejected 5 m into the air. Based on a pilot observation and analyses of satellite imagery, Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume to 3 km a.s.l. and drifted 90-185 km W on 3 November 2009. Previous news :CVGHM reported that during 1-6 June 2009 lava flows from Karangetang traveled 50 m E and 600 m SE. Incandescent rocks, from the main craters and ends of the lava flows, traveled as far as 2 km towards multiple river valleys, including the Keting River to the S. On 1 June, white-to-gray-to-brownish plumes rose 700 m above the main crater. Incandescent lava was ejected 500-700 m. On 4 June, tremor amplitude and the number of earthquakes decreased. During 4-6 June, white plumes rose 50-300 m from the main crater. On 7 and 8 June, fog often prevented observations and incandescent rocks were rarely seen. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 June. As of the 2nd of June 2009, CVGHM reported that CVGHM reported that seismicity from Karangetang increased during 30-31 May and tremor was detected. On 30 May, diffuse white plumes rose 10-50 m high and incandescence was seen at the crater. On 31 May, white emissions from Utama Crater in the N part of the summit region rose 100 m. Incandescent material traveled as far as 2.3 km, mostly down the S flank. Ash plumes that rose 25-700 m were accompanied by thunderous sounds. The Alert Level was raised to 4, the highest level on a scale of 1-4. CVGHM reported that on 28th of May2009, based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on the 24th of May an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km S. Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 50 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

Anak Krakatau ( Sunda Strait) - As of the 4th of November 2009, The Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the Alert level at Anak Krakatau volcano in Indonesia has been lowered from Alert Level III to Alert Level II. Explosion earthquakes measured over the past few months were August 4311, September 541, and October 34. There has been a significant decline in eruptive activity at the volcano since August 2009. As of the 22nd of August 2009, a Volcano Discovery Team has reported that the explosive activity at Krakatau has resumed over the past weeks. Strong vulcanian-type eruptions from the growing lava dome in the new crater occur at intervals of 90-360 minutes as one of the Volcano Discovery Team correspondants reported from a recent visit. Blocks are being thrown over the whole of the southern part of the island, including the forest and often reach the water as well. Small pyroclastic flows sometimes develop on the slope of the summit cone.A news report on 18 June 2009noted that activity at Krakatau had increased significantly. According to the head of the volcano monitoring post in Pasauran village there were 828 small eruptions in the previous six days, reaching the rate of a new explosion every three minutes. Observers on beaches in Java could clearly see rising white gas-and-steam plumes along with incandescent ejecta at night. Residents also reported loud explosion noises. The level of activity decreased again on 19 June, and the Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).As of the 13th of June 2009, Tom Pfeiffer reported that during its recent expedition (from 3-8 June 09), Anak Krakatau continued to display strong strombolian activity, often accompanied by loud blasts, from a new vent located between the old summit crater and the 2007 crater. This activity has essentially filled the 2007 crater with a new cinder cone and 'healed' the 2007 scar. At the time of leaving the island, activity was still going strong. As of the 6th of May 2009, the Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) has reported that the number of eruptions from Anak Krakatau increased significantly at the end of March and continued through 5 May. Direct observations of the crater on 24, 25, and 29 April revealed that the eruption originated from a crater on the W slope of Anak Krakatau. Ash plumes generally drifted E and caused ashfall within a 5 km radius of the crater. Clear weather on 5 May allowed for visual observations; "smoke" rose 500 m above the crater. Anak Krakatau until crossing the Kulon Tip territory, in the Banten Province and spread in the distance more than 60 Km The renowned Krakatau volcano lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, resulted in a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this volcano formed Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan, has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. Live Webcam

Ibu volcano (Halmahera)) - As of the 6th of August 2009, the CVGHM reported that results of the monitoring visually that was carried out from the Observation Post in Gamsungi, the eruption smoke that was observed on July 15th to August 4th being white grey with the height 300 through to 400 m. on the peak. On August 2, at 0455 hrs WIT a lava flow happened. At 1800-2200 hrs WIT heard was the thunderous sound totalling 5 times followed with the firelight emergence in the peak of Ibu. On August 3, at 1830 to 2230 hrs WIT observed was the existence of firelight in the peak of Ibu. High firelight that was observed from the Duono Village, Going and Sanghaji be as high (20 m) as well and was accompanied by the quite hard thunderous sound. Lava of Ibu continued to grow and to be able to have been seen from the Duono Village. The conclusion is that the data showed the existence of the rise in the number of eruption earthquakes and bellows that was accompanied by the eruption and the material throw glowing that could be observed visually clearly. The truncated summit of Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the western flank. A group of maars is located below the northern and western flanks of the volcano. Only a few eruptions have been recorded from Ibu in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998. VSI website

Batu Tara volcano (Flores) - As of the 2nd of July 2009, that based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-30 June ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-130 km SW, W, and NW. The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is ORANGE

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RUSSIA - Bezymianny volcano (Kamtchatka)

April 10th, 2010

As of the 9th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on April 4th-8th, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the lava dome was registering on April 3rd-7th. As of the 2nd of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues. Strong volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoi volcano obscures seismic data of Bezymianny last week. Strong (March 29th) and moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on March 26th-30th, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the lava dome was registering on March 26th-31st and April 1st. Prior to its 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3,000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1,000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. That eruption, similar to the 1980 event at Mount St. Helens, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater. KVERT

RUSSIA - Sheveluch volcano ( Kamchatka)

April 10th, 2010

As of the 9th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive-extrusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions >10 km (>32,800 ft) ASL could occur at any time. The activity of the volcano could affect international and low-flying aircraft. Seismicity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash plumes rose up to 7.5 km (21,300 ft) ASL on April 05 and 08. According to visual data, ash plumes from hot avalanches rose up to 6.1 km (20,010 ft) ASL on April 5th and 8th. Strong fumarolic activity of the dome was noting all week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the lava dome all week. Ash plume extending about 100 km (62 mi) to the south-east from the dome was noted on April 5th. As of the 2nd of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that activity of the volcano continues: a new viscous lava flow effuses at the lava dome. Seismicity was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, possibly ash plumes rose up to 4.7 km (15,400 ft) ASL all week. According to visual data, strong fumarolic activity was noted last week. Hot avalanches from the lava dome were observing in the dark time. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the lava dome all week. Ash plume extending about 40 km (25 mi) to the south-east from the dome was noted on March 29th. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (3283 m) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskoi volcano group. Sheveluch is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanksStrong culmination explosive eruption of the lava dome of Sheveluch volcano occurred in 1993, 2001, 2004 and two in 2005. Live cam link

RUSSIA - Karymsky volcano (Kamchatka)

April 10th, 2010

As of the 9th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive activity of the volcano continues. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels on April 1st-3rd and at background level in the other days of week. According to seismic data, ash plumes rose up to 3.3 km (10,800 ft) ASL on April 1st. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano on April 3rd-4th and 6th. As of the 2nd of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels all week. According to seismic data, ash plumes rose up to 4.1 km (13,500 ft) ASL all week. According to satellite data, a bright thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano all week. Ash plumes extending about 250 km (155 mi) to the eastern directions from the volcano were noted on March 28th-29th and 31st. As of the 26th of March, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that weak activity of the volcano continues but ash plumes were not observing last time and a thermal anomaly over the volcano was small and weak. Seismic activity of the volcano was slightly above background levels all week and its seismicity slightly increased on March 25th. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano on March 19th-20th, 23rd and 25th, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.
 

RUSSIA - Kliuchevskoy volcano (Kamchatka)

April 10th, 2010

As of the 9th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Seismicity of the volcano was above background levels all week. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes containing small amount of ash rose up to 6.3 km (20,700 ft) ASL on April 7th. Strombolian activity of the volcano continues. A height of bursts was about 200 m above the crater on April 7th-8th. An effusion of lava flows on the volcanic flanks continues. Strong and moderate gas-steam activity of the volcano was noting all week. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano all week. Narrow ash plume extending about 55-60 km (34-37 mi) to the north-east from the volcano was registered on April 8th. Gas-steam plumes extending about 30-180 km (18-110 mi) to the north north-east mainly from the volcano were noted all week. As of the 2nd of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Seismicity of the volcano was above background levels all week. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes sometimes containing small amount of ash rose up to 5.3 km (17,400 ft) ASL all week. Strombolian activity of the volcano continues. A height of bursts was about 300 m above the crater. An effusion of lava flows on the volcanic flanks continues. According to satellite data, a big thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano all week. Gas-steam plumes extending about 70 km (43 mi) to the east from the volcano were noted on March 30th. Kliuchevskoi flanks Kamen volcano to the SW and Ushkovsky volcano to the NW. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years . Live cam link

RUSSIA - Koriaksky volcano

November 14th, 2009

As of the 12th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that during 30 October-6 November seismic activity from Koryaksky did not exceed background levels. Fumarolic activity was noted on 29 October and during 4-5 November. The Level of Concern Colour Code was lowered to Green. Fumarolic activity of the volcano continues and such activity is normal for the volcano. Last time there were ash plumes at the volcano on August 13th-27th. But strong gas-steam plumes could affect low-flying aircraft. Seismicity didn't exceeded background levels all week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observing on October 29th and November 4th-5th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet last week. As of the 6th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that fumarolic activity of the volcano continues and such activity is normal for the volcano.seismicity didn't exceeded background levels all week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observing on October 29th and November 4th-5th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet last week. As of the 30th October, KVERT reported that seismicity didn't exceeded background levels all week, weak volcanic tremor was registering in the area of the volcano on October 24th-27th. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observing on October 23rd-25th and 28th-29th. Clouds obscured the volcano on October 26th-27th. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet last week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on October 17-22. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet last week. Moderate fumarolic activity of the volcano sometimes with weak emissions of ash was observed on October 01-03 and 05-07. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly was registering over the volcano on October 2nd. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes rose up to 3.7 km (12,100 ft) ASL on September 12-17. Aerosolic plumes extended >10 km (6 mi) to the eastern directions from the volcano. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet. . According to visual data, gas-steam plumes raising up to 3.4 km (11,100 ft) ASL were observed on September 4th and 6th. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet. Seismicity of the volcano didn't exceeded background levels all week but a volcanic tremor was registering on August 27th-28th and September 1st. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes raising up to 3.7 km (12,100 ft) ASL and extending to the different directions from the volcano were observed last week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes containing ash raising up to 3.7 km (12,100 ft) ASL and extending to the different directions from the volcano were observed on August 26-27. According to satellite data, ash plumes extending >385 km (>239 mi) mainly to the eastern directions from the volcano were registered on August 20-27. As of the 21st of August, (KVERT reported that activity of the volcano continues. Seismicity was slightly above background levels last week. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes containing ash raising up to 3.5-4.2 km (11,500-13,800 ft) ASL and extending to the different directions from the volcano were observed on August 16th-20th. Before ash plumes the height of gas-steam plumes was about 3.5-5.0 km (11,500 - 16,400 ft) ASL on August 13th-16th. According to satellite data, ash plumes extending about 215 km (>133 mi) mainly to the eastern and western directions from the volcano were registered on August 16th-20th. According to satellite data, an ash plume extending >180 km (>112 mi) to the ESE from the volcano was registered on August 12th. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was registered on July 20th. According to satellite data, gas-steam plumes containing an ash extending for about 100 km (62 mi) to the NE from the volcano were noted on April 17-18 and 22nd. There was registered an SO2 signal (OMI data) for about 15 km (9 mi) from Koryaksky on April 20th. On 11 April, KVERT staff reported ashfall in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (30 km S). Ash accumulated to 0.1-2.5 cm thickness near the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS) FED RAS. The Level of Concern Colour Code remained Orange. According to satellite data, aerosolic plumes containing ash extended about 225 km (140 mi) to the south-east from the volcano on March 25-26. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels on March 13th and at background levels during other days of the week. Aerosolic plumes containing small amount of ash raising up to 4.0 km (13,200 ft) ASL and extending to the eastern directions from the volcano were observed all week. As of the 6th of March, KVERT reported that during 3-4 March gas plumes containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 200 km ENE. Ash deposits were seen at the summit. Ash deposits 1-2 mm thick accumulated in an area between Koryaksky and Avachinsky volcanoes. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Orange. A strong fumarolic activity of the volcano was observed on February 22-26. The volcano was obscured by clouds during other days. According to satellite data, an ash plume extending about 50 km (31 mi) and an aerosolic plume with ash to 200 km (124 mi) to the ENE from the volcano were observed on February 25th. During 6-7 January gas-and-steam plumes drifted SW. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Yellow. As of the 2nd of January, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that weak explosive activity of the volcano continued. According to scientists, probably activities of the volcano will increase again. The activity of the volcano is dangerous for low-flying aircraft. Seismic activity of the volcano was at background levels: from 1 to 7 volcanic earthquakes were noting each day at the volcano. Possibly an episode of volcanic tremor were registered on December 30-31 and January 1st. According to visual data, gas-steam plumes possibly containing small amount of ash moves on the surface of north-western slope of the volcano on December 30-31. Clouds obscured the volcano in the other days. As of the 28th of December, KVERT informed that moderate explosive Volcanian type eruption of the volcano occured. Ash plumes raise about 4.0 km (13.200 ft) ASL and extended to the north-west from the volcano. No seismic data about this event by technical reasons. Gas-steam plumes containing small amount of ash were registering during daylight hours on the satellite images on December 23-25. Strong fumarolic activity were noted at the volcano from November, 2008. According to satellite data, on December 24th of December, at 23:34 UTC (NOAA 17, 4m5)) and 23:42 UTC ( TERRA MODIS, 31m32) a dense ash plume extended over 60 km (37 mi) and a poor ash plume extended 140 km (87 mi) to the northeast of the volcano. According to visual data by observers from Nalychevo valley, a dark column rose about 200-300 m from the vent of a fumarole on the northwestern flank of Koryaksky volcano on December 24. The fumarole is located about 3.0 km ASL. Observers heard a boom from the volcano at night. According to seismic data (KB GS RAS), only 2 earthquakes were registered on December 23 on the depth of 5.0 km under the volcano. KVERT continues to monitor Koryaksky volcano. The colour code at Koryaksky is currently at YELLOW. The large symmetrical Koryaksky stratovolcano is the most prominent landmark of the NW-trending Avachinskaya volcano group, which towers above Kamchatka's largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion has produced a ribbed surface on the eastern flanks of the 3456-m-high volcano; the youngest lava flows are found on the upper western flank and below SE-flank cinder cones. No strong explosive eruptions have been documented during the Holocene. Extensive Holocene lava fields on the western flank were primarily fed by summit vents; those on the SW flank originated from flank vents. Lahars associated with a period of lava effusion from south- and SW-flank fissure vents about 3900-3500 years ago reached Avacha Bay. Only a few moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during historical time. Koryaksky's first historical eruption, in 1895, also produced a lava flow.

RUSSIA - Kizimen volcano

November 14th, 2009

As of the 13th of November, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that fumarolic activity of the volcano continues and such activity is normal for the volcano. KVERT continues to watch the Kizimen volcano. Seismicity was slightly above background levels on November 6th, 8th and 10th, and didn't exceeded background levels in the other days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds last week. As of the 30th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues. KVERT continues to watch the Kizimen volcano. Seismic activity of the volcano was slightly above background levels on October 26th and didn't exceeded background levels in the others days of week. According to satellite data, the volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds last week. Seismic activity of the volcano was above background levels on October 15-19 and didn't exceeded background levels in the others days of week. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was registered on October 16th. Many shallow earthquakes were registered during October 09-11. According to satellite data, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was registered on October 9th. As of the 10th of october, KVERT reported that seismic activity of the volcano increased in the last day. Many shallow earthquakes (one with magnitude 3.1) were registered during October 09. Intensification of seismic activity of the volcano is possibly. Possibly there is a preparation of an explosive eruption of the volcano. During September, 2009, seismicity of the volcano was mainly at background levels but since October a number of shallow volcanic earthquakes near the volcano began to increase. According to satellite data by KVERT, a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was noted on September 17 and 21. As of the 28th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues. Strong explosive eruption possible in case of further seismicity increasing. Seismicity was above background levels on August 20-22 and at background levels in the other days of this week. According to satellite data, volcano was quiet. As of the 14th of August, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that seismic activity of the volcano continued to increase since July 11. Strong explosive eruption possible in case of further seismicity increasing. Seismicity was above background levels on August 7th and 9th-11th; and at background levels in the other days of this week. According satellite data, volcano was obscured by clouds last week, a thermal anomaly was not registered this week. As of the 31st of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that seismic activity of the volcano increased since July 11th. Shallow earthquakes were registered during three weeks. Strong explosive eruption possible in case of further seismicity increasing. Seismicity was above background levels, several tens of shallow earthquakes per day were registered. Kizimen is an isolated, conical stratovolcano that is morphologically similar to Mount St. Helens prior to its 1980 eruption. The summit of Kizimen consists of overlapping lava domes, and blocky lava flows descend the flanks of the volcano, which is the westernmost of a volcanic chain north of Kronotsky volcano. The 2376-m-high Kizimen was formed during four eruptive cycles beginning about 12,000 years ago and lasting 2000-3500 years. The largest eruptions took place about 10,000 and 8300-8400 years ago, and three periods of long-term lava dome growth have occurred. The latest eruptive cycle began about 3000 years ago with a large explosion and was followed by lava dome growth lasting intermittently about 1000 years. An explosive eruption about 1100 years ago produced a lateral blast and created a 1.0 x 0.7 km wide crater breached to the NE, inside which a small lava dome (the fourth at Kizimen) has grown. A single explosive eruption, during 1927-28, has been recorded in historical time.

RUSSIA - Sarychev volcano (Kurile islands)

September 24th, 2009

As of the 23rd of September, the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) has reported that again weak volcanic activity continues. According to satellite data during the week weak steam-gas emissions and thermal anomalies were observed. Since June 15th, there have been no additional large ash explosions. According to satellite images from today, ( MODIS 0120 hrs UTC) mostly cloudy at volcano. Sarychev Peak volcano is not monitored with ground-based instrumentation to detect earthquakes. SVERT uses satellite data to observe the volcano each day, weather permitting. The next update will be sent tomorrow or earlier if a significant change is detected. As of the 7th of July, the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) has reported that according to satellite images from today, (MODIS 0257 hrs UTC) steam-gas emission stretches to northeast 20 km. Its height is 2-3 km. An intense thermal anomaly is also observed. IMGG volcanologists are visiting Matua Island this week to investigate the eruption. Since June 16th, there have been no additional large ash explosions. SVERT reported that an intense thermal anomaly from Sarychev Peak was detected on satellite imagery during 24-30 June. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 9 km NW on 24 June, S on 26 June, 26 km SSE on 28 June, and 40 km SE at an altitude of 3 km on 29 June. As of the 22nd of June, according data of MODIS 0906220013 UTC, a high steam-gas emission stretched north to 29 km at a height up to 1.5 km. An intense thermal anomaly was visible on 24 June. As of the 19th of June, according to data of MODIS 0906190120 UTC and MTSAT the intensity of activity has declined. Cloudy conditions obscure observations. Possible small volcanic emissions my be occurring. According to NOAA AVHRR data at 09170.0214, a strong thermal anomaly was detected but no ash signal was detected.As of the 18th of June, according to data of MODIS 0906180037 UTC the eruption of the volcano continued. The emission of the mainly steam-gas stretches to south-west direction. weak ash falls were observed in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. According to data of MTSAT great volcanic explosions occurred at 14 June at 1930 UTC and 15 June at 0130 UTC. The suggested height of ash plume is greater than 26,000 feet (8 km). The Tokyo VAAC has estimated the cloud height up to 54000 feet above sea level. According to MODIS 0906150007 UTC all ash cloud are seen on the south-east and north-west. Whole length is more than 600 km. As of the 12th of June, SVERT detected a strong eruption from Sarychev Peak (Matua island, Central Kuril Islands). Ash emission seen in MODIS image from 0019UTC shows was attached to the volcano and extended 200 km to the south-west and 105 km to the south-east. The Tokyo VAAC reported the height of the ash cloud at 34000 feet above sea level. It appears the eruption began around 0200UTC on 12 June. Based on past eruptions at Sarychev, explosive activity could continue for days to weeks. A cyclone in the Kuril Islands makes observation of this eruption difficult. Sarychev is not monitored with ground-based instruments. SVERT will continue to monitor the eruption with MODIS and NOAA satellite imagery as weather allows and issue further reports as additional information becomes available. The regularly-active cone of Sarychev Peak (1446 M) is 6 km in diameter and forms the north-western part of Matua Island. On the south-west, the cone adjoins to the remains of a caldera forming the south-east half of the island. The summit crater has a diameter of about 250 m and a depth of 250m. The inner walls are precipitous and in some places even overhanging. The bottom of the crater is filled with solidified lava in the form of slightly convex shield. The ancient lava flows of the central cone descend on the south-eastern slope of somma. The modern flows of the central cone form small tongues near the crater. Lava flows consist of two-pyroxene basalts and andesite-basalts. Sarychev Peak is one of the most active Kuril volcanoes. Prior eruptions at Sarychev Peak are as follows: 1760–a very great explosive eruption; winter 1878-1879 – a quiet lava outflow, 1928–explosive eruption, 1930 – great explosive eruption lasting 13 hours; 1946 – a very great eruption, explosions with large bombs landing as far as 7 km from the crater and the height of ash emissions reaching more than 6 km; 1954 – small ash emissions; in 1960 - a brief explosive eruption. The most recent eruption began on September 23, 1976 when a series of explosions destroyed the old lava plug. The ash plume extended 300 km to the north-north-east and reached the height of 2.5 km. The eruption terminated with lava outflows. In the August 2008 the personnel of SVERT group conducted observations of the volcano Sarychev Peak, noting large constant fumarolic activity. Precursory signs of volcanic activity were not observed. (information from SVERT)

RUSSIA - Kolokol group (Kurile Islands)

September 3rd, 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, SVERT reported that on 26 August a gas-and-steam plume possibly containing ash rose from Berg (part of the Kolokol Group of volcanoes) to an altitude greater than 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. This group of Holocene volcanoes in central Urup Island is named after its most prominent volcano, Kolokol. Berg and Trezubetz volcanoes, flanking Kolokol on the NW, have breached summit calderas partially filled by lava domes. Trezubetz, whose name means "trident," has
an eroded crater rim with three large peaks when seen at sea from the north. Kolokol volcano rises to 1328 m and is sometimes known as Urup-Fuji because of its symmetrical profile. The crater of Kolokol is not well preserved, but the volcano displays no evidence of glacial erosion. Several lava flows originate from Kolokol; one of these extends almost to the Sea of Okhotsk coast. A viscous lava flow armoring the SE flank is probably the most recent from Kolokol. Borzov volcano, the oldest of the group, lies to the SW of
Kolokol. Eruptions of the Kolokol volcano group have been observed in historical time since the late-18th century. Berg volcano has been most active, but Trezubetz erupted in 1924. (GVN/GVP)


RUSSIA - Ebeko volcano (Kurile Islands)

October 30th, 2009

As of the 29th of October, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 26 October a possible eruption plume from Ebeko rose to an altitude of 8.8 km (29,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Emissions continued the next day. As of the 24th of July, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that activity of the volcano continues. Moderate gas-steam emission sometimes with small amount of ash occurred at Ebeko. The danger of sudden ash explosions up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) ASL exists. Activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft. According to satellite monitoring, a thermal anomaly and ash plumes were not registered. Ebeko volcano is not monitored with seismic instruments. KVERT uses satellite monitoring and receives occasional visual observations from Paramushir Island. As of the 24th of April, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has reported that during 24 April-1 May 2009 observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 6 km in multiple directions. On 23 April, a small amount of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk. Satellite imagery revealed strips of ash deposits radiating from the crater in different directions on 29 and 30 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. The eastern part of the southern crater of Ebeko contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater of Ebeko is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters of Ebeko, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.(From KVERT). To view current activity of Ebeko - More about Kurile Islands

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NEW ZEALAND - White island volcano

October 24th, 2008

A White Island's Crater Lake has continued to rise since December 2007, after being almost completely evaporated in late October 2007. By 23 October the lake was reported to have risen 15 m and was beginning to affect the geothermal features on the Main Crater floor. New springs formed on the floor and old springs flowed again. The lake temperature remained hot at 57 degrees Celsius and the color had changed to light green, reflecting a decrease in suspended sediment. High-temperature fumaroles (101-103 degrees Celsius) were located on the S side of the Main Crater floor. Steam, gas, and mud emissions had increased from the largest vent during the previous few weeks. The Alert Level remained at Level 1 (on a scale of 0-5), indicating signs of volcano unrest.Live cam link - other webcam

NEW ZEALAND - Ruapehu volcano

September 18th, 2008

As of the 18 th of September, Geonet bulletin (INGS) reported this day that Ruapehu appears to be entering a new heating cycle. The Crater Lake temperature has risen to 22°C this month, from 16°C in August, a change accompanied by some volcanic tremor. Between October 2007 and June 2008 the temperature varied between 34°C and 37°C. Sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide levels in the volcano's plume are also showing an upwards trend, consistent with the rising temperature within the Crater Lake. There is nothing unusual about any of this, because cyclic activity in the Crater Lake is very common at Ruapehu. The volcano in central North Island, last erupted on Sept. 25 2007, spitting 2 metre (6 feet) boulders distances of up to 2 kms (1.5 miles). Ruapehu's elevated alert level has not been changed, but IGNS reported on Tuesday that activity within the mountain was greater, with high levels of gas spewing out, a warmer than average crater lake and ongoing volcanic tremors. The volcano remains in a status of unrest and the possibility of further activity remains. If further eruptions occur, they may occur without warning. As of the 3rd of May, the Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences (IGNS) has reported that Ruapehu volcano in New Zealand is showing signs of increasing activity. The Department of Conservation issued a warning to climbers of an increased chance of eruption from the crater lake. Risks to people entering the Summit Hazard Zone within 2km of Crater Lake are assessed to be higher than normal, due to an increase in gas emission. The alert level remains at Level One. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys. ). Ruapehu Live cam

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PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Langila volcano

October 9th, 2009

As of the 8th of October, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 September an ash plume from Langila drifted 260 km NW at an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. On 5 October, a diffuse ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 185 km N. As of the 1st of October, GVN reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 September an ash plume from Langila rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-220 km NW. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

PAPUA-NEW GUINEA - Rabaul volcano

April 10th, 2010

RVO reported on 9 April that deformation measurements at Rabaul caldera during the previous 3-4 months showed an inflationary trend with a total of 4 cm of uplift. During 2-8 April seismicity was low and variable amounts of white vapor rose from Tavurvur cone. As of the 17th of December, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that activity from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone consisted of a few strong explosions towards the beginning of the 4-10 December reporting period, and emissions of gray ash afterwards. Diffuse white vapour was emitted during quieter intervals. Ash plumes rose 1 km above the summit and drifted SE towards Tokua and the Tokua airport, causing suspension of some flights. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35 km SE. Previously (RVO) reported that during 27 November-3 December dense white plumes and gray ash plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. Strong explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the summit and showered the flanks with lava fragments that were incandescent at night. Shock waves rattled windows in the Kokopo area, about 20 km SE. Incandescence from the summit crater was occasionally noted. During 2-4 December, ash fell in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and other villages downwind. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5 and 7-8 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-55 km E. As of the 3rd of December, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that during 20-26 November thick white plumes and gray ash plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. Strong explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the summit and showered the flanks with lava fragments that were incandescent at night. Shock waves rattled windows in the Kokopo area, about 20 km SE. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was noted. As of the 22nd of October, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15, 18, and 20 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-85 km NW, W, and NE. As of the 15th of October, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that during 2-8 October gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 2 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Incandescence from the summit crater was occasionally visible. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 October an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. As of the 24th of September, the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that during 11-17 September gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night, and incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Rumbling and roaring noises were reported. Several strong explosions occurred on 11, 16, and 17 September, but were few or absent on other days. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-110 km NW. The low-lying Rabaul caldera lies on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain.

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Karkar volcano

November 28th, 2009

As of the 28th of November, latest information showed that it is clear that whatever it was that caused Darwin VAAC to report a major eruption at Karkar volcano , it was not in fact an eruption. As of the 25 th of November, according Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) a possible significant eruption of Karkar volcano in Papua New Guinea occured (unconfirmed information). The first advisory was issued at 08:39 UTC and reported eruption with eruptive plume to at least 10,000 metres altitude (?). More recent advisories (the latest at the time of posting, issued at 20:57 UTC), reported ash to 13,700 metres altitude. A magnitude 5.1 earthquake hit 90 km SSE of Karkar volcano 7.5 hours before the eruption. No other information on this possible eruption appears to be available at the moment. Details as soon as possible. Karkar (1839 m) is a 19 x 25 km wide, forest-covered island that is truncated by two nested summit calderas. The 5.5-km-wide outer caldera was formed during one or more eruptions, the last of which occurred 9000 years ago. The eccentric 3.2-km-wide inner caldera was formed sometime between 1500 and 800 years ago. Parasitic cones are present on the northern and southern flanks of basaltic-to-andesitic Karkar volcano; a linear array of small cones extends from the northern rim of the outer caldera nearly to the coast. Most historical eruptions, which date back to 1643, have originated from Bagiai cone, a pyroclastic cone constructed within the steep-walled, 300-m-deep inner caldera. The floor of the caldera is covered by young, mostly unvegetated andesitic lava flows. last knows eruption occured in 1979.

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TONGA - Hunga Ha'apai islands

March 22nd, 2009

Local pilot reported that at 1015 on 21 March the island was covered by weather clouds, the crater was not visible, and there was no vertical plume; haze was again below an inversion layer at 1.5 km altitude. No
eruptions were seen during the 15 minutes the island was visible on the return flight around 1250. However, steaming continued, with the plume rising to 1.8 km altitude. A new eruptive episode was reported by Tongatapu airport observers at 1409 on 21 March that sent an ash plume 800 m high. As of the 20th of March,Wellington VAAC reported that eruptive activity at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai appears to have declined somewhat over the last 12 hours. The VAAC advisory, based on pilot observations and satellite imagery, reported no more active eruptions steaming 1800 metres high, with white and wispy ash haze extending to large areas ENE blw 5000ft [below 1500 metres]‘. An earlier advisory (17:58 GMT - 19th March) reported frequent eruptions and ash clouds to FL130 (13000 feet, 4000 metres), with a plume extending 300 miles (480 kilometres) ENE. At 01:30 GMT today NASA's Aqua satellite captured a MODIS image which showed only a small plume extending less than 10 kilometres ENE of the volcano (from the NASA MODIS). As of the 18th of March, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that a new eruption in Tonga was documented on 16 or 17 March by observers flying near the area. Preliminary description and coordinates suggest that the eruption is from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai islands ( approx. coordinates S 20º 27' 73? W 175º 25' 61? given by the pilots). Residents said the steam and ash column first appeared on Monday morning, after a series of earthquakes were felt in the capital, Nuku'alofa. Press reported that spectacular columns spewed out of the sea about 6 miles (10 kilometers) from the southwest coast off the main island of Tongatapu. According to Tonga GeologicaI Service it was likely the underwater eruption was taking place to the west of the low-lying twin volcanic islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai, within sight of Nuku'alofa. Preliminary report and photos.The small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai cap a large seamount located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The two linear andesitic islands are about 2 km long and represent the western and northern remnants of a the rim of a largely submarine caldera lying east and south of the islands. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai reach an elevation of only 149 m and 128 m above sea level, respectively, and display inward-facing sea cliffs with lava and tephra layers dipping gently away from the submarine caldera. A rocky shoal 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga marks the most prominent historically active vent. Submarine eruptions were reported here in 1912 and 1937 and from a fissure 1 km SSE of Hunga Ha'apai in 1988.

TONGA - West Mata submarine volcano

May 20th, 2009

In early May, scientists aboard a NOAA Vents Program rapid-response vessel, the R/V Thompson, traveled to the Lau-Tonga region to inspect the sea floor after strong indications of eruptive activity had been detected during a November 2008 expedition. On 6 and 7 May, team members used the Jason 2 ROV to observe eruptions from two vents of West Mata, a small submarine volcanic cone in the northeast Lau Basin, about 200 km SW of Samoa. Explosive activity occurred from one end of a 5-m-long fissure at Hades vent, at a depth of 1,208 m, while pillow lavas erupted from the other end of the fissure. Glowing bubbles up to a meter in diameter also issued from the fissure. The Prometheus vent, a cinder cone located near the summit and about 100 m N of Hades, erupted explosively with nearly continuous lava fountains that ejected tephra into the water. Both vents were often obscured by sulfur gas emissions, but incandescence was visible for minutes at a time. West Mata, a submarine volcano rising to within 1174
m of the sea surface, is located in the northeast Lau Basin at the northern end of the Tonga arc. It was discovered during a 2008 NOAA Vents Program expedition to be producing hydrothermal plumes consistent with a recent eruption. A return visit in May 2009 documented explosive and effusive activity from two closely spaced vents, one at the summit, and the other on the SW rift zone. (from GVN/GVP)
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Mariannes islands - Pagan volcano

April 17th , 2009

As of the 16th of April, the CNMI Emergency Management Office has elevated its volcano alert level after receiving reports of increased volcanic activity on Pagan Island in the Northern Islands. In a statement issued yesterday, EMO reported they first received a call regarding the volcanic activity from Pagan at 6pm Wednesday 15th of April. EMO consulted with the U.S. Geological Services and the National Weather Service in Guam, which observed a plume of black and white, possible ash and gas emitting from the volcano on Pagan. EMO said it contacted a vessel named MV San Antonio that was on Pagan at the time to verify the situation. According to the captain of the vessel, the plume was about twice the size of Mt. Pagan. Pagan Island, the largest and one of the most active of the Mariana Islands volcanoes, consists of two stratovolcanoes connected by a narrow isthmus. Both North and South Pagan stratovolcanoes were constructed within calderas, 7 and 4 km in diameter, respectively. The 570-m-high Mount Pagan at the NE end of the island rises above the flat floor of the northern caldera, which probably formed during the early Holocene. South Pagan is a 548-m-high stratovolcano with an elongated summit containing four distinct craters. Almost all of the historical eruptions of Pagan, which date back to the 17th century, have originated from North Pagan volcano. The largest eruption of Pagan during historical time took place in 1981 and prompted the evacuation of the sparsely populated island. Last know eruption occured in 2006.
 

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ANTARCTICA - Erebus Volcano

March 1st, 2009

As of the 1st of March 2009, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reported that Antarctica's Mt. Erebus continues with a molten lava lake and vapour emissions. It may be covered with glaciers, but they do little to cool the volcano's molten core. As of the 1st of August 2007, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) was reported that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activityAccording to the Mt. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October 2005, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions. Mt. Erebus, the southern most volcano in the world, still continues to be the most active volcano in Antarctica. Mt. Erebus (3794 meters above sea level) is classified as a polygenetic stratovolcano. The composition of the current eruptive activity on Mt. Erebus is anorthoclase-phyric tephriphonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano. The oldest eruptive products from Mt. Erebus consist of relatively undifferentiated and non-viscous basanitic lavas that form the low, broad platform shield of the Erebus edifice. Slightly younger basanites and phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of an early Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Mt. Erebus edifice. Lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 meters is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the center of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts. Mt. Erebus located on Ross Island, Antarctica is the world’s southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970’s had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment. Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Information from : MEVO - Live cam link

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VANUATU - Gaua - Mt. Garet volcano

April 8th, 2010

As of the 7th of April, the analysis of data collected from the monitoring network of Gaua volcano since October 2009 indicates the existence of volcanic tremor. The OMI satellite images also show the abundance of gases emitted from this volcano daily. Field observations reported by the Geohazards officer in Gaua confirmed significant change of activity with ticker and higher emissions of ash columns. Since last week (end of march/beginning of April 2010) the ash plumes height dwell between 7000 and 10000
feet every day. Field reports also stated that the explosion sounds could be heard from the villages daily. Moreover, starting from the 3rd of April 2010 the volcanic bombes projections from Gaua volcano could be observed from all the coastal villages from the north to the south of the island with reports of the ashfall.
As of the 29th of January, Geo-hazards Vanuatu reported that the volcanic activity on Gaua has changed significantly during the month of January. More gas has been emitted since 16 January, followed by multiple explosions with thicker and darker ash plume. This plume of ash and gas was being expelled to about more than 3000 meters high and carried by the wind to surrounding villages in the south and west. Strong strombolian activity was evident on the 24th of January 2010 as villagers were able to observe its projections. These signs indicate that the level of magma is rising. Very strong explosions have been heard and seen from the coastal villages of East Gaua this morning, January 29th 2010. Due to the current activity, the level of water and the rate of river flow from the waterfall and outlets were observed to have risen from 20 to 30cm since January 22nd. This occurrence is possibly due to the disturbance within the Lake Letas which is feeding the river due to the rising activity. Water from water thanks in the eastern coast is becoming acid from the acid rains. This means that there can be greater threats posed given the occurrence of volcanic explosions. As of the 13th of January 2010, Geo-Hazards Vanuatu reported that the continuous ash emission activity of the Gaua volcano that begun on Monday 14th December 2009 with the significant emissions of ashes is still ongoing. This was accompanied by explosions heard from the villages on the 29th of December 2009. This eruptive phase is different from previous activities with thicker and darker plumes (see photos). These changes reflect the evolution of the source (alimentation) of the volcano. Ash falls continue to persist in the western part of Gaua and with the changes in the direction of the wind; it is possible that ash falls may also be experienced in the eastern part of the island. Chemical analysis of the ashes that fell and were collected in October, which was carried out by York University in England, have indicated that there is a high concentration of chemicals which are hazardous to the human health within these ash particles from Gaua. More analysis will be coming up on the new deposits. The latest OMI satellite images clearly show the persistence of significant flux of gases being emitted from Gaua volcano. As of the 27th of November, the Geo-hazards Officer who is responsible for the Gaua volcano monitoring works on Gaua has confirmed the big explosion of the Gaua volcano in November 18th 2009 at 2pm. This explosion has been followed by very thick and high emissions of ash columns that were covering the areas exposed to trade winds in the West. Volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring station based in east Gaua shows the increase in volcano activity signals starting from October 25th. Until present, the data shows that the activity of Gaua volcano remains significant. With this trend, it is recommended that the Alert Level of the volcano be remained at level 2 according to the Vanuatu volcano Alert Levels (VVAL) while Geo-hazards is carrying out a very close monitoring with the IGNS counterparts. The danger persists in the red and yellow colour zones of the hazard map, especially the risks of ash falls and mudflows in the zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3 of the revised hazards map. According to news release more than 300 villagers were evacuated on Thursday 26th of November after an eruption started from the volcano and spewing smoke and ash onto the island and villages around. Residents were loaded onto fishing boats and shipped to the far side of Gaua island after the volcano. Also, according to Vanuatu's National Disaster Management Office they're evacuating people to the other side of the island. The Red Cross is providing water containers and purification tablets for the villagers, who have been hit by respiratory problems and diarrhoea caused by the volcano's pungent sulphur fumes. The evacuees will have to stay away from their villages until the volcano subsides, he said. The area has been put on the second highest alert level. No more information was reported directly from VGO yet. Previously, as of the 13th of October VGO (Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory) latest bulletin reported that after the assessment of the geohazards team on Gaua volcano from 3-7 October 2009, it is confirmed that Mont Garet volcano is going through an eruptive phase starting from the 27th of September 2009. Seismic records of the seismic station installed on Gaua show that many explosions occurred on Gaua volcano. Volcanic gas flux measurements on October 3rd show that 3000 tons of sulfuric dioxide is released from this volcano each day, this means that a significant quantity of magma is degassing from Gaua volcano. The lake letas, localised close to the Mont Garet volcano, is one of the biggest crater lake of South Pacific, its volume reachs 800 million cubic meters which is drained out through the river of the Waterfall. With this information, the Alert level of this volcano is now raised to Level 2 on the Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL). This means that this volcano is going through a minor eruption. It is not recommended to approach the volcano. The danger remains in the red zone area on the hazard map including all the river outlets in Gaua, especially the river of waterfall (see Hazard map). With the related alert level, a level of response from the community is required (see attached Community Disaster response plan). Geohazards is doing its best with the limited resources available to continue monitoring this volcano. As of the 6th of october, local New Zealand information reported that volcanologists in Vanuatu are closely monitoring the Gaua volcano to consider whether to move its alert to level two. A senior vulcanologist at the geohazards department, Douglas Charley, reported his team has recorded more activity since last night. Very late yesterday the team started to observe an increase of a high volcanic high frequency. The level remains at one and the team will be trying to observe this until the next 48 hours. If activity will increasing further, Alert level will be putting to level two.Douglas Charley says they have one monitoring station in the field, but are now requesting more to get more reliable data. As of the 1st of october 2009, the national authorities of the republic of Vanuatu from the the Vanuatu Department of Geology Mines and Water Resources have issued an alert (at the lowest level of one , on a scale of 1-5) for Gaua volcano island, also known as Santa Maria Island located the northern part of the archipelago. The volcano has been showing signs of activity for the last two weeks, with accounts of repeated explosions and ash and gas emission. Local inhabitants have reported large quantities of smoke being produced by the volcano, a strong smell of sulphur and some contamination of local water and food supplies. About 2000 people live on the island. The roughly 20-km-diameter Gaua Island, also known as Santa Maria, consists of a basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano with an 6 x 9 km wide summit caldera. Small parasitic vents near the caldera rim fed Pleistocene lava flows that reached the coast on several sides of the island; several littoral cones were formed where these lava flows reached the sea. Quiet collapse that formed the roughly 700-m-deep caldera was followed by extensive ash eruptions. Construction of the historically active cone of Mount Garat (Gharat) and other small cinder cones in the SW part of the caldera has left a crescent-shaped caldera lake. The symmetrical, flat-topped Mount Garat cone is topped by three pit craters. The onset of eruptive activity from a vent high on the SE flank of Mount Garat in 1962 ended a long period of dormancy. Last know significative activity occures in 1982 (GVN/GVP)

VANUATU - Ambrym volcano

April 2nd, 2009

As of 2nd of April based on information from the Port Vila airport tower, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 25 March an ash plume from Ambrym rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 55 km S. The next day, a pilot reported that "smoke" rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery. Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major Plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

 

Bezymianny volcano (H.Gaudru)
VANUATU - Yasur volcano ( Tanna island)

March 10th, 2010

Following the observations of the Geo-hazards team on in March 8th 2010 and the analysis of the volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring network of this volcano, it is confirmed that the activity of this volcano is increasing since January 2010, as indicated in the satellite images. This is also proven by the activity of all the three active vents and the recent volcanic bombs that fell on visitors' observation path. Under these circumstances, the Alert Level for Yasur volcano is raised to LEVEL 2 according to the Vanuatu Volcanoes Alert Levels (VVAL) . This means that eruptions are moderate and danger close to the volcano, within parts of Red Zone of the Hazard map. Thus approaching the volcano could be dangerous; it would be safer to view the yasur volcano from the parking area to avoid the volcano impact. Visitors and tourism agencies are advised to consider this information until the next alert is released. Previously, as of the 12th of August 2009, John Seach reported that eruptive activity continues at Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. During a visit to the volcano from 1-3 August, John Seach observed Strombolian explosions ejecting lava to a height of 300 m above the vent. Ash emissions were lower than normal, which allowed good views into the crater. One vent was active in the northern crater, and two vents active in the southern crater. As of the 1st of March 2009, Yasur volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has done so for at least 800 years. Previously, as of the 1st of October, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur is still currently erupting. Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. As of the 9th of April 2008, mainly from reports of John Seach , reported that a major earthquake (magnitude 7.6) hit southern Vanuatu today at 2346hrs local time. The earthquake was located east of the South New Hebrides Trench and 97 km SW of Yasur volcano. The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre said there was no tsunami threat. The main earthquake was preceded by a large and two medium sized earthquakes; magnitude 6.5, 5.9, and 4.9. Yasur is the closest active volcano to the earthquake epicentre and is currently erupting. As of the 1st of April, activity has been almost continuous at the Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. As of the 26th of March, the Darvin Volcanic Ash Advisory (DVAAC) has reported that Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. On 7-8th March, ash emissions increased at Yasur producing ashfall over villages within 4 km of the crater. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. Previous information from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occurred from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxide measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tonnes per day (500 tonnes per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu) Yasur is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Previous informations from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occured from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxyde measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tons per day (500 tons per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu)Previous significative information (September 2002) reported an increasing level of activity at Yasur since October 2001 and the volcanic quake of August 29, 2002 (about 3:00 pm local time), led local volcanologist to upgrade the hazard rating to Alarm Level 3. Access to the volcano was closed.The August 29 quake, magnitude 6 was strongly felt by the inhabitants of the whole district around the volcano (White Sands, Port Resolution, …). This was the first time since the seismic station was installed in October 1992 that a shock of such magnitude was recorded (see graphs below). Elders of the Yasur district confirm that such a quake had not been experienced within living memory.Two new seismological monitoring stations are about to be installed, to complement the existing alarm system installed 2 km from Yasur and the Isangel station. At this time, evacuation of the roughly 6000 inhabitants of the district has not been considered. Information bulletins will be broadcast by Radio Vanuatu to keep the population concerned informed of new developments. Yasur's activity follows a long volcanic history in the southeastern part of the island , whose main phases, over approximately the last 10,000 years, have produced: 1/ lava flows; 2/ extensive glowing ash flows that covered the entire region from Kwamera to Waisisi, and 3/ the construction of another small volcanic cone, the Ombus. Yasur volcano lies over a large and shallow (less than 10 km from the surface) magmatic chamber whose center is located between Port-Resolution and Sulfur Bay; thus, the possibility of a major eruption within a century or a millennium cannot be ignored. Such an eruption, however, would be preceded by numerous earthquakes. Should this happen, evacuation of the local population toward the west coast, the central districts and the north of the island would have to be carried out rapidly. Informations from :M.Lardy (IRD Noumea)

 

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